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Anthelmintic resistance of Haemonchus contortus from sheep flocks in Brazil: concordance of in vivo and in vitro (RESISTA-Test©) methods.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2021 3;30(2):e025120. Epub 2021 May 3.

Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste - CPPSE, São Carlos, SP, Brasil.

This study evaluated the resistance status of Haemonchus contortus from sheep flocks in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, through comparison between the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) and the larval development test (LDT). For the FECRT, 35 sheep were selected in each of five flocks and divided into groups treated with: benzimidazole, levamisole, ivermectin, monepantel and control. Feces were collected for EPG and fecal cultures. Read More

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Galectin-9, a Player in Cytokine Release Syndrome and a Surrogate Diagnostic Biomarker in SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

mBio 2021 05 4;12(3). Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Dentistry, Division of Foundational Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection has enormously impacted our lives. Clinical evidence has implicated the emergence of cytokine release syndrome as the prominent cause of mortality in COVID-19 patients. In this study, we observed massive elevation of plasma Galectin-9 (Gal-9) in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy controls (HCs). Read More

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Pressure measurement characteristics of a micro-transducer and balloon catheters.

Physiol Rep 2021 Apr;9(8):e14831

Respiratory and Exercise Physiology Research Group, School of Health and Wellbeing, University of Southern Queensland, Ipswich, Australia.

Respiratory pressure responses to cervical magnetic stimulation are important measurements in monitoring the mechanical function of the respiratory muscles. Pressures can be measured using balloon catheters or a catheter containing integrated micro-transducers. However, no research has provided a comprehensive analysis of their pressure measurement characteristics. Read More

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Effect of virtual cement gap settings on the marginal fit of cemented resin-ceramic crowns on implant abutments.

J Prosthet Dent 2021 May;125(5):804.e1-804.e6

Lecturer, Department of Fixed Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, University of Tanta, Tanta, Egypt.

Statement Of Problem: Agreement on the perfect virtual cement space value for computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) implant-supported resin-ceramic crowns with the best marginal adaptation is lacking. The range of cement gap settings in some CAD design software programs is wide (0 to 200 μm), and manufacturer recommendations regarding the best cement gap setting for certain types of ceramics is not specific.

Purpose: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of virtual cement gap settings on the marginal fit of cemented resin-ceramic crowns on implant abutments. Read More

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An In-Vitro Assessment of Operator Accuracy and Inter-Operator Agreement in Recording Shade and Shade Characteristics.

Eur J Prosthodont Restor Dent 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL, United Kingdom.

Color assessment remains a challenging aspect of esthetic dentistry. This study aimed to evaluate inter-operator agreement and accuracy in assessing shade parameters and to investigate the effect of different clinical backgrounds of the operators under different lighting conditions. Three veneers with a single shade (VITA VM7, shade 2M2: VITA Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen) and different shade characteristics (lustre, translucency and opacity) were assessed by 24 operators with different backgrounds using natural and color-corrected light (Trueshade, Interempresas Media, S. Read More

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Rhamnolipids inhibit aflatoxins production in Aspergillus flavus by causing structural damages in the fungal hyphae and down-regulating the expression of their biosynthetic genes.

Int J Food Microbiol 2021 Apr 21;348:109207. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

CEB - Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal.

Aflatoxins are hepatotoxic and carcinogenic fungal secondary metabolites that usually contaminate crops and represent a serious health hazard for humans and animals worldwide. In this work, the effect of rhamnolipids (RLs) produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa #112 on the growth and aflatoxins production by Aspergillus flavus MUM 17.14 was studied in vitro. Read More

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The Effectiveness of Mouthwashes With Various Ingredients in Plaque Control: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Altern Ther Health Med 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Objective: Our study sought to present a solid comprehensive overview of the efficiency of active ingredients in mouthwash to control dental plaque.

