7,707 results match your criteria alignment polymers

Draft Genome of Serogroup O18 Elaborating Phosphocholine-Decorated O Antigen.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 25;11:620010. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Institute of Biology, Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce, Kielce, Poland.

is a pathogenic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that causes ascending urinary tract infections. Swarming motility, urease production, biofilm formation, and the properties of its lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are all factors that contribute to the virulence of this bacterium. Uniquely, members of the O18 serogroup elaborate LPS molecules capped with O antigen polymers built of pentasaccharide repeats; these repeats are modified with a phosphocholine (ChoP) moiety attached to the proximal sugar of each O unit. Read More

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Excess Polymer in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Thin-Film Transistors: Its Removal Prior to Fabrication Is Unnecessary.

ACS Nano 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1N 6N5.

Ultrapure semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube (sc-SWNT) dispersions produced through conjugated polymer sorting are ideal candidates for the fabrication of solution-processed organic electronic devices on a commercial scale. Protocols for sorting and dispersing ultrapure sc-SWNTs with conjugated polymers for thin-film transistor (TFT) applications have been well refined. Conventional wisdom dictates that removal of excess unbound polymer through filtration or centrifugation is necessary to produce high-performance TFTs. Read More

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Precisely Controlled Vertical Alignment in Mesostructured Carbon Thin Films for Efficient Electrochemical Sensing.

ACS Nano 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, iChEM (Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials), Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, People's Republic of China.

Two-dimensional carbon materials, incorporating a large mesoporosity, are attracting considerable research interest in various fields such as catalysis, electrochemistry, and energy-related technologies owing to their integrated functionalities. However, their potential applications, which require favorable mass transport within mesopore channels, are constrained by the undesirable and finite mesostructural configurations due to the immense synthetic difficulties. Herein, we demonstrate an oriented monomicelle assembly strategy, for the facile fabrication of highly ordered mesoporous carbon thin films with vertically aligned and permeable mesopore channels. Read More

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Using Wet Electrospun PCL/Gelatin/CNT Yarns to Fabricate Textile-Based Scaffolds for Vascular Tissue Engineering.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 771 Ferst Dr NW, Atlanta 30332, Georgia, United States.

Incorporating conductive materials in scaffolds has shown advantages in regulating adhesion, mitigation, and proliferation of electroactive cells for tissue engineering applications. Among various conductive materials, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have shown great promises in tissue engineering because of their good mechanical properties. However, the broad application of CNTs in tissue engineering is limited by current methods to incorporate CNTs in polymers that require miscible solvents to dissolve CNTs and polymers or CNT surface modification. Read More

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Electrospun Nanofibrous Scaffolds: Review of Current Progress in the Properties and Manufacturing Process, and Possible Applications for COVID-19.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Mar 16;13(6). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Bisha, P.O. Box 001, Bisha 67714, Saudi Arabia.

Over the last twenty years, researchers have focused on the potential applications of electrospinning, especially its scalability and versatility. Specifically, electrospun nanofiber scaffolds are considered an emergent technology and a promising approach that can be applied to biosensing, drug delivery, soft and hard tissue repair and regeneration, and wound healing. Several parameters control the functional scaffolds, such as fiber geometrical characteristics and alignment, architecture, etc. Read More

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Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Flow and Alignment Behavior of Waste Tire-Derived Graphene Nanoplatelets in PA66 Matrix during Melt-Mixing and Injection.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Mar 19;13(6). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Integrated Manufacturing Technologies Research and Application Center & Composite Technologies Center of Excellence, Manufacturing Technologies, Sabanci University, 34906 Istanbul, Turkey.

Homogeneous dispersion of graphene into thermoplastic polymer matrices during melt-mixing is still challenging due to its agglomeration and weak interfacial interactions with the selected polymer matrix. In this study, an ideal dispersion of graphene within the PA66 matrix was achieved under high shear rates by thermokinetic mixing. The flow direction of graphene was monitored by the developed numerical methodology with a combination of its rheological behaviors. Read More

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An Integrated Approach to Design and Develop High-Performance Polymer-Composite Thermal Interface Material.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Mar 6;13(5). Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Mechanical Engineering Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia.

