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Association of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Fibrosis With Incident Dementia and Cognition: The Rotterdam Study.

Neurology 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Epidemiology Erasmus MC university medical center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Background: & Objectives: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) might affect brain health, via the so-called liver-brain axis. Whether this results in increased risk for dementia remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the association of NAFLD and fibrosis with incident dementia and cognition among the elderly. Read More

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Analysis of female enrollment in clinical trials for alcohol and substance use disorders: Is it time for sex-informed pharmacotherapy?

Contemp Clin Trials 2022 May 23:106784. Epub 2022 May 23.

Mary Horrigan Connors Center for Women's Health and Gender Biology, Department of Psychiatry, Brigham and Women's Hospital, United States of America; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States of America. Electronic address:

Background: Women represent an increasing number of individuals with alcohol and substance use disorders (ASUDs), and sex-differences might affect results of interventional clinical trials (CTs). We aim at assessing the proportion of women and the reporting of sex-stratified and female-specific data in CTs for ASUDs.

Methods: We extracted data from ClinicalTrials. Read More

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Gut microbiota metabolize arsenolipids in a donor dependent way.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2022 May 23;239:113662. Epub 2022 May 23.

Institute of Chemistry, NAWI Graz, University of Graz, 8010 Graz, Austria.

Understanding the interplay between the gut microbiome and arsenolipids can help us manage the potential health risk of consuming seafood, but little is known about the bioconversion fate of arsenolipids in the gastrointestinal tract. We use an in vitro mucosal simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (M-SHIME) to mimic the digestive tract of four healthy donors during exposure to two arsenolipids (an arsenic fatty acid AsFA 362 or an arsenic hydrocarbon AsHC 332). The metabolites were analyzed by HPLC-mass spectrometry. Read More

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Increased risk of death immediately after discharge from compulsory care for substance abuse.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2022 May 10;236:109492. Epub 2022 May 10.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: In Sweden, approximately 1000 persons per year are committed to compulsory care for substance abuse for a maximum duration of six months. People admitted to compulsory care are known to suffer high mortality risks, but whether the risk of dying is further heightened immediately after discharge is not known.

Methods: Individual data from Swedish national registers were used to follow all persons discharged from a six months compulsory care episode in the period 2000-2017 (N = 7, 929). Read More

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Gaps in naloxone ownership among people who inject drugs during the fentanyl wave of the opioid overdose epidemic in New York City, 2018.

Subst Abus 2022 ;43(1):1172-1179

New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Bureau of Hepatitis, HIV, and STIs, Long Island City, New York, USA.

Community distribution of naloxone, a medication that reverses opioid overdose, is an effective public health strategy to prevent overdose deaths. However, data are limited on who has naloxone during the current fentanyl wave of the opioid overdose epidemic in the United States. We aim to determine correlates of naloxone ownership among a community sample of people who inject drugs (PWID) from New York City (NYC). Read More

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January 2022

Triazolium Salts as Lewis Acid Catalysts.

Org Lett 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Technion City, Haifa 32000, Israel.

We describe a new type of nitrenium-based Lewis acids: tetraaryl-1,2,3-triazolium salts. These were fully characterized by NMR and X-ray crystallography. The Gutmann-Beckett acidity numbers were determined to be up to 35. Read More

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A systematic literature review and narrative synthesis of effective interventions for family and caregivers of people who use methamphetamine.

Subst Abus 2022 ;43(1):1190-1196

Center for Brain and Mental Health Research, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia.

Methamphetamine is a highly addictive central nervous stimulant associated with numerous adverse health, psychological, and social impacts. Family and friends of people who use methamphetamine often take on a crucial caregiving role in supporting their loved one. Consequently, they can experience a range of psychosocial challenges themselves. Read More

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January 2022

Erratum: Myocardial Infarction by Percutaneous Embolization Coil Deployment in a Swine Model.


J Vis Exp 2022 May 26(183). Epub 2022 May 26.

An erratum was issued for: Myocardial Infarction by Percutaneous Embolization Coil Deployment in a Swine Model. The Protocol and Discussion sections were updated. Step 3. Read More

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One in five South Africans are multimorbid: An analysis of the 2016 demographic and health survey.

