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A computational pipeline for data augmentation towards the improvement of disease classification and risk stratification models: A case study in two clinical domains.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Jun 6;134:104520. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Unit of Medical Technology and Intelligent Information Systems, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, GR45110, Greece; Department of Biomedical Research, FORTH-IMBB, Ioannina, GR45110, Greece. Electronic address:

Virtual population generation is an emerging field in data science with numerous applications in healthcare towards the augmentation of clinical research databases with significant lack of population size. However, the impact of data augmentation on the development of AI (artificial intelligence) models to address clinical unmet needs has not yet been investigated. In this work, we assess whether the aggregation of real with virtual patient data can improve the performance of the existing risk stratification and disease classification models in two rare clinical domains, namely the primary Sjögren's Syndrome (pSS) and the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), for the first time in the literature. Read More

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Clinical correlates of white matter lesions in Parkinson's disease using automated multi-modal segmentation measures.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Jun 1;427:117518. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Singapore General Hospital, Singapore; Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore. Electronic address:

Background: Age-related white matter lesions (WML) are common, impact neuronal connectivity, and affect motor function and cognition. In addition to pathological nigrostriatal losses, WML are also common co-morbidities in Parkinson's disease (PD) that affect postural stability and gait. Automated brain volume measures are increasingly incorporated into the clinical reporting workflow to facilitate precision in medicine. Read More

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Automated detection of artefacts in neonatal EEG with residual neural networks.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 May 24;208:106194. Epub 2021 May 24.

Brain Modelling Group, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; BaBA center, Department of Children's Clinical Neurophysiology, Children's hospital, HUS Medical Imaging center, Helsinki University Central Hospital and University of Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: To develop a computational algorithm that detects and identifies different artefact types in neonatal electroencephalography (EEG) signals.

Methods: As part of a larger algorithm, we trained a Residual Deep Neural Network on expert human annotations of EEG recordings from 79 term infants recorded in a neonatal intensive care unit (112 h of 18-channel recording). The network was trained using 10 fold cross validation in Matlab. Read More

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Current status of intravesical therapies for bladder pain syndrome (BPS): a narrative review of emerging evidence.

Urology 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Chief of Department, Consultant Urological Surgeon, Professor of Urology, President of Scandinavian Association of Urology; Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Department of Urology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.

Bladder pain syndrome (BPS) is a complex condition, which can have debilitating sequelae for patients. Many elements of BPS remain poorly understood including pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. Navigating patient care can therefore be challenging for the clinician. Read More

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Characterization of the immune cell infiltration landscape in bladder cancer to aid immunotherapy.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2021 Jun 9;708:108950. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Diabetes Center, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Pathophysiology, Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Ningbo University, Ningbo, China. Electronic address:

The tumor microenvironment (TME) is composed mainly of tumor cells, tumorinfiltrating immune cells, and matrix components. Recent clinical studies have indicated that tumor immune cell infiltration (ICI) is related to the sensitivity of immunotherapy and the prognosis of patients with bladder cancer (BC). Nevertheless, up to now, the landscape of immune infiltration in BC has not been clearly defined. Read More

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Just looking: The innocent eye in neuroscience.

Neuron 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Psychology and Center for Brain Science, Harvard University, 52 Oxford St., Room 219.40, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA; Center for Brains, Minds, and Machines, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Electronic address:

Since the early days of neuroscience, students have been instructed to "just look" at their data with innocent eyes, and more recently with innocent algorithms. I argue that this epistemic attitude obscures the ubiquitous role that theory plays in neuroscience. Read More

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Ensuring patient and public involvement in the transition to AI-assisted mental health care: A systematic scoping review and agenda for design justice.

Health Expect 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Surrey Heartlands Health and Care Partnership, Guildford and Waverley CCG, Guildford, UK.

Background: Machine-learning algorithms and big data analytics, popularly known as 'artificial intelligence' (AI), are being developed and taken up globally. Patient and public involvement (PPI) in the transition to AI-assisted health care is essential for design justice based on diverse patient needs.

Objective: To inform the future development of PPI in AI-assisted health care by exploring public engagement in the conceptualization, design, development, testing, implementation, use and evaluation of AI technologies for mental health. Read More

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Comparison and validation of FDG-PET/CT scores for polymyalgia rheumatica.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Medical Imaging Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Objectives: To compare and validate the diagnostic accuracy of FDG-PET/CT scores for polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR); and to explore their relationship with clinical factors.

