1,781 results match your criteria agouti-related peptide

Consumption of vitamin A-deficient diet elevates endoplasmic reticulum stress marker and suppresses high fructose-induced orexigenic gene expression in the brain of male Wistar rats.

Nutr Neurosci 2021 Apr 8:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Lipid Biochemistry Division, ICMR-National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Objective: Here, we assessed the impact of vitamin A deficiency (both alone and in combination with fructose) on the retinol status, phospholipids fatty acid composition and pathways associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and energy homeostasis of the brain. For this purpose, weanling male Wistar rats were divided into four groups consisting of 8 rats each, except 16 for the second group and they received one of the following diets; control, vitamin A-deficient (VAD), high fructose (HFr) and HFr with VAD for 16 weeks, except half of the VAD diet-fed rats, were shifted to HFr diet, after 8 weeks period.

Results: The retinol content of the whole brain remained comparable across the groups, despite a significant reduction in the plasma at the end of VAD diet feeding. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Relationship Between Serum Agouti-Related Peptide Levels and Metabolic Syndrome in Euthymic Bipolar Patients.

Noro Psikiyatr Ars 2021 Mar 11;58(1):16-20. Epub 2020 Oct 11.

Ege University Medical School, Department of Psychiatry, İzmir, Turkey.

Introduction: Agouti-Related Peptide (AgRP) is expressed primarily in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, stimulates appetite and decreases metabolism and energy expenditure. The aim of our study is to evaluate the relationship between serum Agouti-Related Peptide (AgRP) levels and metabolic syndrome in euthymic bipolar patients.

Methods: Forty euthymic bipolar patients who used only mood stabilizer for at least three months and 40 healthy volunteers as control group were included in the study. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effects of fasting and re-feeding on the expression of CCK, PYY, hypothalamic neuropeptides, and IGF-related genes in layer and broiler chicks.

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2021 Mar 29;257:110940. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501, Japan. Electronic address:

Cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY (PYY) have been investigated as gut hormones that send satiation signals to the brain in mammals. There is evidence that chicken PYY mRNA expression was the highest in the pancreas compared to other tissues. We recently suggested that insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and its binding proteins (IGFBPs) may be involved in the appetite regulation system in chicks. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Adipocytokine and appetite-regulating hormone response to weight loss in adolescents with obesity: Impact of weight loss magnitude.

Nutrition 2021 Feb 14;87-88:111188. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Postgraduate Program of Nutrition, Federal University of Sao Paulo; Paulista Medicine School, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the magnitude of weight loss (WL) and serum concentrations of the main adipocytokines and appetite-regulating hormones in adolescents with obesity.

Methods: After completion of informed consent,108 adolescents with obesity (14-19 y of age; postpubertal) were submitted to clinical, nutritional, psychological, physical exercise, and physiotherapy support for 1 y. Body composition (BC) and plasma levels of neuropeptides (neuropeptide Y [NPY], agouti-related peptide [AgRP], and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone [α-MSH]) and leptin were measured at baseline and post-intervention. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

CRISPR knockdown of Kcnq3 attenuates the M current and increases excitability of NPY/AgRP neurons to alter energy balance.

Mol Metab 2021 Mar 22:101218. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Chemical Physiology and Biochemistry, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, 97239, USA; Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, OR, 97006, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Arcuate nucleus neuropeptide Y/agouti-related peptide (NPY/AgRP) neurons drive ingestive behavior. The M current, a subthreshold non-inactivating potassium current, plays a critical role in regulating NPY/AgRP neuronal excitability. Fasting decreases while 17β-estradiol increases the M current by regulating the mRNA expression of Kcnq2, 3, and 5 (Kv7. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Integration of Nutrient Sensing in Fish Hypothalamus.

José L Soengas

Front Neurosci 2021 26;15:653928. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Laboratorio de Fisioloxía Animal, Departamento de Bioloxía Funcional e Ciencias da Saúde, Facultade de Bioloxía and Centro de Investigación Mariña, Universidade de Vigo, Vigo, Spain.