PLoS One 2022 26;17(5):e0269081. Epub 2022 May 26.

Burden of Disease Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa.

Multimorbidity is a global research priority, yet relatively little is known about it in low and middle income countries. South Africa has the largest burden of HIV worldwide but also has a growing burden of non-communicable diseases; potentially leading to uncommon disease combinations. Information about the prevalence of multimorbidity and factors associated with it can assist in healthcare planning and targeting groups of people for interventions. Read More

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An event-level evaluation of women's self-medicated drinking: The role of sexual assault severity, affect, and drinking motives.

Psychol Trauma 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Edson College of Nursing and Health Innovation.

Objective: Women with sexual assault (SA) histories report heavier and more frequent drinking. Consistent with the motivational model of alcohol use, women with SA histories may consume alcohol to both downregulate negative emotions and upregulate positive ones. The present event-level study used a Bayesian multilevel moderated mediation approach to examine the extent to which women's alcohol use and intoxication was influenced by coping and enhancement drinking motives to downregulate or upregulate affect, respectively. Read More

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Treatment-relevant factors among adults receiving court-mandated substance use treatment: The role of emotion dysregulation.

Psychol Serv 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Psychology.

Despite often being mandated to substance use treatment after release, many people on probation do not complete treatment. Several historical factors have been identified as relevant to substance use treatment in this population (i.e. Read More

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Alcohol use disorder, psychiatric comorbidities, marriage and divorce in a high-risk sample.

Psychol Addict Behav 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Psychology.

Objective: To examine associations between alcohol use disorder (AUD), its psychiatric comorbidities, and their interactions, with marital outcomes in a diverse high-risk, genetically informative sample.

Method: Participants included European ancestry (EA; = 4,045) and African ancestry (AA; = 1,550) individuals from the multigenerational Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) sample (56% female, ∼ 41 years). Outcomes were lifetime marriage and divorce. Read More

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Mapping the National Phosphorus Recovery Potential from Centralized Wastewater and Corn Ethanol Infrastructure.

Environ Sci Technol 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 205 N. Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801, United States.

Anthropogenic discharge of excess phosphorus (P) to water bodies and increasingly stringent discharge limits have fostered interest in quantifying opportunities for P recovery and reuse. To date, geospatial estimates of P recovery potential in the United States (US) have used human and livestock population data, which do not capture the engineering constraints of P removal from centralized water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) and corn ethanol biorefineries where P is concentrated in coproduct animal feeds. Here, renewable P (rP) estimates from plant-wide process models were used to create a geospatial inventory of recovery potential for centralized WRRFs and biorefineries, revealing that individual corn ethanol biorefineries can generate on average 3 orders of magnitude more rP than WRRFs per site, and all corn ethanol biorefineries can generate nearly double the total rP of WRRFs across the US. Read More

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An Evaluation of the Genera Longicollum and Paralongicollum (Pomphorhynchidae: Acanthocephala) in Australia.

Lesley R Smales

Acta Parasitol 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Parasitology Section, South Australian Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, SA, 5000, Australia.

Purpose: To confirm the identity of Longicollum edmondsi Golvan, 1969, Pomphorhynchidae Yamaguti, 1939, from Australia.

Methods: All the relevant specimens registered in Australian museums were examined. Those held as permanent slide preparations were examined directly and those stored in 70% ethanol were examined as temporary wet mounts, after clearing in lactophenol, using an Olympus BH-2 microscope with differential interference optics. Read More

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Fermentation process optimization, chemical analysis, and storage stability evaluation of a probiotic barley malt kvass.

Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling District, Xianyang, 712100, Shaanxi, China.

Kvass is a popular low-alcohol beverage produced by the natural fermentation of dark rye bread or malt with complex microbial flora. However, few pieces of research focus on the microflora of traditional bread kvass, and the industrial kvass based on malt concentrate has some disadvantages, including the lack of viable probiotics and containing multiple artificial additives. Therefore, in the present study, based on the different homemade traditional bread kvass, the predominant species including Lacticaseibacillus paracasei, Acetobacter pasteurianus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were screened and identified. Read More

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Transcriptome and metabolome profiling in different stages of infestation of Eucalyptus urophylla clones by Ralstonia solanacearum.