Methods: This retrospective study included 39 consecutive patients diagnosed with PMR and 19 PMR comparators. The final clinical diagnosis was established after 6 months follow-up. Read More

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Quantitative gait analysis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus using deep learning algorithms on monocular videos.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12368. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea.

A vision-based gait analysis method using monocular videos was proposed to estimate temporo-spatial gait parameters by leveraging deep learning algorithms. This study aimed to validate vision-based gait analysis using GAITRite as the reference system and analyze relationships between Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) scores and gait variability measured by vision-based gait analysis in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) patients. Gait data from 46 patients were simultaneously collected from the vision-based system utilizing deep learning algorithms and the GAITRite system. Read More

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Automated Medical Avatar Animation for Warfighter Mission Simulation.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

CFD Research Corporation, Huntsville, AL Biophysics and Biomedical Modeling Division, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA Department of Biomedical Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ.

Background: Virtual representations of human internal anatomy are important for military applications such as protective equipment design, injury severity prediction, thermal analysis, and physiological simulations. High-fidelity volumetric models based on imaging data are typically in static postures, and difficult to utilize in simulations of realistic mission scenarios. This study aimed to investigate a hybrid approach to reposition medical avatars that preserves internal anatomy but allows rapid repositioning of full 3D meshes. Read More

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Future of biomarker evaluation in the realm of artificial intelligence algorithms: application in improved therapeutic stratification of patients with breast and prostate cancer.

J Clin Pathol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Science, Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Clinical workflows in oncology depend on predictive and prognostic biomarkers. However, the growing number of complex biomarkers contributes to costly and delayed decision-making in routine oncology care and treatment. As cancer is expected to rank as the leading cause of death and the single most important barrier to increasing life expectancy in the 21st century, there is a major emphasis on precision medicine, particularly individualisation of treatment through better prediction of patient outcome. Read More

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Applications of machine learning in the chemical pathology laboratory.

J Clin Pathol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Computer Science, University of Pretoria Faculty of Engineering Built Environment and IT, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa.

Machine learning (ML) is an area of artificial intelligence that provides computer programmes with the capacity to autodidact and learn new skills from experience, without continued human programming. ML algorithms can analyse large data sets quickly and accurately, by supervised and unsupervised learning techniques, to provide classification and prediction value outputs. The application of ML to chemical pathology can potentially enhance efficiency at all phases of the laboratory's total testing process. Read More

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Diagnostic Accuracy and Failure Mode Analysis of a Deep Learning Algorithm for the Detection of Cervical Spine Fractures.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Radiology (M.E.L., J.W.G., J.-P.J.Y.), University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin

Background And Purpose: Artificial intelligence decision support systems are a rapidly growing class of tools to help manage ever-increasing imaging volumes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of an artificial intelligence decision support system, Aidoc, for the detection of cervical spinal fractures on noncontrast cervical spine CT scans and to conduct a failure mode analysis to identify areas of poor performance.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective study included 1904 emergent noncontrast cervical spine CT scans of adult patients (60 [SD, 22] years, 50. Read More

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FTIR spectroscopy with machine learning: A new approach to animal DNA polymorphism screening.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Jun 1;261:120036. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, 79070-900 Campo Grande, MS, Brazil. Electronic address:

Technological advances in recent decades, especially in molecular genetics, have enabled the detection of genetic DNA markers associated with productive characteristics in animals. However, the prospection of polymorphisms based on DNA sequencing is still expensive for the reality of many food-producing regions around the world, such as Brazil, demanding more accessible prospecting methods. In the present study, the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and machine learning algorithms were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in animal DNA. Read More

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Floquet wave theory-based time-corrected ultrasonic total focusing method for fiber-reinforced composite laminate.

Ultrasonics 2021 May 21;116:106467. Epub 2021 May 21.

School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055, PR China.

Fiber reinforced polymers (FRPs) are increasingly used in thick primary load-bearing structures. Nevertheless, manufacturing and in-service defects occur with a higher chance as the FRP thickness increases and thus the potential structure defects should be detected and evaluated. To image defects in thick FRP over 10 mm thick, this study proposes a frequency-and-structure dependent time-corrected ultrasonic total focusing method (FS-TFM) based on Floquet wave theory, which differs from conventional TFM that the wave velocity correction along different propagation direction bases on not only the structural anisotropy and inhomogeneity of FRP, but also on the probing frequency. Read More

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Low back pain.

