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Ameliorating activity of polyphenolic-rich extracts of L. leaves on pancreatic β-cell dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

J Complement Integr Med 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Biochemistry, Phytomedicine, Natural Products, Drug and Biochemical Toxicology Group, Landmark University, Omu Aran, PMB 1001, Kwara State, Nigeria.

Objectives: To assess the ameliorative activity of polyphenolic-rich extracts of leaves on β-cell dysfunction in type-II diabetes (T2DM).

Methods: Total phenolic and flavonoid contents; α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory actions and qualitative analysis of the bioactive compounds of the polyphenolic-rich extract of leaves were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight) and the rats were orally given bound phenolic (BPE) and free phenolic extracts (FPE) of (B. Read More

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Tenofovir Alafenamide for Drug-Resistant Hepatitis B: A Randomized Trial for Switching from Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Gastroenterology, Liver Center, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: It remains unknown whether tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) could replace tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in patients with drug-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV).

Methods: In this multi-center randomized non-inferiority trial, 174 patients with HBV resistant to multiple drugs (lamivudine, entecavir, and/or adefovir) under TDF monotherapy for ≥96 weeks were randomized 1:1 to switch to TAF (n=87) or continue TDF (n=87) for 48 weeks. The primary endpoint was proportion of patients with HBV DNA<60 IU/mL at week 48. Read More

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Resolution of hepatitis E virus infection in CD8+ T cell depleted rhesus macaques.

J Hepatol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Center for Vaccines and Immunity, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's, 700 Children's Drive, Columbus, OH, USA; Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Aim: HEV is a significant cause of acute hepatitis globally. Some genotypes establish persistent infection when immunity is impaired. Adaptive immune mechanisms that mediate resolution of infection have not been identified. Read More

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Ferulic acid positively modulates the inflammatory response to septic liver injury through the GSK-3β/NF-κB/CREB pathway.

Life Sci 2021 May 4:119584. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002, PR China. Electronic address:

Aims: Ferulic acid (FA) is a component found in plants that has free radical scavenging and liver-protective properties. Acute liver injury (ALI) is a serious complication of sepsis and is closely associated with changes in the levels of inflammatory factors. This study was taken to examine the role of FA in cecal ligation and perforation (CLP)-induced murine ALI and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cellular ALI models. Read More

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Elliptic Flow of Electrons from Beauty-Hadron Decays in Pb-Pb Collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=5.02  TeV.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Apr;126(16):162001

Central China Normal University, Wuhan, China.

The elliptic flow of electrons from beauty hadron decays at midrapidity (|y|<0.8) is measured in Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=5.02  TeV with the ALICE detector at the LHC. Read More

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Saffron improves life and sleep quality, glycemic status, lipid profile and liver function in diabetic patients: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 May 7:e14334. Epub 2021 May 7.

Nutrition Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disorder that is related to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and liver dysfunction and has detrimental effects on a patient's mental health. Hence, the current study investigated the effects of saffron supplementation on dietary intake, anthropometric measures, mood, sleep quality, and metabolic biomarkers in overweight/obese patients with T2D.

Methods: In a double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 70 overweight/obese patients with T2D were randomly allocated to two groups and received 100 mg/day saffron or placebo for eight weeks. Read More

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Bilobalide Enhances AMPK Activity to Improve Liver Injury and Metabolic Disorders in STZ-Induced Diabetes in Immature Rats via Regulating HMGB1/TLR4/NF-B Signaling Pathway.

Biomed Res Int 2021 17;2021:8835408. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Pediatrics, Xiangyang Central Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Hubei University of Arts and Science, Xiangyang, 441021 Hubei Province, China.

This study was aimed at examining the effect and underlying mechanisms of bilobalide (BB) on hepatic injury in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetes mellitus (DM) in immature rats. Immature rats (one day old) were randomly divided into five groups: group I, control nondiabetic rats; group II, STZ-induced, untreated diabetic rats; groups III/IV/V, STZ-induced and BB-treated diabetic rats, which were intraperitoneally injected with BB (2.5 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, or 10 mg/kg) after 3 days followed by STZ treatment. Read More

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Therapeutic Effects and Associated Mechanisms by which "Fuyang Jiedu Huayu" Granules Treat Chronic Liver Failure in the Rat.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 17;2021:7634673. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, NanNing, GuangXi 530023, China.

