189,304 results match your criteria aid


Differentiation of Brain Tumor Microvasculature From Normal Vessels Using Optical Coherence Angiography.

Lasers Surg Med 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas Austin, Austin, Texas, 78712, USA.

Background And Objectives: Despite rapid advances and discoveries in medical imaging, monitoring therapeutic efficacy for malignant gliomas and monitoring tumor vasculature remains problematic. The purpose of this study is to utilize optical coherence angiography for vasculature characterization inside and surrounding brain tumors in a murine xenograft brain tumor model. Features included in our analysis include fractional blood volume, vessel tortuosity, diameter, orientation, and directionality. Read More

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An improved ultrasonic coda wave method for concrete behavior monitoring under various loading conditions.

Ultrasonics 2021 Jun 8;116:106498. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

College of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410114, China.

Monitoring of concrete behavior is an important task to evaluate the safety of concrete structures. This paper proposes a new stretching factor accumulation method based on the stepwise coda wave interference (CWI) to accurately calculate the relative velocity change Δv/v. The Δv/v and residual decorrelation coefficient K are used to study the concrete behavior in step loading experiment and short-time fixed loading experiment. Read More

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Healthcare professional's choice for surgical management of stress urinary incontinence in a U.K. tertiary hospital.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 May 24;263:7-14. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Urogynaecology, King's College Hospital, London, UK.

Objective: In July 2018, NHS England, introduced a pause on vaginal mesh, including the mid-urethral sling (MUS) for treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). NICE guidelines recommend MUS as one of the surgical options for SUI. The aim of our study was to investigate healthcare professionals choices for surgical treatment of SUI, if conservative measures failed. Read More

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Human oral mucosa cell atlas reveals a stromal-neutrophil axis regulating tissue immunity.

Cell 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Oral Immunity and Inflammation Section, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:

The oral mucosa remains an understudied barrier tissue. This is a site of rich exposure to antigens and commensals, and a tissue susceptible to one of the most prevalent human inflammatory diseases, periodontitis. To aid in understanding tissue-specific pathophysiology, we compile a single-cell transcriptome atlas of human oral mucosa in healthy individuals and patients with periodontitis. Read More

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Multi-cohort profiling reveals elevated CSF levels of brain-enriched proteins in Alzheimer's disease.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Division of Affinity Proteomics, Department of Protein Science, SciLifeLab, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.

Objective: Decreased amyloid beta (Aβ) 42 together with increased tau and phospho-tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is indicative of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the molecular pathophysiology underlying the slowly progressive cognitive decline observed in AD is not fully understood and it is not known what other CSF biomarkers may be altered in early disease stages.

Methods: We utilized an antibody-based suspension bead array to analyze levels of 216 proteins in CSF from AD patients, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and controls from two independent cohorts collected within the AETIONOMY consortium. Read More

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Positioning the National Health Insurance for financial sustainability and Universal Health Coverage in Ghana: A qualitative study among key stakeholders.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(6):e0253109. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Health Policy Planning and Management, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra.

Introduction: The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) was introduced in 2003 to reduce "out-of-pocket" payments for health care in Ghana. Over a decade of its implementation, issues about the financial sustainability of this pro-poor policy remains a crippling fact despite its critical role to go towards Universal Health Coverage. We therefore conducted this study to elicit stakeholders' views on ways to improve the financial sustainability of the operations of NHIS. Read More

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Does Shared Decision-Making for Prostate Cancer Screening Among African American Men Happen? It Depends on Who You Ask.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Biobehavioral Nursing and Health Informatics, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street, WA, 98195, Seattle, USA.

Background: Shared decision-making (SDM) is recommended for prostate cancer screening, but little is known about how this process is perceived by patients and providers. SDM is especially important for African American men, who are at high risk for the disease.

Objective: To evaluate agreement in SDM ratings among patients, providers, and objective observers. Read More

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Optimizing Order of Administration for Concussion Baseline Assessment Among NCAA Student-Athletes and Military Cadets.

Sports Med 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

UGA Concussion Research Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, University of Georgia, Ramsey Student Center, 330 River Rd., Athens, GA, 30606, USA.

Background: Concussion pre-injury (i.e., baseline) assessments serve as a benchmark comparison point in the event an individual sustains a concussion and allows clinicians to compare to post-injury measures. Read More

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Elucidation of brefeldin A-induced ER and Golgi stress responses in Neuro2a cells.

Mol Cell Biochem 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

United Graduate School of Drug Discovery and Medical Information Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu, 501-1193, Japan.