Source: Cochrane Library, the Library of Medicine, (MEDLINE-PubMed), Web of Science database core collection, the database of the American Dental Association (ADA) Center for Evidence-based Dentistry and Scopus database were used for our review and meta-analysis.

Methodology: This was a systematic review that included papers with and without a meta-analysis on the efficacy of mouthwashes with various active ingredients in the control of dental plaque. Read More

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A systematic review and meta-analysis of spermatozoa cryopreservation, in vitro and in vivo fertility practices in water buffalo.

Vet Res Commun 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Animal Reproduction Laboratory, Animal Sciences Institute, National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad, 45500, Pakistan.

We explored different aspects of buffalo spermatozoa during cryopreservation. The meta-data comprised of 285 studies, published from January 2008 to March 2020. A free web tool CADIMA as well as PRISMA 2009 Flow Diagram were used for carrying out this study. Read More

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Different phenotypes and chondrogenic responses of human menstrual blood and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to activin A and TGF-β3.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 Apr 29;12(1):251. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Regenerative Medicine, State Research Institute Centre for Innovative Medicine, LT-08406, Vilnius, Lithuania.

Background: Due to its low capacity for self-repair, articular cartilage is highly susceptible to damage and deterioration, which leads to the development of degenerative joint diseases such as osteoarthritis (OA). Menstrual blood-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MenSCs) are much less characterized, as compared to bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BMMSCs). However, MenSCs seem an attractive alternative to classical BMMSCs due to ease of access and broader differentiation capacity. Read More

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In Vitro Susceptibility of Multi-Drug Resistant Strains Causing Nosocomial Infections to Fosfomycin. A Comparison of Determination Methods.

Pathogens 2021 Apr 23;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University, 50-367 Wroclaw, Poland.

Introduction: Over the past few decades, strains increased their pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance, thereby becoming a major therapeutic challenge. One of the few available therapeutic options seems to be intravenous fosfomycin. Unfortunately, the determination of sensitivity to fosfomycin performed in hospital laboratories can pose a significant problem. Read More

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Promising Antidiabetic and Antimicrobial Agents Based on Fused Pyrimidine Derivatives: Molecular Modeling and Biological Evaluation with Histopathological Effect.

Molecules 2021 Apr 19;26(8). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Materials and Nanophysics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE11419 Stockholm, Sweden.

Diabetes is the most common metabolic disorder in both developing and non-developing countries, and a well-recognized global health problem. The WHO anticipates an increase in cases from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million by 2030. In the present study, we focus on the preparation of pyrimidine derivatives as potential antidiabetic and antimicrobial agents. Read More

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Simultaneous Visualization of Tb- and Lu-Labeled Somatostatin Analogues Using Dual-Isotope SPECT Imaging.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Apr 12;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen-PSI, Switzerland.

The decay of terbium-161 results in the emission of β¯-particles as well as conversion and Auger electrons, which makes terbium-161 interesting for therapeutic purposes. The aim of this study was to use dual-isotope SPECT imaging in order to demonstrate visually that terbium-161 and lutetium-177 are interchangeable without compromising the pharmacokinetic profile of the radiopharmaceutical. The Tb- and Lu-labeled somatostatin (SST) analogues DOTATOC (agonist) and DOTA-LM3 (antagonist) were tested in vitro to demonstrate equal properties regarding distribution coefficients and cell uptake into SST receptor-positive AR42J tumor cells. Read More

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New Hyaluronic Acid/Polyethylene Oxide-Based Electrospun Nanofibers: Design, Characterization and In Vitro Biological Evaluation.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Apr 15;13(8). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Grigore T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Iași, 16 University Street, 700028 Iasi, Romania.

Natural compounds have been used as wound-healing promoters and are also present in today's clinical proceedings. In this research, different natural active components such as propolis, Manuka honey, insulin, L-arginine, and infusion were included into hyaluronic acid/poly(ethylene)oxide-based electrospun nanofiber membranes to design innovative wound-dressing biomaterials. Morphology and average fiber diameter were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Read More

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Antibacterial Mechanisms and Efficacy of Sarecycline in Animal Models of Infection and Inflammation.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Apr 15;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

R&D and Medical Affairs, Almirall US, Exton, PA 19341, USA.