Aim: Fuyang Jiedu Huayu (FYJDHY) granules are a combination of five traditional Chinese medicines with known therapeutic effects against chronic liver failure (CLF). The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of FYJDHY to ameliorate the effects of carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced CLF in rats and to explore the possible molecular mechanisms underlying its therapeutic efficacy.

Methods: A model of chronic liver failure was established by intraperitoneal injection of 50% carbon tetrachloride into SD rats for 8 weeks. Read More

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Body Adiposity, But Not Elements of Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior or Physical Activity, Is Associated With Circulating Liver Enzymes in Adults With Overweight and Obesity.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 20;12:655756. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.

Objective: We studied the associations between accelerometer-measured sedentary behavior (SB) and habitual physical activity (PA) as well as markers of body adiposity and other cardiometabolic risk factors with liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT).

Methods: A total of 144 middle-aged adults (mean age 57 (SD 6.5) years) with overweight or obesity (mean body mass index [BMI] 31. Read More

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Association of 45-bp ins/del polymorphism of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) and susceptibility to nonalcoholic fatty liver and type 2 diabetes mellitus in North-west of Iran.

BMC Res Notes 2021 May 6;14(1):169. Epub 2021 May 6.

Biotechnology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Objective: Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) plays a crucial role in energy homeostasis via insulin secretion regulation, free fatty acid concentrations, and lipid metabolism. This study aimed to investigate the association of 45-bp ins/del polymorphism of UCP2 with susceptibility to NAFLD (Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease) and T2DM (Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus). DNA was extracted from the white blood cells of the subjects, and the gene polymorphism was determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Read More

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The times they are a-changing - A refined proposal for finite HBV nucleos(t)ide analog therapy.

J Hepatol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Foundation IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Milan, Italy; CRC "A. M. and A. Migliavacca" Center for Liver Disease, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Although discontinuation of nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) treatment before HBsAg loss is part of all current hepatitis B virus (HBV) treatment guidelines for HBeAg-positive patients who achieved HBeAg seroconversion, a treatment endpoint known to be associated with silencing of HBV transcriptional activity and restoration of HBV-specific immune control, it is still highly controversial whether it is even appropriate to consider NA discontinuation before HBsAg loss in the HBeAg-negative phase. Despite the growing evidence that a relevant, albeit small, proportion of patients with HBeAg-negative disease can be cured by stopping NA treatment, the fear of discontinuation-associated relapse and the uncertainty of how to predict off-therapy response and monitor patients after discontinuation have generated scepticism and subsequently led to low implementation of this concept in the clinic. In this article, we propose a concept in which NA discontinuation-associated relapse is an integral part of the stop-to-cure approach and ultimately the trigger for achieving HBsAg loss. Read More

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Interleukin-1β and uric acid as potential second-trimester predictive biomarkers of preeclampsia.

Hypertens Pregnancy 2021 May 6:1-7. Epub 2021 May 6.

University of Health Sciences, Bakirköy Dr. Sadi Konuk Training and Research Hospital, Department of Anesthesia and Reanimation Clinics, Istanbul, Turkey.

The prospective study was conducted at the University Hospital from February 2020 to December 2020. The study population (n = 88) included women who later developed PE (n = 42), as well as women who were healthy at birth (n = 46) in the second trimester of pregnancy. Serum levels of CRP, IL-1β, uric acid, creatinine, AST, ALT, MPV, Hb, PC, vitamin D, Ca, and Mg were compared between the groups. Read More

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Circulating microRNA‑135a‑3p in serum extracellular vesicles as a potential biological marker of non‑alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Mol Med Rep 2021 Jul 6;24(1). Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029, P.R. China.

Non‑alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a widespread threat to human health. However, the present screening methods for NAFLD are time‑consuming or invasive. The present study aimed to assess the potential of microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) in serum extracellular vesicles (EVs) as a biomarker of NAFLD. Read More

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An artificial intelligence algorithm for analyzing acetaminophen-associated toxic hepatitis.

Hum Exp Toxicol 2021 May 6:9603271211014587. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Nephrology and Clinical Poison Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou.