The knowledge regarding hypothalamic integration of metabolic and endocrine signaling resulting in regulation of food intake is scarce in fish. Available studies pointed to a network in which the activation of the nutrient-sensing (glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid) systems would result in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibition and activation of protein kinase B (Akt) and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). Changes in these signaling pathways would control phosphorylation of transcription factors cAMP response-element binding protein (CREB), forkhead box01 (FoxO1), and brain homeobox transcription factor (BSX) leading to food intake inhibition through changes in the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), pro-opio melanocortin (POMC), and cocaine and amphetamine-related transcript (CART). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Drp1 is required for AgRP neuronal activity and feeding.

Elife 2021 Mar 9;10. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Institute of Human Nutrition, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, United States.

The hypothalamic orexigenic Agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons are crucial for the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis. Here, we show that fasting-induced AgRP neuronal activation is associated with dynamin-related peptide 1 (DRP1)-mediated mitochondrial fission and mitochondrial fatty acid utilization in AgRP neurons. In line with this, mice lacking in adult AgRP neurons (Drp1 cKO) show decreased fasting- or ghrelin-induced AgRP neuronal activity and feeding and exhibited a significant decrease in body weight, fat mass, and feeding accompanied by a significant increase in energy expenditure. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A Novel Role for Hypothalamic AgRP Neurons in Mediating Depressive Behavior.

Trends Neurosci 2021 Apr 2;44(4):243-246. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA; Department of Neuroscience and Friedman Brain Institute, Icahn School fo Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA. Electronic address:

A recent paper by Fang et al. examined the role of Agouti-Related Peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus in mediating depressive-like behavior in mice. Chronic, but not acute stress, led to changes in neuronal excitability in AgRP neurons concomitant with the display of depressive-like behaviors, which were bidirectionally modulated using AgRP-selective chemogenetic manipulations. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Response of the thyroid axis and appetite-regulating peptides to fasting and overfeeding in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2021 Mar 1;528:111229. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Departments of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NL, A1B 3X9, Canada; Departments of Biochemistry, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NL, A1B 3X9, Canada. Electronic address:

The thyroid axis is a major regulator of metabolism and energy homeostasis in vertebrates. There is conclusive evidence in mammals for the involvement of the thyroid axis in the regulation of food intake, but in fish, this link is unclear. In order to assess the effects of nutritional status on the thyroid axis in goldfish, Carassius auratus, we examined brain and peripheral transcripts of genes associated with the thyroid axis [thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptors (TRH-R type 1 and 2), thyroid stimulating hormone beta (TSHβ), deiodinase enzymes (DIO2, DIO3) and UDP-glucoronsyltransferase (UGT)] and appetite regulators [neuropeptide Y (NPY), proopiomelanocortin (POMC), agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and cholecystokinin (CCK)] in fasted and overfed fish for 7 and 14 day periods. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Hunger enhances food-odour attraction through a neuropeptide Y spotlight.

Nature 2021 Apr 3;592(7853):262-266. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Internal state controls olfaction through poorly understood mechanisms. Odours that represent food, mates, competitors and predators activate parallel neural circuits that may be flexibly shaped by physiological need to alter behavioural outcome. Here we identify a neuronal mechanism by which hunger selectively promotes attraction to food odours over other olfactory cues. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The regulation of food intake by insulin in the central nervous system.

J Neuroendocrinol 2021 Apr 3;33(4):e12952. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

School of Psychology, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Food intake and energy expenditure are regulated by peripheral signals providing feedback on nutrient status and adiposity to the central nervous system. One of these signals is the pancreatic hormone, insulin. Unlike peripheral administration of insulin, which often causes weight gain, central administration of insulin leads to a reduction in food intake and body weight when administered long-term. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evidence That Agouti-Related Peptide May Directly Regulate Kisspeptin Neurons in Male Sheep.