Prolonged broad-spectrum antibiotic use is more likely to induce bacterial resistance and dysbiosis of skin and gut microflora. First and second-generation tetracycline-class antibiotics have similar broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Targeted tetracycline-class antibiotics are needed to limit antimicrobial resistance and improve patient outcomes. Read More

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In Vitro Antifungal Drug Resistance Profiles of Clinically Relevant Members of the Mucorales (Mucoromycota) Especially with the Newer Triazoles.

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Apr 2;7(4). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

UK National Mycology Reference Laboratory, Public Health England, Science Quarter, Southmead Hospital, Bristol BS10 5NB, UK.

Mucoromycoses (infections caused by members of the order Mucorales, phylum Mucoromycota [ex-Zygomycota]) are highly destructive, rapidly progressive infections, with dire prognoses especially when they occur in immunocompromised hosts. Current treatment guidelines recommend liposomal formulations of amphotericin B with adjunctive surgery as first line therapy, with the newer triazoles posaconazole or isavuconazole as alternative treatments, or as salvage therapy. Among the many organisms belonging to this order, a limited number of species in the genera , , and are responsible for most cases of human infection. Read More

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Host-Directed FDA-Approved Drugs with Antiviral Activity against SARS-CoV-2 Identified by Hierarchical In Silico/In Vitro Screening Methods.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 Apr 6;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas Margarita Salas-CSIC, Ramiro de Maeztu 9, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

The unprecedent situation generated by the COVID-19 global emergency has prompted us to actively work to fight against this pandemic by searching for repurposable agents among FDA approved drugs to shed light into immediate opportunities for the treatment of COVID-19 patients. In the attempt to proceed toward a proper rationalization of the search for new antivirals among approved drugs, we carried out a hierarchical in silico/in vitro protocol which successfully combines virtual and biological screening to speed up the identification of host-directed therapies against COVID-19 in an effective way. To this end a multi-target virtual screening approach focused on host-based targets related to viral entry, followed by the experimental evaluation of the antiviral activity of selected compounds, has been carried out. Read More

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Amplifying Effect of Chronic Lisinopril therapy on Diastolic Function and the Angiotensin-(1-7) Axis by the G1 Agonist in Ovariectomized Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

Transl Res 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Anesthesiology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC, 27157, USA; Department of Internal Medicine-Molecular Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC, 27157, USA. Electronic address:

GPER activation by G1 attenuates diastolic dysfunction from estrogen loss, which may be partly due to suppression of angiotensin II pathological actions. We aimed to determine the independent effects of 8 weeks of G1 (100 µg/kg/day, subcutaneous pellet), ACE-inhibition (ACEi; lisinopril 10 mg/kg, drinking water), or combination therapy versus vehicle in the ovariectomized (OVX) spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) on cardiac function and morphometrics (echocardiography), serum equilibrium of angiotensins (mass spectroscopy) and cardiac components of the RAS (Western blotting). G1 alone and when combined with ACEi enhanced myocardial relaxation (e´: 30 and 17%) and diastolic wall strain (DWS: 76 and 68%) while reducing relative wall thickness (RWT: 20 and 33%) and filling pressures (E/e´: 30 and 37%). Read More

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Toward an accurate estimation of wall shear stress from 4D flow magnetic resonance downstream of a severe stenosis.

Magn Reson Med 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zurich, Switzerland.

