361,122 results match your criteria air

The protective effect of tight-fitting powered air-purifying respirators during chest compressions.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 Jun 7;49:172-177. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Emergency and Critical Care, Nagoya University Hospital, 65 Tsurumai, Showa, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8560, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Airborne personal protective equipment is required for healthcare workers when performing aerosol-generating procedures on patients with infectious diseases. Chest compressions, one of the main components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, require intense and dynamic movements of the upper body. We aimed to investigate the protective effect of tight-fitting powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) during chest compressions. Read More

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Variation in the content and fluorescent composition of dissolved organic matter in soil water during rainfall-induced wetting and extract of dried soil.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 9;791:148296. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, PR China. Electronic address:

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is present in all soils, providing a readily available carbon source for microorganisms, which influences microbially mediated biogeochemical processes. Rainfall-induced wetting can alter the content and composition of soil DOM. However, conventional methods commonly used to extract DOM from soils involve air- or oven-drying followed by extraction with water, and the results vary considerably in terms of indexes used. Read More

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Waterborne electrospinning of fluorine-free stretchable nanofiber membranes with waterproof and breathable capabilities for protective textiles.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 May 30;602:105-114. Epub 2021 May 30.

Innovation Center for Textile Science and Technology, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, China. Electronic address:

Hypothesis: Smart membranes with robust liquid water resistance and water vapor transmission capabilities have attracted growing attentions in personal protective equipment and environmental protection. However, current fluorine-free waterproof and breathable nanofibrous membranes are usually prepared through toxic solvent-based electrospinning, which raises great concerns about their environmental impacts.

Experiments: We develop environmentally friendly fluorine-free polyurethane nanofibrous membranes with robust waterproof and breathable performances via waterborne electrospinning without post-coating treatment. Read More

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Biodegradable plastics in the air and soil environment: Low degradation rate and high microplastics formation.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 5;418:126329. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Minhang District, Shanghai 200241, China. Electronic address:

In recent years, the promotion and use of biodegradable plastics (BPs) are growing into a general trend. Here the degradation performance of different types of BPs was investigated in the natural environment. Their degradation levels followed the order of pure BPs> BP blends> claimed "BP"≈ non-biodegradable plastic after 6-month incubation. Read More

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Fabrication of a gradient hydrophobic surface with parallel ridges on pyrolytic carbon for artificial heart valves.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Jun 2;205:111894. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Nanobiomaterials, Institute of Advanced Materials, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang 330013, China; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China. Electronic address:

Effective surface modification to endow pyrolytic carbon (PYC) with long-term anti-thrombotic performance is highly demanded. In this work, a gradient hydrophobic surface on PYC was prepared by creating parallel ridges via the combination of laser etching technology and surface fluorosilanization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation confirms that the gradient hydrophobic surface is composed of a bare PYC region and four regions of parallel ridges with varying distances. Read More

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In vitro generation of oxidized standards for lipidomics. Application to major membrane lipid components.

J Chromatogr A 2021 May 19;1651:462254. Epub 2021 May 19.

Centre for Metabolomics and Bioanalysis (CEMBIO), Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad San Pablo-CEU, CEU Universities, Urbanización Montepríncipe, 28660 Boadilla del Monte, Madrid. Spain. Electronic address:

Membrane lipids (sphingolipids, glycerophospholipids, cardiolipins, and cholesteryl esters) are critical in cellular functions. Alterations in the levels of oxidized counterparts of some of these lipids have been linked to the onset and development of many pathologies. Unfortunately, the scarce commercial availability of chemically defined oxidized lipids is a limitation for accurate quantitative analysis, characterization of oxidized composition, or testing their biological effects in lipidomic studies. Read More

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Long-tevrm outcomes of the MICOF keratoprosthesis surgery.

Ocul Surf 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Ophthalmology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Fuxing Road 28, Beijing, 100853, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To evaluate long-term anatomical and functional outcomes of the MICOF keratoprosthesis to treat end-stage corneal blindness.

Design: Re trospective review of consecutive clinical case series.

Participants: Between October 2000 and October 2015, at the Department of Ophthalmology of Chinese PLA General Hospital (PLAGH), a total of 132 eyes of 131 patients had undergone a MICOF keratoprosthesis implantation. Read More

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Indoor solid fuel use for heating and cooking with blood pressure and hypertension: A cross-sectional study among middle-aged and older adults in China.