Metabolites 2021 Feb 26;11(3). Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Animal Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA.

Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons, which relay information from peripheral metabolic signals, may constitute a key central regulator of reproduction. Given that AgRP inhibits luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and that nutritional suppression of LH elicits an increase in AgRP while suppressing kisspeptin expression in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus, we sought to examine the degree to which AgRP could directly regulate ARC kisspeptin neurons. Hypothalamic tissue was collected from four castrated male sheep (10 months of age) and processed for the detection of protein (AgRP input to kisspeptin neurons) using immunohistochemistry and mRNA for melanocortin 3 and 4 receptors (MC3R; MC4R) in kisspeptin neurons using RNAscope. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Hunger-driven adaptive prioritization of behavior.

FEBS J 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Vanderbilt Brain Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA.

In order to survive, an animal must adapt its behavioral priorities to accommodate changing internal and external conditions. Hunger, a universally recognized interoceptive signal, promotes food intake though increasingly well-understood neural circuits. Less understood, is how hunger is integrated into the neural computations that guide nonfeeding behaviors. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Recent Advances in Hypertension: Intersection of Metabolic and Blood Pressure Regulatory Circuits in the Central Nervous System.

Hypertension 2021 Apr 22;77(4):1061-1068. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

From the Department of Physiology (V.O., A.E.K., C.D.S., J.L.G.), Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee.

Obesity represents the single greatest ongoing roadblock to improving cardiovascular health. Prolonged obesity is associated with fundamental changes in the integrative control of energy balance, including the development of selective leptin resistance, which is thought to contribute to obesity-associated hypertension, and adaptation of resting metabolic rate (RMR) when excess weight is reduced. Leptin and the melanocortin system within the hypothalamus contribute to the control of both energy balance and blood pressure. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

-Coumaric Acid Enhances Hypothalamic Leptin Signaling and Glucose Homeostasis in Mice via Differential Effects on AMPK Activation.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jan 31;22(3). Epub 2021 Jan 31.

School of Medicine, Tan Tao University, Duc Hoa 850000, Long An, Vietnam.

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a crucial role in the regulation of energy homeostasis in both peripheral metabolic organs and the central nervous system. Recent studies indicated that -Coumaric acid (CA), a hydroxycinnamic phenolic acid, potentially activated the peripheral AMPK pathway to exert beneficial effects on glucose metabolism in vitro. However, CA's actions on central AMPK activity and whole-body glucose homeostasis have not yet been investigated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Hypothalamic hormone-sensitive lipase regulates appetite and energy homeostasis.

Mol Metab 2021 Feb 5;47:101174. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark; Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark. Electronic address:

Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate the importance of central hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) expression in the regulation of food intake and body weight in mice to clarify whether intracellular lipolysis in the mammalian hypothalamus plays a role in regulating appetite.

Methods: Using pharmacological and genetic approaches, we investigated the role of HSL in the rodent brain in the regulation of feeding and energy homeostasis under basal conditions during acute stress and high-fat diet feeding.

Results: We found that HSL, a key enzyme in the catabolism of cellular lipid stores, is expressed in the appetite-regulating centers in the hypothalamus and is activated by acute stress through a mechanism similar to that observed in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Antagonism for NPY signaling reverses cognitive behavior defects induced by activity-based anorexia in mice.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 Apr 25;126:105133. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Psychosomatic Internal Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima, Japan.

