984 results match your criteria allopatric sympatric

Experimental tests of selection against heterospecific aggression as a driver of avian color pattern divergence.

J Evol Biol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Biology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6, Canada.

Signal divergence is thought to reduce the costs of co-occurrence for closely related species and may thereby be important in the generation and maintenance of new biodiversity. In birds, closely related, sympatric species are more divergent in their color patterns than those that live apart, but the selective pressures driving sympatric divergence in color pattern are not well understood. Here, we conducted field experiments on naïve birds using spectrometer-matched, painted 3D-printed models to test whether selection against heterospecific aggression might drive color pattern divergence in the genus Poecile. Read More

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Comparative Vectorial Competence of Biomphalaria sudanica and Biomphalaria choanomphala, Snail Hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, From Transmission Hotspots In Lake Victoria, Western Kenya.

J Parasitol 2021 Mar;107(2):349-357

Centre for Biotechnology Research and Development, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.

Schistosoma mansoni, which causes human intestinal schistosomiasis, continues to be a major public health concern in the Lake Victoria basin in western Kenya, with Biomphalaria sudanica (a shoreline inhabiting snail) and Biomphalaria choanomphala (a deep-water snail) playing roles in transmission. A recent study showed that B. sudanica was abundantly present near all study villages on the lakeshore, but B. Read More

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Asymmetric reinforcement in killifish: assessing reproductive isolation when both sexes choose.

Curr Zool 2021 Apr 30;67(2):215-224. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

School of Integrative Biology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL 61820, USA.

Reinforcement can occur when maladaptive hybridization in sympatry favors the evolution of conspecific preferences and target traits that promote behavioral isolation (BI). In many systems, enhanced BI is due to increased female preference for conspecifics. In others, BI is driven by male preference, and in other systems both sexes exert preferences. Read More

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Genetic barriers to historical gene flow between cryptic species of alpine bumblebees revealed by comparative population genomics.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Evidence is accumulating that gene flow commonly occurs between recently-diverged species, despite the existence of barriers to gene flow in their genomes. However, we still know little about what regions of the genome become barriers to gene flow and how such barriers form. Here we compare genetic differentiation across the genomes of bumblebee species living in sympatry and allopatry to reveal the potential impact of gene flow during species divergence and uncover genetic barrier loci. Read More

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Ring distribution patterns-diversification or speciation? Comparative phylogeography of two small mammals in the mountains surrounding the Sichuan Basin.

Mol Ecol 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Studying the genetic differentiation in a unique geographical area contributes to understanding the process of speciation. Here, we explore the spatial genetic structure and underlying formation mechanism of two congeneric small mammal species (Apodemus draco and A. chevrieri), which are mainly distributed in the mountains surrounding the lowland Sichuan Basin, southwest China. Read More

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Occurrence data uncover patterns of allopatric divergence and interspecies interactions in the evolutionary history of lizards.

Ecol Evol 2021 Mar 8;11(6):2796-2813. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

School of Life Sciences Arizona State University Tempe AZ USA.

As shown from several long-term and time-intensive studies, closely related, sympatric species can impose strong selection on one another, leading to dramatic examples of phenotypic evolution. Here, we use occurrence data to identify clusters of sympatric lizard species and to test whether species tend to coexist with other species that differ in body size, as we would expect when there is competition between sympatric congeners. We found that species can be grouped into 16 unique bioregions. Read More

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Gut microbiota in two recently diverged passerine species: evaluating the effects of species identity, habitat use and geographic distance.

BMC Ecol Evol 2021 03 10;21(1):41. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Viničná 7, 128 44, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background: It has been proposed that divergence in the gut microbiota composition between incipient species could contribute to their reproductive isolation. Nevertheless, empirical evidence for the role of gut microbiota in speciation is scarce. Moreover, it is still largely unknown to what extent closely related species in the early stages of speciation differ in their gut microbiota composition, especially in non-mammalian taxa, and which factors drive the divergence. Read More

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Locally adapted gut microbiomes mediate host stress tolerance.

ISME J 2021 Mar 3. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Laboratory of Aquatic Biology, Department of Biology, University of Leuven-Campus Kulak, E. Sabbelaan 53, B-8500, Kortrijk, Belgium.

While evidence for the role of the microbiome in shaping host stress tolerance is becoming well-established, to what extent this depends on the interaction between the host and its local microbiome is less clear. Therefore, we investigated whether locally adapted gut microbiomes affect host stress tolerance. In the water flea Daphnia magna, we studied if the host performs better when receiving a microbiome from their source region than from another region when facing a stressful condition, more in particular exposure to the toxic cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa. Read More

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Demographic consequences of dispersal-related trait shift in two recently diverged taxa of montane grasshoppers.