Lancet 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA; Neurology, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA; Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and Anesthesiology, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Low back pain covers a spectrum of different types of pain (eg, nociceptive, neuropathic and nociplastic, or non-specific) that frequently overlap. The elements comprising the lumbar spine (eg, soft tissue, vertebrae, zygapophyseal and sacroiliac joints, intervertebral discs, and neurovascular structures) are prone to different stressors, and each of these, alone or in combination, can contribute to low back pain. Due to numerous factors related to low back pain, and the low specificity of imaging and diagnostic injections, diagnostic methods for this condition continue to be a subject of controversy. Read More

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A soft voting ensemble classifier for early prediction and diagnosis of occurrences of major adverse cardiovascular events for STEMI and NSTEMI during 2-year follow-up in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(6):e0249338. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Computer Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk, South Korea.

Objective: Some researchers have studied about early prediction and diagnosis of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), but their accuracies were not high. Therefore, this paper proposes a soft voting ensemble classifier (SVE) using machine learning (ML) algorithms.

Methods: We used the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry dataset and selected 11,189 subjects among 13,104 with the 2-year follow-up. Read More

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PD-L1 Expression in Metaplastic Breast Carcinoma Using the PD-L1 SP142 Assay and Concordance Among PD-L1 Immunohistochemical Assays.

Am J Surg Pathol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Departments of Pathology Medicine Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Immunotherapy for the treatment of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) positive locally advanced or metastatic triple negative breast cancer may benefit patients with metaplastic breast cancer (MpBC). Previous study of PD-L1 in MpBC scored tumor cells (TCs), different from Food and Drug Administration-approved scoring methods. We sought to define PD-L1 expression in MpBCs and to evaluate concordance of 3 PD-L1 assays. Read More

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Global Graph Attention Embedding Network for Relation Prediction in Knowledge Graphs.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Jun 11;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

The incompleteness of knowledge graphs triggers considerable research interest in relation prediction. As the key to predicting relations among entities, many efforts have been devoted to learning the embeddings of entities and relations by incorporating a variety of neighbors' information which includes not only the information from direct outgoing and incoming neighbors but also the ones from the indirect neighbors on the multihop paths. However, previous models usually consider entity paths of limited length or ignore sequential information of the paths. Read More

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Use of artificial intelligence as an instrument of evaluation after stroke: a scoping review based on international classification of functioning, disability and health concept.

Top Stroke Rehabil 2021 Jun 11:1-16. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Neurology, Psychology and Psychiatry, Botucatu Medical School, Brazil.

: To understand the current practices in stroke evaluation, the main clinical decision support system and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies need to be understood to assist the therapist in obtaining better insights about impairments and level of activity and participation in persons with stroke during rehabilitation. : This scoping review maps the use of AI for the functional evaluation of persons with stroke; the context involves any setting of rehabilitation. Data were extracted from CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL, PEDRO Web of Science, IEEE Xplore, AAAI Publications, ACM Digital Library, MathSciNet, and arXiv up to January 2021. Read More

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Current status in endoscopic management of UGI perforations, leaks and fistulas.

Dig Endosc 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Surgery, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong.

Recent advancement in endoscopic closure techniques have revolutionized the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) perforations, leaks and fistulas. Traditionally, these have been managed surgically. The treatment strategy depends on the size and location of the defect, degree of contamination, presence of healthy surrounding tissues, patients' condition and the availability of expertise. Read More

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What sound sources trigger misophonia? Not just chewing and breathing.

J Clin Psychol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Objectives: Misophonia is a highly prevalent yet understudied condition characterized by aversion toward particular environmental sounds. Oral/nasal sounds (e.g. Read More

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Navigational strategies underlying temporal phototaxis in Drosophila larvae.

J Exp Biol 2021 Jun 11;224(11). Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.

Navigating across light gradients is essential for survival for many animals. However, we still have a poor understanding of the algorithms that underlie such behaviors. Here, we developed a novel closed-loop phototaxis assay for Drosophila larvae in which light intensity is always spatially uniform but updates depending on the location of the animal in the arena. Read More

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Failures of stereoscopic shape constancy over changes of viewing distance and size for bilaterally symmetric polyhedra.