Patients with AN often express psychological symptoms such as body image distortion, cognitive biases, abnormal facial recognition, and deficits in working memory. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the impairment of cognitive behaviors in AN remain unknown. In the present study, we measured cognitive behavior using novel object recognition (NOR) tasks and mRNA expressions in hypothalamic neuropeptides in female C57BL/6J mice with activity-based anorexia (ABA). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Chemerin impairs food intake and body weight in chicken: Focus on hypothalamic neuropeptides gene expression and AMPK signaling pathway.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2021 Apr 23;304:113721. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

INRAE UMR85 Physiologie de la Reproduction et des Comportements, F-37380 Nouzilly, France CNRS UMR7247 Physiologie de la Reproduction et des Comportements, F-37380 Nouzilly, France Université François Rabelais de Tours F-37041 Tours, France IFCE F-37380 Nouzilly, France. Electronic address:

Unlike mammals, the role of adipokines and more particularly of chemerin in the regulation of food intake is totally unknown in avian species. Here we investigated the effect of chemerin on the food and water consumption and on the body weight in chicken. We studied the effects on the plasma glucose and insulin concentrations and the hypothalamic neuropeptides and AMPK signaling pathway. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Discovery of Molecular Interactions of the Human Melanocortin-4 Receptor (hMC4R) Asp189 (D189) Amino Acid with the Endogenous G-Protein-Coupled Receptor (GPCR) Antagonist Agouti-Related Protein (AGRP) Provides Insights to AGRP's Inverse Agonist Pharmacology at the hMC4R.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 02 20;12(3):542-556. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Institute for Translational Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, 308 Harvard Street SE, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, United States.

The melanocortin receptors (MCRs) are important for numerous biological pathways, including feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. In addition to endogenous peptide agonists, this receptor family has two naturally occurring endogenous antagonists, agouti and agouti-related protein (AGRP). At the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R), the AGRP ligand functions as an endogenous inverse agonist in the absence of agonist and as a competitive antagonist in the presence of agonist. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Hypothalamic-Extended Amygdala Circuit Regulates Temporal Discounting.

J Neurosci 2021 Mar 13;41(9):1928-1940. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Departments of Psychology and Neuroscience and Neurobiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708

Choice behavior is characterized by temporal discounting, i.e., preference for immediate rewards given a choice between immediate and delayed rewards. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

AgRP neurons trigger long-term potentiation and facilitate food seeking.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 01 5;11(1):11. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Children's Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Sufficient feeding is essential for animals' survival, which requires a cognitive capability to facilitate food seeking, but the neurobiological processes regulating food seeking are not fully understood. Here we show that stimulation of agouti-related peptide-expressing (AgRP) neurons triggers a long-term depression (LTD) of spontaneous excitatory post-synaptic current (sEPSC) in adjacent pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons and in most of their distant synaptic targets, including neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT). The AgRP-induced sEPCS LTD can be enhanced by fasting but blunted by satiety signals, e. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Caloric restriction in female reproduction: is it beneficial or detrimental?

Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2021 Jan 4;19(1). Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Physiology, Basic Medical College, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, 330006, People's Republic of China.

Caloric restriction (CR), an energy-restricted intervention with undernutrition instead of malnutrition, is widely known to prolong lifespan and protect against the age-related deteriorations. Recently it is found that CR significantly affects female reproduction via hypothalamic (corticotropin releasing hormone, neuropeptide Y, agouti-related peptide) and peripheral (leptin, ghrelin, insulin, insulin-like growth factor) mediators, which can regulate the energy homeostasis. Although CR reduces the fertility in female mammals, it exerts positive effects like preserving reproductive capacity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors require an arcuate-to-paraventricular hypothalamus melanocortin circuit to treat diet-induced obesity.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2021 03 28;320(3):E467-E474. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York.

The arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus comprises two antagonistic neuron populations critical for energy balance, namely, the anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and the orexigenic agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons that act as agonists and antagonists, respectively, for neurons expressing the type IV melanocortin receptor (MC4R) (Andermann ML and Lowell BB. 95: 757-778, 2017). MC4R activation increases energy expenditure and decreases food intake during positive energy balance states to prevent diet-induced obesity (DIO). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cold-induced hyperphagia requires AgRP neuron activation in mice.