Evolution 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Island Ecology and Evolution Research Group, Institute of Natural Products and Agrobiology (IPNA-CSIC), La Laguna, Tenerife, Canarias, Spain.

Although the pervasiveness of intraspecific wing-size polymorphism and transitions to flightlessness have long captivated biologists, the demographic outcomes of shifts in dispersal ability are not yet well understood and have been seldom studied at early stages of diversification. Here, we use genomic data to infer the consequences of dispersal-related trait variation in the taxonomically controversial short-winged (Chorthippus corsicus corsicus) and long-winged (Chorthippus corsicus pascuorum) Corsican grasshoppers. Our analyses revealed lack of contemporary hybridization between sympatric long- and short-winged forms and phylogenomic reconstructions supported their taxonomic distinctiveness, rejecting the hypothesis of intraspecific wing polymorphism. Read More

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Courtship behavior, nesting microhabitat, and assortative mating in sympatric stickleback species pairs.

Ecol Evol 2021 Feb 29;11(4):1741-1755. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

School of Life Sciences University of Nottingham Nottingham UK.

The maintenance of reproductive isolation in the face of gene flow is a particularly contentious topic, but differences in reproductive behavior may provide the key to explaining this phenomenon. However, we do not yet fully understand how behavior contributes to maintaining species boundaries. How important are behavioral differences during reproduction? To what extent does assortative mating maintain reproductive isolation in recently diverged populations and how important are "magic traits"? Assortative mating can arise as a by-product of accumulated differences between divergent populations as well as an adaptive response to contact between those populations, but this is often overlooked. Read More

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February 2021

Spatial patterns in phage-Rhizobium coevolutionary interactions across regions of common bean domestication.

ISME J 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Centro de Ciencias Genómicas, Universidad Nacional Autonóma de México, Mexico, Mexico.

Bacteriophages play significant roles in the composition, diversity, and evolution of bacterial communities. Despite their importance, it remains unclear how phage diversity and phage-host interactions are spatially structured. Local adaptation may play a key role. Read More

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February 2021

Morning glory species co-occurrence is associated with asymmetrically decreased and cascading reproductive isolation.

Evol Lett 2021 Feb 18;5(1):75-85. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Biology Duke University Durham North Carolina 27708.

Hybridization between species can affect the strength of the reproductive barriers that separate those species. Two extensions of this effect are (1) the expectation that asymmetric hybridization or gene flow will have asymmetric effects on reproductive barrier strength and (2) the expectation that local hybridization will affect only local reproductive barrier strength and could therefore alter within-species compatibility. We tested these hypotheses in a pair of morning glory species that exhibit asymmetric gene flow from highly selfing into mixed-mating in regions where they co-occur. Read More

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February 2021

Speciation in Daphnia.

Mol Ecol 2021 03 1;30(6):1398-1418. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

The microcrustacean Daphnia is arguably one of the most studied zooplankton species, having a well understood ecology, life history, and a relatively well studied evolutionary history. Despite this wealth of knowledge, species boundaries within closely related species in this genus often remain elusive and the major evolutionary forces driving the diversity of daphniids remain controversial. This genus contains more than 80 species with multiple cryptic species complexes, with many closely related species able to hybridize. Read More

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Microdiversity and phylogeographic diversification of bacterioplankton in pelagic freshwater systems revealed through long-read amplicon sequencing.

Microbiome 2021 01 22;9(1):24. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Center for Ecological Research, Kyoto University, 2-509-3 Hirano, Otsu, Shiga, 520-2113, Japan.

Background: Freshwater ecosystems are inhabited by members of cosmopolitan bacterioplankton lineages despite the disconnected nature of these habitats. The lineages are delineated based on > 97% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, but their intra-lineage microdiversity and phylogeography, which are key to understanding the eco-evolutional processes behind their ubiquity, remain unresolved. Here, we applied long-read amplicon sequencing targeting nearly full-length 16S rRNA genes and the adjacent ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequences to reveal the intra-lineage diversities of pelagic bacterioplankton assemblages in 11 deep freshwater lakes in Japan and Europe. Read More

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January 2021

Niche partitioning among three snail-eating snakes revealed by dentition asymmetry and prey specialisation.

J Anim Ecol 2021 04 8;90(4):967-977. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

School of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan.

The level of dentition asymmetry in snail-eating snakes may reflect their prey choice and feeding efficiency on asymmetric land snails. The three species of Pareas snakes (Squamata: Pareidae) in Taiwan, which form partially sympatric distribution on the island, provide a potential case to test the hypothesis of niche partitioning and character displacement with regard to dentition asymmetry and specialisation in feeding behaviour. In this study, behavioural experiments confirmed that P. Read More

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Environmental correlates of exploratory behavior and anxiety in three African striped mouse (Rhabdomys) taxa occurring in different habitats and contexts.