Brefeldin A (BFA) disrupts the structure of the Golgi apparatus to trigger ER stress signaling pathways. On the other hand, treatment with BFA induces the activation of CREB3, the protein structure of which is similar to that of ATF6. In this study, we established Neuro2a cells in which three different transcription factors, namely, ATF4, ATF3 and CREB3, were deficient using the CRISPR/Cas9 approach, and we investigated the BFA-induced ER and Golgi stress response in these cells. Read More

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Clinical triage of patients on kidney replacement therapy presenting with COVID-19: an ERACODA registry analysis.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Rationale & Objective: Patients on kidney replacement therapy (KRT) are at a very high risk of COVID-19. Triage pathway for KRT patients presenting with varying severity of COVID-19 illness remains ill-defined. We studied clinical characteristics of patients at initial and subsequent hospital presentations and its impact on patient outcomes. Read More

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Comparison of Joint and Landmark Modeling for Predicting Cancer Progression in Men With Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: A Secondary Post Hoc Analysis of the PREVAIL Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Jun 1;4(6):e2112426. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Importance: Dynamic prediction models may help predict radiographic disease progression in advanced prostate cancer.

Objective: To assess whether dynamic prediction models aid prognosis of radiographic progression risk, using ongoing longitudinal prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assessments.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This prognostic study used data from the PREVAIL study to compare dynamic models for predicting disease progression. Read More

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Cancer Incidence Rate Variations among the Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese in Massachusetts, 2011-2015.

J Registry Manag 2020 ;47(3):118-121

Objectives: To examine cancer incidence among the 3 Asian, non-Hispanic ethnicities with the highest frequency of cases (South Asian, Chinese, and Vietnamese).

Methods: Age-adjusted incidence rates for all invasive cancers were calculated for South Asian (Indian, Pakistani), Chinese, and Vietnamese cancer cases reported to the Massachusetts Cancer Registry (MCR). Additionally, rates were calculated for the most frequent cancers among non-Hispanic Asians (prostate, colorectal, female breast, female thyroid, lung, and male liver). Read More

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Does a combination treatment of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and occupational therapy improve upper limb muscle paralysis equally in patients with chronic stroke caused by cerebral hemorrhage and infarction?: A retrospective cohort study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(24):e26339

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo.

Abstract: The clinical presentation of stroke is usually more severe in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) than in those with cerebral infarction (CI); recovery of stroke-related muscle paralysis is influenced and limited by the type of stroke. To date, many patients have been treated by neurorehabilitation; however, the changes in the recovery of motor paralysis depending on the type of stroke, ICH or CI, have not been established. This study aimed to determine this difference in improvement of upper extremity paralysis using 2-week in-hospital NovEl intervention Using Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with Occupational therapy (NEURO). Read More

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Increasing Opportunities for Trainees to Engage in Global Health Radiology: Radiology In Training.

Radiology 2021 Jun 15:210371. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

From the Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, the Johns Hopkins Hospital, 1800 Orleans St, Baltimore, MD 21287 (R.W.E.); and RAD-AID International, Chevy Chase, Md (R.W.E., A.M.L., D.J.M.).

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Peracetic Acid-Ruthenium(III) Oxidation Process for the Degradation of Micropollutants in Water.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Program for the Environment and Sustainability, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Texas A&M University, 212 Adriance Lab Road, College Station, Texas 77844, United States.

This paper presents an advanced oxidation process (AOP) of peracetic acid (PAA) and ruthenium(III) (Ru(III)) to oxidize micropollutants in water. Studies of PAA-Ru(III) oxidation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX), a sulfonamide antibiotic, in 0.5-20. Read More

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Studying human nociceptors: from fundamentals to clinic.

Brain 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK.

Chronic pain affects one in five of the general population and is the third most important cause of disability-adjusted life-years globally. Unfortunately, treatment remains inadequate due to poor efficacy and tolerability. There has been a failure in translating promising preclinical drug targets into clinic use. Read More

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Association Between Problem Gambling and Functional Disability: A Nationally Representative Study Conducted in the United Kingdom.

J Addict Med 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Research and Development Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, Dr. Antoni Pujadas, 42, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona 08830, Spain (LJ, AK, JMH); Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Madrid, Spain (LJ); Faculty of Medicine, University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Montigny-le-Bretonneux 78180, France (LJ); Vision and Eye Research Institute, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health, Education, Medicine and Social Care, Anglia Ruskin University-Cambridge Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom (GFL-S, SP); University of Southern California, Suzanne Dworak Peck School of Social Work, 1149 South Hill Street Suite 1422, Los Angeles, CA, 90015 (HO); Philipps University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany (KK); ICREA, Pg. Lluis Companys 23, Barcelona, Spain (AK); Department of Pediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea (JIS); The Cambridge Centre for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, United Kingdom (LS).