Mol Genet Genomics 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Silviculture, Protection and Utilization, No. 233, Guangshan First Road, Guangzhou, 510520, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

Eucalyptus urophylla is an economically important tree species that widely planted in tropical and sub-tropical areas around the world, which suffers significant losses due to Ralstonia solanacearum. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of pathogen-response of Eucalyptus. We collected the vascular tissues of a E. Read More

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High throughput chirped pulse Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy of ethanol and water clusters.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125, USA.

Here we discuss the design and performance of a novel high-throughput instrument for Chirped Pulse Fourier-transform Microwave (CP-FTMW) spectroscopy, and demonstrate its efficacy through the identification of the lowest energy conformers of the ethanol trimer and mixed water : ethanol trimers. Rotational constants for these trimers were calculated from observed lines in the spectra from 10 to 14 GHz, and compared to the results of anharmonic computations. As predicted, all trimers share a cyclic donor-acceptor hydrogen bonding structure, with the ethanol monomer favoring the gauche conformation in the lowest energy structures. Read More

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Structural differences in adolescent brains can predict alcohol misuse.

Elife 2022 May 26;11. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Alcohol misuse during adolescence (AAM) has been associated with disruptive development of adolescent brains. In this longitudinal machine learning (ML) study, we could predict AAM significantly from brain structure (T1-weighted imaging and DTI) with accuracies of 73 - 78% in the IMAGEN dataset (n ~1182). Our results not only show that structural differences in brain can predict AAM, but also suggests that such differences might precede AAM behavior in the data. Read More

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Facial imaging to screen for foetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD): A scoping review.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Craniofacial Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Western Cape, Robert Sobukwe Drive, Bellville, Cape Town.

Background: Facial imaging tools have rapidly advanced in recent years and show potential to be used for Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) screening and diagnosis. This scoping review aimed to determine the current state of evidence regarding facial imaging being used as a screening tool for FASD at a community level.

Methods: This scoping review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines and is registered with the Open Science Framework (OSF) (osf. Read More

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Predictors of abstinence, no heavy drinking days, and a 2-level reduction in World Health Organization drinking levels during treatment for alcohol use disorder in the COMBINE Study.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale Medical School, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Background: Data from trials of medications for alcohol use disorder (AUD) can be used to identify predictors of drinking outcomes regardless of treatment, which can help to inform the design of future trials with heterogeneous participants. Here, we identified predictors of abstinence, no heavy drinking days, and a 2-level reduction in World Health Organization (WHO) drinking levels during treatment for AUD in the COMBINE Study.

Methods: We utilized data from the COMBINE Study, a randomized placebo-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of naltrexone and acamprosate, both alone and in combination, for AUD (n=1168). Read More

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Governing ultra-processed food and alcohol industries: the presence and role of non-government organisations in Australia.

Aust N Z J Public Health 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

NCD Alliance, London, United Kingdom.

Objective: The roles of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in regulating harmful commodity industries (HCIs) are understudied. The aim of this paper is to identify the NGOs and the roles that they play in the governance of the ultra-processed food and alcohol industries in Australia.

Methods: We undertook an exploratory descriptive analysis of NGOs identified from an online search based on the typology we developed of type, issue area and governance function. Read More

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Drink and drug driving education in the Northern Territory: a qualitative study illustrating issues of access and inequity.

Aust N Z J Public Health 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, Northern Territory.

Objective: In the Northern Territory, people who commit drink driving offences are required to undertake an approved course or treatment to be eligible for a driver's licence, however, course uptake is low. We investigated barriers to program uptake.

Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 24 program attendees, course providers and government stakeholders. Read More

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Five glycosylated phenolic derivatives from the bark of Thunb. and their anti-inflammatory activities.

Nat Prod Res 2022 May 26:1-8. Epub 2022 May 26.