J Vis 2021 Jun;21(6)

Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Two shape matching experiments examined the effects of viewing distance and object size on observers' judgments of 3D metric shape under binocular viewing. Unlike previous studies on this topic, the stimuli were specifically designed to satisfy the minimal conditions for computing veridical shape from symmetry. Concretely, the stimuli were complex, mirror-symmetric polyhedra whose symmetry planes were oriented at an angle of 45o relative to the line of sight in a shape-matching task. Read More

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Performance and educational training of radiographers in lung nodule or mass detection: Retrospective comparison with different deep learning algorithms.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(23):e26270

Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital.

Abstract: The aim of this investigation was to compare the diagnostic performance of radiographers and deep learning algorithms in pulmonary nodule/mass detection on chest radiograph.A test set of 100 chest radiographs containing 53 cases with no pathology (normal) and 47 abnormal cases (pulmonary nodules/masses) independently interpreted by 6 trained radiographers and deep learning algorithems in a random order. The diagnostic performances of both deep learning algorithms and trained radiographers for pulmonary nodules/masses detection were compared. Read More

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Evaluating Energy Differences on a Quantum Computer with Robust Phase Estimation.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 May;126(21):210501

Center for Computing Research, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185, USA.

We adapt the robust phase estimation algorithm to the evaluation of energy differences between two eigenstates using a quantum computer. This approach does not require controlled unitaries between auxiliary and system registers or even a single auxiliary qubit. As a proof of concept, we calculate the energies of the ground state and low-lying electronic excitations of a hydrogen molecule in a minimal basis on a cloud quantum computer. Read More

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Emerging contrast agents for multispectral optoacoustic imaging and their biomedical applications.

Chem Soc Rev 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Luminescence from Molecular Aggregates, College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Wushan Road 381, Guangzhou, 510640, China.

Optoacoustic imaging is a hybrid biomedical imaging modality which collects ultrasound waves generated via photoexciting contrast agents in tissues and produces images of high resolution and penetration depth. As a functional optoacoustic imaging technique, multispectral optoacoustic imaging, which can discriminate optoacoustic signals from different contrast agents by illuminating samples with multi-wavelength lasers and then processing the collected data with specific algorithms, assists in the identification of a specific contrast agent in target tissues and enables simultaneous molecular and physiological imaging. Moreover, multispectral optoacoustic imaging can also generate three-dimensional images for biological tissues/samples with high resolution and thus holds great potential in biomedical applications. Read More

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Clinical Validation of the Champagne Algorithm for Evoked Response Source Localization in Magnetoencephalography.

Brain Topogr 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Biomagnetic Imaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, UCSF Biomagnetic Imaging Center, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA, 94143, USA.

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a robust method for non-invasive functional brain mapping of sensory cortices due to its exceptional spatial and temporal resolution. The clinical standard for MEG source localization of functional landmarks from sensory evoked responses is the equivalent current dipole (ECD) localization algorithm, known to be sensitive to initialization, noise, and manual choice of the number of dipoles. Recently many automated and robust algorithms have been developed, including the Champagne algorithm, an empirical Bayesian algorithm, with powerful abilities for MEG source reconstruction and time course estimation (Wipf et al. Read More

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Multivariate analysis of water quality parameters in Lake Palic, Serbia.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Jun 11;193(7):410. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Faculty of Technology Novi Sad, University of Novi Sad, Bulevar cara Lazara 1, 21000, Novi Sad, Serbia.

This study presents a comprehensive investigation of water quality parameters in the fourth sector of Lake Palic in Serbia, which has a regional strategic importance. Namely, it is designated as a tourist destination. What is perhaps even more important is that its surplus water ends up in Lake Ludas, a significant habitat for migrating and aquatic bird species, and it is a RAMSAR site. Read More

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Atrial fibrillation detection from raw photoplethysmography waveforms: A deep learning application.

Heart Rhythm O2 2020 Apr 27;1(1):3-9. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF), a common cause of stroke, often is asymptomatic. Smartphones and smartwatches can detect AF using heart rate patterns inferred using photoplethysmography (PPG); however, enhanced accuracy is required to reduce false positives in screening populations.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a deep learning algorithm given raw, smartwatch-derived PPG waveforms would discriminate AF from normal sinus rhythm better than algorithms using heart rate alone. Read More

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