Objectives: Problem gambling is associated with multiple detrimental health outcomes. However, to date, no study has investigated the association between problem gambling and functional disability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between problem gambling and functional disability in a UK nationally representative sample. Read More

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Participant Experiences of a Quit Smoking Attempt Through Either Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) Methods or the Use of an E-cigarette.

J Addict Med 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Academy for Sport and Physical Activity, Health and Wellbeing Department, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK (GJ), Lifestyle Exercise and Nutrition Improvement (LENI) Research Group, Department of Nursing and Midwifery, College of Health, Wellbeing and Life Sciences, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK (GJ, EM, MK), Addictions, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK and SPECTRUM Research Consortium, UK (LSB).

Objectives: There is a lack of evidence exploring experiences of using e-cigarettes for smoking cessation. The study's main aim was to explore participant experiences of e-cigarettes compared to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) delivered through stop smoking services.

Methods: Semi-structured, face-to-face, and telephone interviews at 3-month post-quit follow-up in a randomized controlled trial comparing nicotine-containing e-cigarettes, nicotine-free e-cigarettes, and NRT for smoking cessation. Read More

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Objective Comparison of FDA-Approved Breast Implant Products in the USA: 5-Year Update.

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Background: There are currently four companies offering FDA-approved breast implants: Allergan, Sientra, Mentor, and Ideal Implant. In 2015, our paper "Objective Comparison of Commercially Available Breast Implant Devices" sought to provide a unique conceptual framework to better understand the similarities and differences between FDA-approved breast implant products and tissue expanders. This paper uses the same variables, such as fill material, shape, relative dimensions, and surface coating, to aid understanding of both the surgical trainee and the operating surgeon of what devices each company offers, with a focus on how the market has evolved over the ensuing 5 years. Read More

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Emerging Technologies in Spinal Surgery: Ultra-Low Radiation Imaging Platforms.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2021 Jun;21(Supplement_1):S39-S45

Department of Neurosurgery, Barrow Neurological Institute, St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, Arizona, USA.

Background: Spine surgery has seen tremendous growth in the past 2 decades. A variety of safety, practical, and market-driven needs have spurred the development of new imaging technologies as necessary tools for modern-day spine surgery. Although current imaging techniques have proven satisfactory for operative needs, it is well-known that these techniques have negative consequences for operators and patients in terms of radiation risk. Read More

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Plasma Proteomics of COVID-19 Associated Cardiovascular Complications: Implications for Pathophysiology and Therapeutics.

Res Sq 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Cardiovascular complications are common in COVID-19 and strongly associated with disease severity and mortality. However, the mechanisms driving cardiac injury and failure in COVID-19 are largely unknown. We performed plasma proteomics on 80 COVID-19 patients and controls, grouped according to disease severity and cardiac involvement. Read More

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PI3K inhibitors are finally coming of age.

Nat Rev Drug Discov 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Overactive phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) in cancer and immune dysregulation has spurred extensive efforts to develop therapeutic PI3K inhibitors. Although progress has been hampered by issues such as poor drug tolerance and drug resistance, several PI3K inhibitors have now received regulatory approval - the PI3Kα isoform-selective inhibitor alpelisib for the treatment of breast cancer and inhibitors mainly aimed at the leukocyte-enriched PI3Kδ in B cell malignancies. In addition to targeting cancer cell-intrinsic PI3K activity, emerging evidence highlights the potential of PI3K inhibitors in cancer immunotherapy. Read More

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Association between aphasia severity and brain network alterations after stroke assessed using the electroencephalographic phase synchrony index.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 14;11(1):12469. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Neurorehabilitation Research Institute, Morinomiya Hospital, Osaka, 536-0025, Japan.

Electroencephalographic synchrony can help assess brain network status; however, its usefulness has not yet been fully proven. We developed a clinically feasible method that combines the phase synchrony index (PSI) with resting-state 19-channel electroencephalography (EEG) to evaluate post-stroke motor impairment. In this study, we investigated whether our method could be applied to aphasia, a common post-stroke cognitive impairment. Read More

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Olive leaf extract prevents obesity, cognitive decline, and depression and improves exercise capacity in mice.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 14;11(1):12495. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Nutrition Act. Co. Ltd., Tokyo, 104-0061, Japan.