Elife 2020 12 15;9. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

UW Medicine Diabetes Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, United States.

To maintain energy homeostasis during cold exposure, the increased energy demands of thermogenesis must be counterbalanced by increased energy intake. To investigate the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this cold-induced hyperphagia, we asked whether agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons are activated when animals are placed in a cold environment and, if so, whether this response is required for the associated hyperphagia. We report that AgRP neuron activation occurs rapidly upon acute cold exposure, as do increases of both energy expenditure and energy intake, suggesting the mere perception of cold is sufficient to engage each of these responses. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Chronic exposure to methylmercury disrupts ghrelin actions in C57BL/6J mice.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Jan 7;147:111918. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Neuroscience, and Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, 10461, Bronx, NY, USA; IM Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia; Institute of Cellular and Intracellular Symbiosis, Russian Academy of Sciences, Orenburg, Russia. Electronic address:

Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxic pollutant widely present in the environment. Initial symptoms of MeHg may include loss of body weight. However, the mechanisms by which MeHg induces body weight changes have yet to be fully elucidated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Tumor Necrosis Factor α and Interleukin-1β Acutely Inhibit AgRP Neurons in the Arcuate Nucleus of the Hypothalamus.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Nov 25;21(23). Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 05508-000, Brazil.

Obesity-associated low-grade inflammation favors weight gain, whereas systemic infection frequently leads to anorexia. Thus, inflammatory signals can either induce positive or negative energy balance. In this study, we used whole-cell patch-clamp to investigate the acute effects of three important proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) on the membrane excitability of agouti-related peptide (AgRP)- or proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-producing neurons. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

A multicomponent screen for feeding behaviour and nutritional status in Drosophila to interrogate mammalian appetite-related genes.

Mol Metab 2021 01 23;43:101127. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Medical Research Council (MRC) Metabolic Diseases Unit, University of Cambridge Metabolic Research Laboratories, Wellcome Trust-MRC Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK. Electronic address:

Objective: More than 300 genetic variants have been robustly associated with measures of human adiposity. Highly penetrant mutations causing human obesity do so largely by disrupting satiety pathways in the brain and increasing food intake. Most of the common obesity-predisposing variants are in, or near, genes expressed highly in the brain, but little is known of their function. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

The Regulatory Role of Apelin on the Appetite and Growth of Common Carp ( L.).

Animals (Basel) 2020 Nov 20;10(11). Epub 2020 Nov 20.

College of Fisheries, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007, China.

Apelin, a kind of active polypeptide, has many biological functions, such as promoting food intake, enhancing immunity, and regulating energy balance. In mammals, studies have indicated that apelin is involved in regulating food intake. However, there are relatively few studies about the regulatory effect of apelin on fish feeding, and the specific mechanism is not clear. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

The Importance of Leptin to Reproduction.

Endocrinology 2021 02;162(2)

Department of Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas.

A healthy nutritional state is required for all aspects of reproduction and is signaled by the adipokine leptin. Leptin acts in a relatively narrow concentration range: too much or too little will compromise fertility. The leptin signal timing is important to prepubertal development in both sexes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Maternal High Fat Diet Programs Male Mice Offspring Hyperphagia and Obesity: Mechanism of Increased Appetite Neurons via Altered Neurogenic Factors and Nutrient Sensor AMPK.

Nutrients 2020 Oct 29;12(11). Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Perinatal Research Laboratory, The Lundquist Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA.

Maternal high-fat (HF) is associated with offspring hyperphagia and obesity. We hypothesized that maternal HF alters fetal neuroprogenitor cell (NPC) and hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) development with preferential differentiation of neurons towards orexigenic (NPY/AgRP) versus anorexigenic (POMC) neurons, leading to offspring hyperphagia and obesity. Furthermore, these changes may involve hypothalamic bHLH neuroregulatory factors (Hes1, Mash1, Ngn3) and energy sensor AMPK. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2020