A computational framework based on novel differential effective medium approximation and mean-field homogenization is used to design high-performance filler-laden polymer thermal interface materials (TIMs). The proposed design strategy has the capability to handle non-dilute filler concentration in the polymer matrix. The effective thermal conductivity of intended thermal interface composites can be tailored in a wide range by varying filler attributes such as size, aspect ratio, orientation, as well as filler-matrix interface with an upper limit imposed by the shear modulus. Read More

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Vertical Alignment of Liquid Crystals on Comb-Like Renewable Chavicol-Modified Polystyrene.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Mar 7;13(5). Epub 2021 Mar 7.

BK-21 Four Graduate Program, Department of Chemical Engineering, Dong-A University, 37 Nakdong Daero 550beon-gil, Saha-gu, Busan 604-714, Korea.

This study demonstrates liquid crystal (LC) alignment behaviors on the surface of phytochemical-based and renewable chavicol-modified polystyrene (PCHA#, # = 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100, where # represent the molar content of chavicol moiety in the side group) via polymer modification reactions. Generally, a LC cell fabricated with a polymer film containing a high molar content of the chavicol side group exhibited a vertical LC alignment property. There is a correlation between the vertical alignment of LC molecules and the polar surface energy value of the polymer films. Read More

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Mechanical Stabilization of Alginate Hydrogel Fiber and 3D Constructs by Mussel-Inspired Catechol Modification.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Mar 14;13(6). Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Seobu-ro 2066, Jangan-gu, Suwon 16419, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.

Alginate is a representative biocompatible natural polymer with low cost for a variety of biomedical applications, such as wound dressing, drug delivery systems, tissue scaffolds, and 3D bioprinting. Particularly, the rapid and facile gelation of alginate via ionic interactions with divalent cations has been used for in situ 3D hydrogel fiber formation, which is potentially applicable to engineering cell alignment. However, challenges in enhancing the mechanical properties of alginate hydrogel fibers under physiological conditions are unresolved because of their fast dissociation by ion exchange. Read More

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Out-of-Plane Alignment of Conjugated Semiconducting Polymers by Horizontal Rotation in a High Magnetic Field.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Apr 1:3476-3484. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Institutes of Physical Science and Information Technology, Anhui University, Hefei 230601, P. R. China.

The effective control of film morphology and molecular packing in the out-of-plane direction of semiconductor polymers plays a critical role in governing charge carrier transport in the direction perpendicular to the substrate. In this study, a highly out-of-plane alignment of the n-type polymer P(NDI2OD-T2) film has been successfully achieved by horizontal rotation in a high magnetic field (HR-HMF). The out-of-plane alignment of the P(NDI2OD-T2) film has showed a change from 72% face-on to 98. Read More

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Vertical Orientation of Liquid Crystal on 4--Alkyloxyphenoxymethyl-Substituted Polystyrene Containing Liquid Crystal Precursor.

Kyutae Seo Hyo Kang

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Feb 27;13(5). Epub 2021 Feb 27.

BK-21 Four Graduate Program, Department of Chemical Engineering, Dong-A University, 37 Nakdong-Daero 550 Beon-gil, Saha-gu, Busan 604-714, Korea.

We synthesized a series of polystyrene derivatives that were modified with precursors of liquid crystal (LC) molecules, such as 4-ethyloxyphenol (homopolymer PEOP and copolymer PEOP#; # = 20, 40, 60, and 80, where # indicates the molar fraction of 4-ethyloxyphenoxymethyl in the side chain), 4--butyloxyphenol (PBOP), 4--hexyloxyphenol (PHOP), and 4--octyloxyphenol (POOP), via polymer modification reaction to investigate the orientation of LC molecules on polymer films, exhibiting part of the LC molecular structure. LC molecules showed a stable and uniform vertical orientation in LC cells fabricated with polymers that have 4-ethyloxyphenoxymethyl in the range of 40-100 mol%. In addition, similar results were obtained in LC cells fabricated with homopolymers of PEOP, PBOP, PHOP, and POOP. Read More

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February 2021

Alignment Layer of Liquid Crystal Using Plant-Based Isoeugenol-Substituted Polystyrene.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Feb 12;13(4). Epub 2021 Feb 12.