Obesity is a risk factor for development of metabolic diseases and cognitive decline; therefore, obesity prevention is of paramount importance. Neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction induced by oxidative stress is an important mechanism underlying cognitive decline. Olive leaf extract contains large amounts of oleanolic acid, a transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5) agonist, and oleuropein, an antioxidant. Read More

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Prognostic implications of troponin T variations in inherited cardiomyopathies using systems biology.

NPJ Genom Med 2021 Jun 14;6(1):47. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Cardiology department, Health In Code. As Xubias s/n, Edificio El Fortín, 15006, A Coruña, Spain.

The cardiac troponin T variations have often been used as an example of the application of clinical genotyping for prognostication and risk stratification measures for the management of patients with a family history of sudden cardiac death or familial cardiomyopathy. Given the disparity in patient outcomes and therapy options, we investigated the impact of variations on the intermolecular interactions across the thin filament complex as an example of an unbiased systems biology method to better define clinical prognosis to aid future management options. We present a novel unbiased dynamic model to define and analyse the functional, structural and physico-chemical consequences of genetic variations among the troponins. Read More

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Monoclonal B lymphocytosis in a kidney transplant recipient.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jun 14;14(6). Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Surgical, Medical, Dental and Morphological Sciences, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena, Emilia-Romagna, Italy.

Monoclonal B lymphocytosis (MBL) is a lymphoproliferative condition characterised by expansion of a B-cell clone in peripheral blood, with an often indolent clinical course. The presence of a B clonal population alone is several hundred times more common in the general population than chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and other non-Hodgkin's lymphoma subtypes, it usually does not represent a malignant condition and it requires follow-up only, without specific treatment. There are few studies describing MBL in solid organ transplant recipients, thus, the concern is raised when enrolling MBL affected subjects in waiting lists. Read More

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VidaTalk™ patient communication application "opened up" communication between nonvocal ICU patients and their family.

Intensive Crit Care Nurs 2021 Jun 12:103075. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

College of Nursing, The Ohio State University, Newton Hall #352, 1585 Neil Ave., Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: To explore family members' perceptions of an electronic communication application, VidaTalk™, their communication experience, and emotional reactions to communication with mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care units.

Research Methodology/design: Qualitative phase of a mixed-methods study nested within a randomised controlled trial. Family members in the intervention group received the VidaTalk™ app as a communication aid during their intensive care stay. Read More

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Can physical prehabilitation prevent complications after colorectal cancer surgery in frail older patients?

Eur J Surg Oncol 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Surgery, Reinier De Graaf Gasthuis, Reinier de Graafweg 5, 2625 AD, Delft, the Netherlands.

Introduction: Frail patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) are at increased risk of complications after surgery. Prehabilitation seems promising to improve this outcome and therefore we evaluated the effect of physical prehabilitation on postoperative complications in a retrospective cohort of frail CRC patients.

Methods: The study consisted of all consecutive non-metastatic CRC patients ≥70 years who had elective surgery from 2014 to 2019 in a teaching hospital in the Netherlands, where a physical prehabilitation program was implemented from 2014 on. Read More

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Deep ensemble multitask classification of emergency medical call incidents combining multimodal data improves emergency medical dispatch.

Artif Intell Med 2021 Jul 13;117:102088. Epub 2021 May 13.

Biomedical Data Science Laboratory (BDSLab), Instituto de Aplicaciones de las Tecnologías de la Información y de las Comunicaciones Avanzadas (ITACA), Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain.

The objective of this work was to develop a predictive model to aid non-clinical dispatchers to classify emergency medical call incidents by their life-threatening level (yes/no), admissible response delay (undelayable, minutes, hours, days) and emergency system jurisdiction (emergency system/primary care) in real time. We used a total of 1 244 624 independent incidents from the Valencian emergency medical dispatch service in Spain, compiled in retrospective from 2009 to 2012, including clinical features, demographics, circumstantial factors and free text dispatcher observations. Based on them, we designed and developed DeepEMC, a deep ensemble multitask model integrating four subnetworks: three specialized to context, clinical and text data, respectively, and another to ensemble the former. Read More

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Mental health impact of the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic on Spanish healthcare workers: A large cross-sectional survey.

Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment (Engl Ed) 2021 Apr-Jun;14(2):90-105

Center for Public Health Psychiatry, Universitair Psychiatrisch Centrum, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Introduction: Healthcare workers are vulnerable to adverse mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. We assessed prevalence of mental disorders and associated factors during the first wave of the pandemic among healthcare professionals in Spain.

Methods: All workers in 18 healthcare institutions (6 AACC) in Spain were invited to web-based surveys assessing individual characteristics, COVID-19 infection status and exposure, and mental health status (May 5 - September 7, 2020). Read More

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October 2020