State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Five new glycosylated phenolic derivatives, rotundosides A-E (-), and three known glycosides (-) were isolated from the 95% alcohol extract of the bark of . Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison with the literature data. All new compounds possessed a [5--()-caffeoyl]--D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)--D-glucopyranosyl group. Read More

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Social Reactions to Substance-Involved Sexual Assault Disclosure: Does Recipient Matter?

J Interpers Violence 2022 May 26:8862605221090626. Epub 2022 May 26.

Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network, Washington, DC, USA.

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Pi-induced in-situ Aggregation of Sevelamer Nanoparticles for Vascular Embolization.

Nanotechnology 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Nanchang University, Xuefu Avenue NO.999,Honggutan Zone, Nanchang, 330031, CHINA.

Decades have witnessed rapid progress of polymeric materials for vascular embolic or chemoembolic applications. Commercially available polymeric embolics range from gelatin foam to synthetic polymers such as poly(vinyl alcohol). Current systems under investigation include tunable, bioresorbable microspheres composed of chitosan or poly(ethylene glycol) derivatives, in situ gelling liquid embolics with improved safety profiles, and radiopaque embolics that are trackable in vivo. Read More

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Gambling in Ireland: profile of treatment episodes from a national treatment reporting system.

Ir J Psychol Med 2022 May 26:1-8. Epub 2022 May 26.

Health Research Board, Dublin, Ireland.

Objectives: Globally, problem gambling prevalence is estimated at between 0.1% and 5.8%. Read More

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[Preparation and chromatographic performance of cardanol-bonded silica stationary phase].

Se Pu 2022 Jun;40(6):547-555

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University for Nationalities, Guangxi Key Laboratory of Chemistry and Engineering of Forest Products, Key Laboratory of Chemistry and Engineering of Forest Products of State Ethnic Affairs Commission, Guangxi Collaborative Innovation Center for Chemistry and Engineering of Forest Products, Nanning 530006, China.

As green, less toxic, widely available, and site-rich functional ligands, natural products are widely used for the development of chromatographic stationary phases. In this work, a novel stationary phase, cardanol-bonded on silica (CBS) was prepared using -glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (KH-560) as the coupling reagent and cardanol as the functional ligand. The synthesized stationary phase was characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectra (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), elemental analysis (EA), and N adsorption-desorption analysis. Read More

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An addictive disorders severity model: a chained mediation analysis using structural equation modeling.

J Addict Dis 2022 May 26:1-12. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Human Sciences, LUMSA University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Background: The clinical relevance of the degree of severity in addiction disorders supports the need to investigate the variables underlying this aspect of the phenomenon.

Objective: This study aimed to explore the relationships between factors that may influence the severity of addiction disorder, with a particular focus on temperamental disinhibition, emotion dysregulation, interpersonal vulnerability, and their interactions.

Methods: A clinical sample of 502 (77% males and 22% females) was involved. Read More

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Screening and management of tobacco, alcohol, and unhealthy drug use in Saudi Arabia: uptake and practices from primary care physicians' perspective.

Nouf A AlShamlan

Fam Pract 2022 May 25. Epub 2022 May 25.

Department of Family and Community Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Screening and management of tobacco, alcohol, and unhealthy drug use by primary care physicians are crucial because a minority of individuals seek medical advice. However, data regarding this practice are limited. The study objective was to assess the screening practices of primary care physicians in Saudi Arabia for tobacco, alcohol, and unhealthy drug use, barriers to screening, and management of such cases. Read More

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Long-term mortality of tuberculosis survivors in Korea: a population-based longitudinal study.

Clin Infect Dis 2022 May 25. Epub 2022 May 25.

Division of Pulmonary Medicine and Allergy, Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang Medical Center, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: When assessing long-term tuberculosis (TB) mortality, few studies addressed the impact of behavior habits and socioeconomic status. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate long-term TB mortality and risk factors while accounting for potential confounders.

Methods: This cohort study included TB survivors (n = 82,098) aged≥20 years between 2010 and 2017, and 1:1 age- and sex-matched controls (n = 82,098). Read More

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