BK-21 Four Graduate Program, Department of Chemical Engineering, Dong-A University, 37 Nakdong Daero 550beon-gil, Saha-gu, Busan 604-714, Korea.

We synthesized a series of renewable and plant-based isoeugenol-substituted polystyrenes (PIEU#, # = 100, 80, 60, 40, and 20, where # is the molar percent content of isoeugenol moiety), using polymer modification reactions to study their liquid crystal (LC) alignment behavior. In general, the LC cells fabricated using polymer film with a higher molar content of isoeugenol side groups showed vertical LC alignment behavior. This alignment behavior was well related to the surface energy value of the polymer layer. Read More

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February 2021

Fabrication of hybrid scaffolds obtained from combinations of PCL with gelatin or collagen via electrospinning for skeletal muscle tissue engineering.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2021 Mar 5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Complex Tissue Regeneration, MERLN Institute for Technology-Inspired Regenerative Medicine, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

The creation of skeletal muscle tissue in vitro is a major topic of interest today in the field of biomedical research, due to the lack of treatments for muscle loss due to traumatic accidents or disease. For this reason, the intrinsic properties of nanofibrillar structures to promote cell adhesion, proliferation, and cell alignment presents an attractive tool for regenerative medicine to recreate organized tissues such as muscle. Electrospinning is one of the processing techniques often used for the fabrication of these nanofibrous structures and the combination of synthetic and natural polymers is often required to achieve optimal mechanical and physiochemical properties. Read More

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Structure-Property Relationship of Cellulose Nanocrystal-Polyvinyl Alcohol Thin Films for High Barrier Coating Applications.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Mar 3;13(10):12472-12482. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, United States.

CO and O gas permeability are paramount concerns in food packaging. Here, the permeability of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) coatings was explored as it relates to varied CNC content. Specifically, this work focuses on the role of PVA in rheology and barrier performance of the CNC films. Read More

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Structural Insights into Carboxylic Polyester-Degrading Enzymes and Their Functional Depolymerizing Neighbors.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 26;22(5). Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Instituto de Medicina Molecular João Lobo Antunes, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Egas Moniz, 1649-028 Lisbon, Portugal.

Esters are organic compounds widely represented in cellular structures and metabolism, originated by the condensation of organic acids and alcohols. Esterification reactions are also used by chemical industries for the production of synthetic plastic polymers. Polyester plastics are an increasing source of environmental pollution due to their intrinsic stability and limited recycling efforts. Read More

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February 2021

Directional and Reconfigurable Assembly of Metallodielectric Patchy Particles.

ACS Nano 2021 Mar 26;15(3):5439-5448. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Chemistry, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Colloidal particles with surface patches can self-assemble with high directionality, but the resulting assemblies cannot reconfigure unless the patch arrangement (number, symmetry, .) is altered. While external fields with tunable inputs can guide the assembly of dynamic structures, they encourage particle alignment relative to its shape rather than the surface patterns. Read More

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Modulating the Biomechanical Properties of Engineered Connective Tissues by Chitosan-Coated Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 15;16:989-1000. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

Background: Under certain conditions, the physiological repair of connective tissues might fail to restore the original structure and function. Optimized engineered connective tissues (ECTs) with biophysical properties adapted to the target tissue could be used as a substitution therapy. This study aimed to investigate the effect of ECT enforcement by a complex of multiwall carbon nanotubes with chitosan (C-MWCNT) to meet in vivo demands. Read More

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Emergence of Metallic Conductivity in Ordered One-Dimensional Coordination Polymer Thin Films upon Reductive Doping.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Mar 22;13(8):10249-10256. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent B-9000, Belgium.

The prospect of introducing tunable electric conductivity in metal-organic coordination polymers is of high interest for nanoelectronic applications. As the electronic properties of these materials are strongly dependent on their microstructure, the assembly of coordination polymers into thin films with well-controlled growth direction and thickness is crucial for practical devices. Here, we report the deposition of one-dimensional (1D) coordination polymer thin films of ,'-dimethyl dithiooxamidato-copper by atomic/molecular layer deposition. Read More

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Micropatterning of polymer substrates for cell culture.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2021 Feb 15. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Polymer Processing Group, Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, Singapore.