Indoor Air 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the impact of solid fuel use for heating and cooking on blood pressure (BP) and hypertension, using data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). The primary fuels used for indoor heating and cooking were collected by questionnaires, respectively. Hypertension was defined based on self-report of physician's diagnosis, and/or measured BP, and/or anti-hypertensive medication use. Read More

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Modeling the viral load dependence of residence times of virus-laden droplets from COVID-19-infected subjects in indoor environments.

Indoor Air 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, India.

In the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic situation, exposure assessment and control strategies for aerosol transmission path are feebly understood. A recent study pointed out that Poissonian fluctuations in viral loading of airborne droplets significantly modifies the size spectrum of the virus-laden droplets (termed as "virusol") (Anand and Mayya, 2020). Herein we develop the theory of residence time of the virusols, as contrasted with complete droplet system in indoor air using a comprehensive "Falling-to-Mixing-Plate-out" model that considers all the important processes namely, indoor dispersion of the emitted puff, droplet evaporation, gravitational settling, and plate out mechanisms at indoor surfaces. Read More

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Why trees grow at night.

New Phytol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, 8903, Birmensdorf, Switzerland.

The timing of diel stem growth of mature forest trees is still largely unknown, as empirical data with high temporal resolution have not been available so far. Consequently, the effects of day-night conditions on tree growth remained uncertain. Here we present the first comprehensive field study of hourly-resolved radial stem growth of seven temperate tree species, based on 57 million underlying data points over a period of up to 8 years. Read More

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Intrinsically Disordered Osteopontin Fragment Orders During Interfacial Calcium Oxalate Mineralization.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research: Max-Planck-Institut fur Polymerforschung, molecular spectroscopy, GERMANY.

Calcium oxalate (CaC 2 O 4 ) is the major component of kidney stone, a prevalent chronic human disease worldwide. The acidic osteopontin (OPN) protein in human urine can effectively inhibit the growth of CaC 2 O 4 crystals, thereby acting as a potent stone preventer. Previous studies in bulk solution all attest to the importance of binding and recognition of OPN at the CaC 2 O 4 mineral surface, yet molecular level insights into the active interface during CaC 2 O 4 mineralization are still lacking. Read More

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Pilot-scale microaerobic hydrolysis-acidification and anoxic-oxic processes for the treatment of petrochemical wastewater.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing, 102616, People's Republic of China.

Microaerobic hydrolysis and acidification (MHA), as a promising pre-treatment method of industrial wastewater, is drawing increasing attention to enhance the hydrolysis-acidification rate and inhibit the production of toxic gas HS. In the present work, a pilot-scale MHA reactor coupled with anoxic-oxic (A/O) processes for treating the petrochemical wastewater was established and the mechanism and application of the MHA reaction were explored. The results showed that the ratio of VFA/COD was increased by 43-90% and low effluent S concentration (less than 0. Read More

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Beef cattle feedlot surface water containing multi-class agrochemicals elicits physiological and behavioral responses among Daphnia pulex.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Jun 12;193(7):414. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, 79416, USA.

Despite increasing public concern about air and water pollution risks posed by concentrated animal feeding operation areas (CAFOs), there is little information about bioavailability and ecosystem impacts of agrochemicals used to increase productivity. In this study, we investigated the toxicity of wastewaters originating from beef cattle feeding operation on Daphnia pulex. Specifically, we assessed lethal and chronic sublethal exposure effects using various endpoints including survival, oxygen consumption, morphology, reproduction, and swimming behavior. Read More

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Outwelling of total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon from the Hooghly River to the adjacent coastal Bay of Bengal.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Jun 12;193(7):415. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

School of Marine Science, University of Maine, Orono, ME, USA.

The seasonal variability of the lateral flux of total alkalinity (TAlk) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of the tropical Hooghly estuary is analyzed in this work. In situ observations of water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, TAlk, and pH were measured in four different stations of the Hooghly estuary. It was measured once every month during 2015-2016, and subsequently, DIC was estimated. Read More

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Ultrasound contrast agents: microbubbles made simple for the pediatric radiologist.