Purpose: First, to investigate the agreement between velocity, velocity gradient, and Reynolds stress obtained from four-dimensional flow magnetic resonance (4D flow MRI) measurements and direct numerical simulation (DNS). Second, to propose and optimize based on DNS, 2 alternative methods for the accurate estimation of wall shear stress (WSS) when the resolution of the flow measurements is limited. Thirdly, to validate the 2 methods based on 4D flow MRI data. Read More

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Bovine-Derived Xenografts Immobilized With Cryopreserved Stem Cells From Human Adipose and Dental Pulp Tissues Promote Bone Regeneration: A Radiographic and Histological Study.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 12;9:646690. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Implant Dentistry, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, College of Stomatology, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have become promising sources for bone tissue engineering. Our study aimed at evaluating bone regeneration potential of cryopreserved ADSCs and DPSCs combined with bovine-derived xenografts with 10% porcine collagen. studies revealed that although DPSCs had higher proliferative abilities, ADSCs exhibited greater mineral depositions and higher osteogenic-related gene expression, indicating better osteogenic differentiation potential of ADSCs. Read More

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Altered K3.1 expression following burn injury and the therapeutic potential of TRAM-34 in post-burn hypertrophic scar formation.

Transl Res 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Pediatrics, Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, 12 Beodeunaru-ro 7-gil, Yeongdeungpo-gu, Seoul 07247, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Hypertrophic scars are the most common post-burn complications characterized by fibroblast proliferation and excessive extracellular matrix deposition. The intermediate-conductance Ca-activated K channel (K3.1) mediates fibroblast activation, resulting in several fibrotic diseases; however, this channel's role in the formation of post-burn hypertrophic skin scars remains unknown. Read More

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Age-dependent decrease in dental pulp cavity volume as a feature for age assessment: a comparative in vitro study using 9.4-T UTE-MRI and CBCT 3D imaging.

Int J Legal Med 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Institute of Legal Medicine, University Hospital Münster, Röntgenstraße 23, 48149, Münster, Germany.

Evaluation of secondary dentin formation is generally suitable for age assessment. We investigated the potential of modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology to visualize the dental pulp in direct comparison with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). To this end, we examined 32 extracted human teeth (teeth 11-48 [FDI]) using 9. Read More

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Investigation of Physiological Effects Induced by Dehydroepiandrosterone in Human Endothelial Cells and Ovarian Cancer Cell Line

Turk J Pharm Sci 2021 04;18(2):185-191

Istanbul Yeni Yuzyil University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, Istanbul, Turkey

Objectives: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an endogenous hormone that acts as a ligand for several cellular receptors. An age-dependent decline in circulating levels of DHEA is linked to changes in various physiological functions. In gynecological clinical practice, DHEA is commonly prescribed to induce ovulation. Read More

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Potential Osteoinductive Effects of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles on Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Endothelial Cell Interaction.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2021 Apr 26;16(1):67. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Department of Prosthodontics, Affiliated Hospital of Stomatology, Nanjing Medical University, No. 136, Han-zhong Road, Nanjing, 210029, People's Republic of China.

Nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) has attracted substantial attention in the field of regenerative medicine. Endothelial cell (EC)-mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) interactions are necessary for bone reconstruction, but the manner in which nano-HA interacts in this process remains unknown. Herein, we investigated the cytotoxicity and osteoinductive effects of HA nanoparticles (HANPs) on MSCs using an indirect co-culture model mediated by ECs and highlighted the underlying mechanisms. Read More

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Prospective experimental treatment of colorectal cancer patients based on organoid drug responses.

ESMO Open 2021 Apr 19;6(3):100103. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Molecular Oncology and Immunology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Oncode Institute, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Department of Gastrointestinal Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Organoid technology has recently emerged as a powerful tool to assess drug sensitivity of individual patient tumors in vitro. Organoids may therefore represent a new avenue for precision medicine, as this circumvents many of the complexities associated with DNA- or transcriptional-profiling.