J Comp Psychol 2021 Jan 21. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

School of Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences.

Species or populations are locally adapted to the environments they occupy because of different selection pressures. Our study considers behavioral differences in rodents originating from environments with different levels of overhead cover. We investigated exploratory behavior and anxiety in 4 populations of the African striped mouse in South Africa, from different environments: from a semi-desert; and , which were sympatric in the central grasslands; and another allopatric occurred in the northern grasslands. Read More

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January 2021

Colonization of a novel host by fleas: changes in egg production and egg size.

Parasitol Res 2021 Feb 15;120(2):451-459. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Mitrani Department of Desert Ecology, Swiss Institute for Dryland Environmental and Energy Research, Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Midreshet Ben-Gurion, Sede Boqer Campus, 8499000, Beersheba, Israel.

We studied the success of fleas, Synosternus cleopatrae and Xenopsylla ramesis, in switching to a novel host by establishing experimental lines maintained on different hosts for 18 generations. Fleas fed on principal (P-line) or novel hosts, either sympatric with (S-line) or allopatric to (A-line) a flea and its principal host, then we assessed their reproductive performance via the number and size of eggs. We compared reproductive performance between hosts within a line and between lines within a host asking: (a) whether fleas adapt to a novel host species after multiple generations; (b) if yes, whether the pattern of adaptation differs between novel host species sympatric with or allopatric to a flea and its principal host; and (c) adaptation to a novel host is accompanied with a loss of success in exploitation of an original host. Read More

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February 2021

Sympatry drives colour and song evolution in wood-warblers (Parulidae).

Proc Biol Sci 2021 01 13;288(1942):20202804. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Integrative Biology, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4, Canada.

Closely related species often exhibit similarities in appearance and behaviour, yet when related species exist in sympatry, signals may diverge to enhance species recognition. Prior comparative studies provided mixed support for this hypothesis, but the relationship between sympatry and signal divergence is likely nonlinear. Constraints on signal diversity may limit signal divergence, especially when large numbers of species are sympatric. Read More

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January 2021

Trophic resource partitioning drives fine-scale coexistence in cryptic bat species.

Ecol Evol 2020 Dec 11;10(24):14122-14136. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

School of Biological Sciences University of Southampton Southampton UK.

Understanding the processes that enable species coexistence has important implications for assessing how ecological systems will respond to global change. Morphology and functional similarity increase the potential for competition, and therefore, co-occurring morphologically similar but genetically unique species are a good model system for testing coexistence mechanisms. We used DNA metabarcoding and high-throughput sequencing to characterize for the first time the trophic ecology of two recently described cryptic bat species with parapatric ranges, and . Read More

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December 2020

So Closely Related and Yet So Different: Strong Contrasts Between the Evolutionary Histories of Species of the Polyploid Complex in Central Europe.

Front Plant Sci 2020 18;11:588856. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Institute of Botany, Plant Science and Biodiversity Centre, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Recurrent polyploid formation and weak reproductive barriers between independent polyploid lineages generate intricate species complexes with high diversity and reticulate evolutionary history. Uncovering the evolutionary processes that formed their present-day cytotypic and genetic structure is a challenging task. We studied the species complex of , composed of diploid endemics in the European Mediterranean and diploid-polyploid lineages more widely distributed across Europe, focusing on the poorly understood variation in Central Europe. Read More

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December 2020

Molecular signatures of sexual communication in the phlebotomine sand flies.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 12 28;14(12):e0008967. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Department of Entomology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, United States of America.

Phlebotomine sand flies employ an elaborate system of pheromone communication wherein males produce pheromones that attract other males to leks (thus acting as an aggregation pheromone) and females to the lekking males (sex pheromone). In addition, the type of pheromone produced varies among populations. Despite the numerous studies on sand fly chemical communication, little is known of their chemosensory genome. Read More

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December 2020

Inter-population differences in salinity tolerance of adult wild Sacramento splittail: osmoregulatory and metabolic responses to salinity.

Conserv Physiol 2020 10;8(1):coaa098. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Conservation Biology, University of California, 1 Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616, USA.