Pediatr Radiol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 3401 Civic Center Blvd, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

The ability to provide prompt, real-time, easily accessible and radiation-free diagnostic assessments makes ultrasound (US) one of the most versatile imaging modalities. The introduction and development of stable microbubble-based ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) in the early 1990s improved visualization of complex vascular structures, overcoming some of the limitations of B-mode and Doppler imaging. UCAs have been used extensively in the adult population to visualize vasculature and to evaluate perfusion and blood flow dynamics in organs and lesions. Read More

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The SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine breakthrough infection phenotype includes significant symptoms, live virus shedding, and viral genetic diversity.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Department of Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Little is known about SARS-CoV-2 'vaccine-breakthrough' infections (VBI). Here we characterize 24 VBI in predominantly young healthy persons. While none required hospitalization, a proportion endorsed severe symptoms and shed live virus as high as 4. Read More

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Association of Sickle Cell Trait on Career and Operational Outcomes in the United States Air Force.

Mil Med 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA.

Introduction: Sickle cell trait (SCT) is a heterozygotic state defined by having one normal hemoglobin gene and one sickle hemoglobin gene. Individuals with SCT are at increased risk for negative health outcomes during intense physical exertion, especially in hot climates and high-elevation locations, or when dehydrated. The U. Read More

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Mechanistic Computational Model for Extrapolating In vitro Thyroid Peroxidase (TPO) Inhibition Data to Predict Serum Thyroid Hormone Levels in Rats.

Toxicol Sci 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Center for Computational Toxicology and Exposure, Research Triangle Park, NC.

High throughput (HTP) in vitro assays are developed to screen chemicals for their potential to inhibit thyroid hormones (THs) synthesis. Some of these experiments, such as the thyroid peroxidase (TPO) inhibition assay, are based on thyroid microsomal extracts. However, the regulation of thyroid disruption chemicals (TDCs) is based on THs in vivo serum levels. Read More

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Species-Specific Urothelial Toxicity with an anti-HIV Non-Catalytic Site Integrase Inhibitor (NCINI) is Related to Unusual pH-Dependent Physicochemical Changes.

Toxicol Sci 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Nonclinical Safety & Pathobiology, Gilead Sciences, Inc, Foster City, USA.

GS-9695 and GS-9822 are next generation Non-Catalytic Site Integrase Inhibitors (NCINIs) with significantly improved potency against HIV compared with previous drugs such as BI-224436. Development stopped due to vacuolation of the bladder urothelium seen in cynomolgus monkey but not in rat; this lesion was absent in equivalent preclinical studies with BI-224436 (tested in dog and rat). Lesions were unlikely to be attributable to target since NCINIs specifically target viral integrase protein and no mammalian homologue is known. Read More

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On the phenology of protists: Recurrent patterns reveal seasonal variation of protistan (Rhizaria: Cercozoa, Endomyxa) communities in tree canopies.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

University of Cologne, Institute of Zoology, Terrestrial Ecology, Cologne Germany.

Tree canopies are colonized by billions of highly specialized microorganisms that are well adapted to the highly variable microclimatic conditions, caused by diurnal fluctuations and seasonal changes. In this study we investigated seasonality patterns of protists in the tree canopies of a temperate floodplain forest via high-throughput sequencing with group-specific primers for the phyla Cercozoa and Endomyxa. We observed consistent seasonality, and identified divergent spring and autumn taxa. Read More

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Olfactory epithelium and ontogeny of the nasal chambers in the bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus).

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, Ohio, USA.

In a species of baleen whale, we identify olfactory epithelium that suggests a functional sense of smell and document the ontogeny of the surrounding olfactory anatomy. Whales must surface to breathe, thereby providing an opportunity to detect airborne odorants. Although many toothed whales (odontocetes) lack olfactory anatomy, baleen whales (mysticetes) have retained theirs. Read More

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Ecological factors and post-transplant outcomes: Causation or correlation?

Am J Transplant 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Division of Surgery, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Social determinants of health (SDOH), defined by the World Health Organization as "the conditions in which people are born, work, live, and age, and the wider set of forces and systems shaping the conditions of daily life", are widely acknowledged to contribute to variation in health outcomes. The Healthy People 2030 framework identifies an individual's neighborhood as one of the five key areas of SDOH. The neighborhoods where people live can influence health outcomes through a variety of pathways, including access to transportation, availability of healthy foods and physical activity spaces, rates of crime and violence, and prevalence of poor air and water quality. Read More

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Perceptions and Concerns Regarding COVID-19 Vaccination in a Military Base Population.