The cell microenvironment such as substrate topology plays an important role in biological processes. In this study, microgrooves were successfully produced on surfaces of both thermoplastic and thermoset polymers using cost-effective techniques for mass production. The micropatterning of thermoplastic polystyrene (PS) petri dish was accomplished efficiently using an in-house developed low-cost hot embossing system. Read More

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February 2021

Design and Development of a Three-Dimensionally Printed Microscope Mask Alignment Adapter for the Fabrication of Multilayer Microfluidic Devices.

J Vis Exp 2021 01 25(167). Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas Tech University;

This project aims to develop an easy-to-use and cost-effective platform for the fabrication of precise, multilayer microfluidic devices, which typically can only be achieved using costly equipment in a clean room setting. The key part of the platform is a three dimensionally (3D) printed microscope mask alignment adapter (MMAA) compatible with regular optical microscopes and ultraviolet (UV) light exposure systems. The overall process of creating the device has been vastly simplified because of the work done to optimize the device design. Read More

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January 2021

Topochemical polymerizations for the solid-state synthesis of organic polymers.

Chem Soc Rev 2021 Mar 5;50(6):4062-4099. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

School of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695551, India.

Topochemical polymerizations are solid-state reactions driven by the alignment of monomers in the crystalline state. The molecular confinement in the monomer crystal lattice offers precise control over the tacticity, packing and crystallinity of the polymer formed in the topochemical reaction. As topochemical reactions occur under solvent- and catalyst-free conditions, giving products in high yield and selectivity/specificity that do not require tedious chromatographic purification, topochemical polymerizations are highly attractive over traditional solution-phase polymer synthesis. Read More

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Fibre Alignment and Void Assessment in Thermoplastic Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers Manufactured by Automated Tape Placement.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Feb 2;13(3). Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Irish Composites Centre (IComp), Bernal Institute, University of Limerick, V94 T9PX Limerick, Ireland.

Automated Tape Placement (ATP) technology is one of the processes that is used for the production of the thermoplastic composite materials. The ATP process is complex, requiring multiple melting/crystallization cycles. In the current paper, laser-assisted ATP was used to manufacture two thermoplastic composites (IM7/PEEK and AS4/PA12). Read More

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February 2021

Strain-Engineering Induced Anisotropic Crystallite Orientation and Maximized Carrier Mobility for High-Performance Microfiber-Based Organic Bioelectronic Devices.

Adv Mater 2021 Mar 4;33(10):e2007550. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju, 61005, Republic of Korea.

Despite the importance of carrier mobility, recent research efforts have been mainly focused on the improvement of volumetric capacitance in order to maximize the figure-of-merit, μC* (product of carrier mobility and volumetric capacitance), for high-performance organic electrochemical transistors. Herein, high-performance microfiber-based organic electrochemical transistors with unprecedentedly large μC* using highly ordered crystalline poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) microfibers with very high carrier mobilities are reported. The strain engineering via uniaxial tension is employed in combination with solvent-mediated crystallization in the course of drying coagulated fibers, resulting in the permanent preferential alignment of crystalline PEDOT:PSS domains along the fiber direction, which is verified by atomic force microscopy and transmission wide-angle X-ray scattering. Read More

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Fabrication of TiO-Embedded Polyimide Layer with High Transmittance and Improved Reliability for Liquid Crystal Displays.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Jan 26;13(3). Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Soongsil University, Seoul 06978, Korea.

Construction of liquid crystal (LC) alignment by introducing polyimide (PI) to indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes is one of the main methods to realize high-resolution images in liquid crystal displays (LCD). However, the loss of transmittance caused by the difference in refractive index between ITO and PI leads to direct degradation of LCD performance. Thus, we herein fabricated a functional hybrid PI alignment layer that reduces the difference in refractive index and greatly increases the transmittance of the device by introducing inorganic titanium dioxide (TiO) nanoparticles (NP) to the organic PI. Read More

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January 2021

Fused Dithienopicenocarbazole Enabling High Mobility Dopant-Free Hole-Transporting Polymers for Efficient and Stable Perovskite Solar Cells.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Feb 29;13(5):6688-6698. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

CAS Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, and Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002, China.