The Sacramento splittail () is composed of two genetically distinct populations endemic to the San Francisco Estuary (SFE). The allopatric upstream spawning habitat of the Central Valley (CV) population connects with the sympatric rearing grounds via relatively low salinity waters, whereas the San Pablo (SP) population must pass through the relatively high-salinity Upper SFE to reach its allopatric downstream spawning habitat. We hypothesize that if migration through SFE salinities to SP spawning grounds is more challenging for adult CV than SP splittail, then salinity tolerance, osmoregulatory capacity, and metabolic responses to salinity will differ between populations. Read More

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December 2020

Ecological niche partitioning in a fragmented landscape between two highly specialized avian flush-pursuit foragers in the Andean zone of sympatry.

Sci Rep 2020 12 16;10(1):22024. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Museum of Natural History, University of Wroclaw, Sienkiewicza 21, 50-335, Wroclaw, Poland.

In the Andes, pairs of ecologically similar species are often separated by narrow elevational sympatry zones but the mechanisms mediating sympatry are not fully understood. Here, we describe niche partitioning within a sympatry zone in a fragmented Andean landscape between two closely related flush-pursue species: a high-elevation montane forest dweller, (Myioborus melanocephalus), and a mid-elevation montane forest dweller, (M. miniatus). Read More

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December 2020

The cost of travel: How dispersal ability limits local adaptation in host-parasite interactions.

J Evol Biol 2021 Mar 29;34(3):512-524. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Chemistry and Biology, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Classical theory suggests that parasites will exhibit higher fitness in sympatric relative to allopatric host populations (local adaptation). However, evidence for local adaptation in natural host-parasite systems is often equivocal, emphasizing the need for infection experiments conducted over realistic geographic scales and comparisons among species with varied life history traits. Here, we used infection experiments to test how two trematode (flatworm) species (Paralechriorchis syntomentera and Ribeiroia ondatrae) with differing dispersal abilities varied in the strength of local adaptation to their amphibian hosts. Read More

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A new species of Okanagana from the Walker Lane region of Nevada and California (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadidae).

Zootaxa 2020 Oct 29;4868(4):zootaxa.4868.4.3. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Greenman-Pedersen Inc. wchatfield-.

Okanagana boweni sp. n. is described from the western margin of the Great Basin of North America. Read More

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October 2020

Evidence for spatial clines and mixed geographic modes of speciation for North American cherry-infesting (Diptera: Tephritidae) flies.

Ecol Evol 2020 Dec 28;10(23):12727-12744. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Biological Sciences University of Notre Dame Notre Dame Indiana USA.

An important criterion for understanding speciation is the geographic context of population divergence. Three major modes of allopatric, parapatric, and sympatric speciation define the extent of spatial overlap and gene flow between diverging populations. However, mixed modes of speciation are also possible, whereby populations experience periods of allopatry, parapatry, and/or sympatry at different times as they diverge. Read More

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December 2020

Differential gene expression reveals mechanisms related to habitat divergence between hybridizing orchids from the Neotropical coastal plains.

BMC Plant Biol 2020 Dec 10;20(1):554. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP, 13083-862, Brazil.

Background: Closely related hybridizing species are ideal systems for identifying genomic regions underlying adaptive divergence. Although gene expression plays a central role in determining ecologically-based phenotypic differences, few studies have inferred the role of gene expression for adaptive divergence in Neotropical systems. In this study, we conduct genome-wide expression analysis alongside soil elemental analysis in sympatric and allopatric populations of Epidendrum fulgens and E. Read More

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December 2020

Asymmetric interspecific competition drives shifts in signalling traits in fan-throated lizards.

Proc Biol Sci 2020 12 9;287(1940):20202141. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, India.

Interspecific competition can occur when species are unable to distinguish between conspecific and heterospecific mates or competitors when they occur in sympatry. Selection in response to interspecific competition can lead to shifts in signalling traits-a process called agonistic character displacement. In two fan-throated lizard species- and -females are morphologically indistinguishable and male agonistic signalling behaviour is similar. Read More

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December 2020

Insecticide Resistance Profiling of and Populations in the Southern Senegal: Role of Target Sites and Metabolic Resistance Mechanisms.

Genes (Basel) 2020 Nov 25;11(12). Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Centre for Research in Infectious Diseases (CRID) BP 13591, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

The emergence and spread of insecticide resistance among the main malaria vectors is threatening the effectiveness of vector control interventions in Senegal. The main drivers of this resistance in the complex (e.g. Read More

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November 2020

The genomic signature of ecological divergence along the benthic-limnetic axis in allopatric and sympatric threespine stickleback.

Mol Ecol 2021 01 18;30(2):451-463. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Division of Biological Sciences, Section of Ecology, Behavior, & Evolution, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

The repeated occurrence of similar phenotypes in independent lineages (i.e., parallel evolution) in response to similar ecological conditions can provide compelling insights into the process of adaptive evolution. Read More

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January 2021