Introduction: Very little artificial intelligence (AI) work has been performed to investigate acetaminophen-associated hepatotoxicity. The objective of this study was to develop an AI algorithm for analyzing weighted features for toxic hepatitis after acetaminophen poisoning.

Methods: The medical records of 187 patients with acetaminophen poisoning treated at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital were reviewed. Read More

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Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist inhibits aeroallergen-induced activation of ILC2 and neutrophilic airway inflammation in obese mice.

Allergy 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Background: Obesity is a risk factor for the development of asthma. However, pharmacologic therapeutic strategies that specifically target obese asthmatics have not been identified. We hypothesize that glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) treatment inhibitsaeroallergen-induced early innate airway inflammation in a mouse model of asthma in the setting of obesity. Read More

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RNA-DNA Hybrids Support Recombination-Based Telomere Maintenance in Fission Yeast.

Genetics 2019 Oct;213(2):431-447

Department of Cell Biology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8002.

A subset of cancers rely on telomerase-independent mechanisms to maintain their chromosome ends. The predominant "alternative lengthening of telomeres" pathway appears dependent on homology-directed repair (HDR) to maintain telomeric DNA. However, the molecular changes needed for cells to productively engage in telomeric HDR are poorly understood. Read More

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October 2019

RNA-DNA Hybrids Support Recombination-Based Telomere Maintenance in Fission Yeast.

Genetics 2019 Oct;213(2):431-447

Department of Cell Biology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8002.

A subset of cancers rely on telomerase-independent mechanisms to maintain their chromosome ends. The predominant "alternative lengthening of telomeres" pathway appears dependent on homology-directed repair (HDR) to maintain telomeric DNA. However, the molecular changes needed for cells to productively engage in telomeric HDR are poorly understood. Read More

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October 2019

Epidemiology of Drug- and Herb-Induced Liver Injury Assessed for Causality Using the Updated RUCAM in Two Hospitals from China.

Biomed Res Int 2021 24;2021:8894498. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Pharmacy, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou, China.

Drug- and herb-induced liver injury (DILI and HILI) is an increasingly common and serious condition. Here, data for DILI and HILI patients from two large tertiary hospitals were retrospectively analyzed. Patient characteristics, causes and severity of DILI and HILI, the correlation between expression of p62 and the severity of DILI and HILI, treatment of DILI and HILI, and the prognostic factors of DILI and HILI were studied. Read More

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February 2021

Iron Overload in Transfusion-Dependent Indonesian Thalassemic Patients.

Anemia 2021 15;2021:5581831. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Research Center of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, West Java, Indonesia.

Thalassemia is a genetic disease caused by disruption of globin chain synthesis leading to severe anemia and thus regular blood transfusion is necessary. However, there have been known transfusions-related consequences, including iron overload and multi-organ damage. The aims of this study were to evaluate liver and cardiac function in youth and adult transfusion-dependent Indonesian thalassemic patients and to assess its correlation with serum ferritin levels, as well as T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Read More

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L-Carnitine ameliorates the liver by regulating alpha-SMA, iNOS, HSP90, HIF-1alpha, and RIP1 expressions of CCL4-toxic rats.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2021 Feb;24(2):184-190

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey.

Objectives: Carbon tetrachloride (CCL) toxicity triggers fibrosis, activating various mechanisms within the cell. We aimed to create damage with CCL and investigate the effectiveness of L-carnitine on the mechanisms we identified.

Materials And Methods: Forty rats were divided into 5 groups with equal number of rats in each group. Read More

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February 2021

A higher De Ritis ratio (AST/ALT) is a risk factor for progression in high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.

Oncotarget 2021 Apr 27;12(9):917-922. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Urology, Yokohama Minami Kyousai Hospital, Yokohama, Japan.

Background: High-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is thought to be associated with a higher risk of recurrence and progression. A recent study revealed that a high De Ritis ratio was a risk factor in some solid malignancies. This study examined the importance of the De Ritis ratio as a prognostic marker in high-risk NMIBC. Read More

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Total flavonoids of Ameliorated Bile Acid Metabolism Dysfunction in Diabetes Mellitus.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 12;2021:6675567. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Faculty of Chinese Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Macau University of Science and Technology, Taipa, Macao, China.

is one of the common traditional Chinese medicines used to treat diabetes. However, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Flavones are a class of active components that have been reported to exert various activities. Read More

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Protective effects of a standardized extract of on pancreas and liver in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Res Pharm Sci 2021 Feb 30;16(1):71-78. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Pharmacological Research Center of Medicinal Plants, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, I.R. Iran.