Mil Med 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

88th Medical Operations Squadron, Wright-Patterson Medical Center, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433, USA.

Introduction: Safe and effective vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus 2 are essential tools in the fight against the coronavirus disease 2019  (COVID-19) pandemic. However, hesitancy to vaccination is a major barrier to achieving herd immunity, particularly among a population working on a military base. To better understand the perceptions and concerns of these individuals, a voluntary survey was conducted. Read More

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Mandatory HPV Vaccination; Opportunity to Save Lives, Improve Readiness and Cut Costs.

Mil Med 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Brooke Army Medical Center, Joint Base San Antonio, TX 78234, USA.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the U.S. military and accounts for more healthcare visits than the next two most common STIs combined. Read More

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Assessment of Dermal and Inhalation Exposure to Permethrin During Field Treatment of Military Uniforms.

Mil Med 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics Department, USUHS Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA.

Introduction: Permethrin is a common pesticide spray-applied to civilian clothing and military uniforms for protection against biting arthropods in an effort to reduce risks to arthropod-borne diseases. During mass clothing spray events, exposure is possible through the dermal, inhalation, and ingestion routes. The potentially exposed population during a spray event includes the pesticide applicator(s) and working party (personnel who handle clothing/uniforms by positioning on the ground, flipping, and removing after spraying is complete). Read More

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Long-term effect of apomorphine infusion in advanced Parkinson's disease: a real-life study.

NPJ Parkinsons Dis 2021 Jun 11;7(1):50. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Neurology Department, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, AP-HP, Paris, France.

Long-term effects of continuous subcutaneous apomorphine infusion (CSAI) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and predictors of CSAI discontinuation are poorly known. Data from consecutive advanced Parkinson's disease patients treated in routine care were retrospectively collected over 24 months after CSAI initiation, with a focus on the 39-item Parkinson's disease questionnaire (PDQ-39). We determined predictors of CSAI discontinuation and HRQoL improvement using multiple regression analysis. Read More

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Performance of a Novel Temporary Arterial Shunt in a Military-Relevant Controlled Hemorrhage Swine Model.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

San Antonio Uniformed Services Health Education Consortium, JBSA Ft. Sam Houston, TX Brooke Army Medical Center, JBSA Ft. Sam Houston, TX Office of the Chief Scientist, Wilford Hall Ambulatory Surgical Center, JBSA Lackland, TX Uniformed Services University.

Background: In military trauma, temporary vascular shunts (TVSs) restore arterial continuity until delayed vascular reconstruction, often for a period of hours. A novel US Air Force-developed trauma specific vascular injury shunt (TS-VIS) incorporates an accessible sideport for intervention or monitoring which may improve patency under adverse hemodynamic conditions. Our objective was to evaluate TS-VIS patency in the setting of volume-limited resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock. Read More

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Effect of meteorological factors and air pollutants on fractures: a nationwide population-based ecological study.

BMJ Open 2021 Jun 11;11(6):e047000. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Artificial Intelligence and Big-Data Convergence Center, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon, South Korea

Objective: To determine the association of meteorological factors and air pollutants (MFAPs) with fracture and to estimate the effect size/time lag.

Design: This is a nationwide population-based ecological study from 2008 to 2017.

Setting: Eight large metropolitan areas in Korea. Read More

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Preterm birth and PM in Puerto Rico: evidence from the PROTECT birth cohort.

Environ Health 2021 Jun 11;20(1):69. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tufts University, Anderson Hall, 200 College Avenue, Medford, MA, 02155, USA.

Background: Preterm birth (PTB, birth before 37 weeks of gestation) has been associated with adverse health outcomes across the lifespan. Evidence on the association between PTB and prenatal exposure to air pollutants is inconsistent, and is especially lacking for ethnic/racial minority populations.

Methods: We obtained data on maternal characteristics and behaviors and PTB and other birth outcomes for women participating in the Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination Threats (PROTECT) cohort, who lived in municipalities located along the North Coast of Puerto Rico. Read More

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