As a critical component in perovskite solar cells (PSCs), hole-transporting materials (HTMs) have been extensively explored. To develop efficient dopant-free HTMs for PSCs, a decent hole mobility (>10 cm V s) is critically essential, which is, however, seldom reported. In this work, we introduce two novel donor-acceptor (D-A) type conjugated polymers ( and ) with narrow bandgap unit, i. Read More

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February 2021

CVD Conditions for MWCNTs Production and Their Effects on the Optical and Electrical Properties of PPy/MWCNTs, PANI/MWCNTs Nanocomposites by In Situ Electropolymerization.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Jan 22;13(3). Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Departamento de Ingeniería y Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Iberoamericana, Prolongación Paseo de la Reforma 880, Lomas de Santa Fe, México City 01219, Mexico.

In this work, the optimal conditions of synthesizing and purifying carbon nanotubes (CNTs) from ferrocene were selected at the first stage, where decomposition time, argon fluxes, precursor amounts, decomposition temperature (at 1023 K and 1123 K), and purification process (HNO + HSO or HCl + HO), were modulated through chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and compared to commercial CNTs. The processing temperature at 1123 K and the treatment with HCl + HO were key parameters influencing the purity, crystallinity, stability, and optical/electrical properties of bamboo-like morphology CNTs. Selected multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs), from 1 to 20 wt%, were electropolymerized through in-situ polarization with conductive polymers (CPs), poly(aniline) (PANI) and poly(pyrrole) (PPy), for obtaining composites. Read More

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January 2021

Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Crystal Nucleation near Interfaces in Incompatible Polymer Blends.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Jan 22;13(3). Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Chemistry, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, USA.

We apply molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate crystal nucleation in incompatible polymer blends under deep supercooling conditions. Simulations of isothermal nucleation are performed for phase-separated blends with different degrees of incompatibility. In weakly segregated blends, slow and incompatible chains in crystallizable polymer domains can significantly hinder the crystal nucleation and growth. Read More

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January 2021

Tailored growth of graphene oxide liquid crystals with controlled polymer crystallization in GO-polymer composites.

Nanoscale 2021 Feb;13(4):2720-2727

School of Energy and Chemical Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan, 44919, Republic of Korea. and School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea.

Graphene Oxides (GOs) have been frequently employed as fillers in polymer-based applications. While GO is known to nucleate polymer crystallization in GO-polymer composites reinforcing the mechanical properties of semicrystalline polymers, its counter effect on how polymer crystallization can alter the microstructure of GO has rarely been systematically studied yet. In this work, we study the GO nematic liquid crystal (LC) phase during polymer crystallization focusing on their hierarchical structures by employing in situ small/wide-angle X-ray scattering/diffraction (SAXS/WAXD) techniques. Read More

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February 2021

A binding protein regulates myosin-7a dimerization and actin bundle assembly.

Nat Commun 2021 01 25;12(1):563. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Laboratory of Molecular Physiology, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

Myosin-7a, despite being monomeric in isolation, plays roles in organizing actin-based cell protrusions such as filopodia, microvilli and stereocilia, as well as transporting cargoes within them. Here, we identify a binding protein for Drosophila myosin-7a termed M7BP, and describe how M7BP assembles myosin-7a into a motile complex that enables cargo translocation and actin cytoskeletal remodeling. M7BP binds to the autoinhibitory tail of myosin-7a, extending the molecule and activating its ATPase activity. Read More

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January 2021

Amianthoid transformation of costal cartilage matrix in children with pectus excavatum and pectus carinatum.

PLoS One 2021 25;16(1):e0245159. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), Moscow, Russia.

Background: It is unclear if amianthoid transformation (AT) of costal cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) has an impact on the development of pectus excavatum (PE) and pectus carinatum (PC).

Methods: AT foci were examined in intrasurgical biopsy specimens of costal cartilages of children (8-17 years old) with PE (n = 12) and PC (n = 12) and in age-matching autopsy control samples (n = 10) using histological and immunohistochemical staining, atomic force and nonlinear optical microscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, morphometry and statistics.

Results: AT areas were identified in the costal cartilage ECM in children with normal chest, PE and PC. Read More

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January 2021