Background And Purpose: Previous studies have shown the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and hypolipidemic activities of . The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of hydroalcoholic extract of rhizomes on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Experimental Approach: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups including a normal control group, diabetic control group, diabetic groups treated for 4 weeks with 100 and 200 mg/kg/day of the extract (IGE). Read More

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February 2021

Astragaloside IV Alleviates Liver Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis to Protect Against Experimental Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2021 28;14:1871-1883. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330006, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the main form of chronic liver disease in the world. Astragaloside IV (ASIV) has been tested in experimental models of different diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect and protective mechanism of ASIV on NAFLD. Read More

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[The roles of gap junctional intercellular communication in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and liver fibrosis].

Authors:
Aya Naiki-Ito

Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi 2021 ;156(3):152-156

Department of Experimental Pathology and Tumor Biology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences.

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a common risk factor for fibrosis, cirrhosis, and a predisposing factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Recently, incidence of NASH has increased due to an increase in metabolic syndrome. Connexin (Cx)32, a hepatocyte gap-junction protein, plays an important role in liver tissue homeostasis; Cx32 dominant-negative transgenic rat (Cx32ΔTg) has much decreased gap-junctional intercellular communication, and high susceptibility to carcinogens. Read More

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January 2021

A systematic study of Tupaia as a model for human acute hepatitis B infection.

J Vet Med Sci 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Institute of Immunology, Third Military Medical University.

The molecular features of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, eradication, and pathogenesis are poorly understood, partly due to the lack of an adequate animal model that faithfully reproduces the course of infection. Although Tupaia belangeri were previously recognized as HBV-susceptible animals, the course of infection in adult tupaias remains obscure. Herein, we performed a longitudinal study and demonstrated that adult tupaias were efficiently infected (90% infection rate) with 10 copies of the HBV genome. Read More

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A subset of PARP inhibitors induces lethal telomere fusion in ALT-dependent tumor cells.

Sci Transl Med 2021 May;13(592)

Department of Neurosurgery and The Brain Tumor Center, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA.

About 10% of all tumors, including most lower-grade astrocytoma, rely on the alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) mechanism to resolve telomeric shortening and avoid limitations on their growth. Here, we found that dependence on the ALT mechanism made cells hypersensitive to a subset of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPi). We found that this hypersensitivity was not associated with PARPi-created genomic DNA damage as in most PARPi-sensitive populations but rather with PARPi-induced telomere fusion. Read More

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Irisin ameliorates endoplasmic reticulum stress and liver fibrosis through inhibiting PERK-mediated destabilization of HNRNPA1 in hepatic stellate cells.

Biol Chem 2021 May 20;402(6):703-715. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Pathophysiology, Guizhou Medical University, No. 9 Beijing Road, Yunyan District, Guiyang City550004, Guizhou Province, China.

Liver fibrosis is a common consequence of chronic liver diseases involved with the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Irisin is a small polypeptide hormone that shows beneficial effects on metabolic disorders. The current study aimed to investigate the biological function of irisin on hepatic fibrosis. Read More

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Vitamin D deficiency exacerbates hepatic oxidative stress and inflammation during acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury in mice.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 May 2;97:107716. Epub 2021 May 2.

First Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, China. Electronic address:

Several experiments confirmed that vitamin D3 protected against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver injury (ALI). This research aimed to evaluate the influence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) on APAP-induced ALI. In VDD and VDD + APAP groups, mice were fed with VDD diet. Read More

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Total cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase and the risk of primary liver cancer: A population-based prospective study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(18):e25746

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Kailuan General Hospital Affiliated to North China University of Science and Technology.

Abstract: Previous studies have shown that serum total cholesterol (TC) and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are associated with liver cancer risk. However, the common contribution of TC and normal-high ALT to primary liver cancer (PLC) has not been reported. We aim to assess the separate and joint effect of low TC level and normal-high ALT level on the risk of PLC, a large prospective cohort was conducted in our study. Read More

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