Materials And Methods: The SENSOR trial was a single-arm, single-center, prospective intervention trial to evaluate the feasibility of patient-derived organoids to allocate patients for treatment with off-label or investigational agents. Read More

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Exhaustion in tumor-infiltrating Mucosal-Associated Invariant T (MAIT) cells from colon cancer patients.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Dept of Microbiology and Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are unconventional T cells recognizing microbial metabolites, presented by the invariant MR1 protein. Upon activation, MAIT cells rapidly secrete cytokines and exert cytotoxic functions, and may thus be highly relevant also in tumor immunity. MAIT cells accumulate in colon tumors, but in contrast to other cytotoxic T cell subsets, their presence in tumors has been associated with worse patient outcome. Read More

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Is Point-of-Care testing feasible and safe in care homes in England? An exploratory usability and accuracy evaluation of a Point-of-Care Polymerase Chain Reaction test for SARS-COV-2.

Age Ageing 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

NIHR London In Vitro Diagnostics Co-operative, Dept of Surgery and Cancer, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London St. Mary's Hospital London.

Introduction: Reliable rapid testing for COVID-19 is needed in care homes to reduce the risk of outbreaks and enable timely care. This study aimed to examine the usability and test performance of a point of care polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for detection of SARS-COV2 (POCKITTM Central) in care homes.

Methods: POCKITTM Central was evaluated in a purposeful sample of four UK care homes. Read More

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Trace element analysis of human seminal plasma: A cautionary tale of preanalytical variation and use of non-traditional matrices in human biomonitoring studies.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2021 May 18;234:113751. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY, USA; Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, The University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Ensuring harmonization of (ultra-)trace element measurements in non-traditional matrices is a particular analytical challenge that is highlighted in this work for seminal plasma as part of the developmental core at the Wadsworth Center Human Health Exposure Analysis Resource Targeted Laboratory. Seminal plasma was collected from 39 male partners of women undergoing in vitro fertilization and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS) following deproteinization with concentrated HNO. Validation was accomplished using: 1) two aqueous NIST SRMs; 2) a seminal plasma QC pool, characterized via standard additions; 3) standard additions on a subset of samples; and 4) sample duplicates. Read More

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A Weight-of-the-Evidence Approach for Evaluating, in Lieu of Animal Studies, the Potential of a Novel Polysaccharide Polymer to Produce Lung Overload.

Chem Res Toxicol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

IFF, 200 Powder Mill Road, Bldg. 353, Wilmington, Delaware 19803, United States.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is concerned about the respiratory effects caused by respirable particles of water-insoluble high molecular weight polymers. The EPA has proposed a tiered approach to evaluate polymer lung overload, a kinetic event. Kinetic polymer lung overload in itself is not necessarily adverse, however, inhalation of respirable particulate matter can have adverse effects (i. Read More

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Solvent-Casted Films to Assist Polymer Selection for Amorphous Solid Dispersions During Preclinical Studies: In-vitro and In-vivo Exploration.

Pharm Res 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Pharmaceutical Candidate Optimization, Bristol Myers Squibb, Route 206 and Province Line Road, Princeton, NJ, 08540, USA.

Purpose: The use of two solvent-casted film methods to select optimal polymer compositions for amorphous solid dispersions prepared to support preclinical pharmacokinetic and toxicology studies is described.

Methods: Evaporation of solvent from cover slips by using nitrogen flow, and solvent removal from vials by using rotary evaporation were employed. The films prepared on cover slips were evaluated under the microscope to determine crystallinity. Read More

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Opposite roles of transcription elongation factors Spt4/5 and Elf1 in RNA polymerase II transcription through B-form versus non-B DNA structures.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

Transcription elongation can be affected by numerous types of obstacles, such as nucleosome, pausing sequences, DNA lesions and non-B-form DNA structures. Spt4/5 and Elf1 are conserved transcription elongation factors that promote RNA polymerase II (Pol II) bypass of nucleosome and pausing sequences. Importantly, genetic studies have shown that Spt4/5 plays essential roles in the transcription of expanded nucleotide repeat genes associated with inherited neurological diseases. Read More

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