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Highly Stable Silica-Coated Bismuth Nanoparticles Deliver Tumor Microenvironment-Responsive Prodrugs to Enhance Tumor-Specific Photoradiotherapy.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics and National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P. R. China.

Radiosensitizers are agents capable of amplifying injury to tumor tissues by enhancing DNA damage and fortifying production of radical oxygen species (ROS). The use of such radiosensitizers in the clinic, however, remains limited by an insufficient ability to differentiate between cancer and normal cells and by the presence of a reversible glutathione system that can diminish the amount of ROS generated. Here, to address these limitations, we design an HO-responsive prodrug which can be premixed with lauric acid (melting point ∼43 °C) and loaded around the surface of silica-coated bismuth nanoparticles (BSNPs) for cancer-specific photoradiotherapy. Read More

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An ether-linked halogenated phenazine-quinone prodrug model for antibacterial applications.

Org Biomol Chem 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Molecular Genetics & Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA.

Antibiotic-resistant infections present significant challenges to patients. As a result, there is considerable need for new antibacterial therapies that eradicate pathogenic bacteria through non-conventional mechanisms. Our group has identified a series of halogenated phenazine (HP) agents that induce rapid iron starvation that leads to potent killing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. Read More

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Photothermal and Photodynamic Therapies via NIR-Activated Nanoagents in Combating Alzheimer's Disease.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Organ Repair, School of Medicine, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China.

It is well established that the polymerization of amyloid-β peptides into fibrils/plaques is a critical step during the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Phototherapy, which includes photodynamic therapy and photothermal therapy, is a highly attractive strategy in AD treatment due to its merits of operational flexibility, noninvasiveness, and high spatiotemporal resolution. Distinct from traditional chemotherapies or immunotherapies, phototherapies capitalize on the interaction between photosensitizers or photothermal transduction agents and light to trigger photochemical reactions to generate either reactive oxygen species or heat effects to modulate Aβ aggregation, ultimately restoring nerve damage and ameliorating memory deficits. Read More

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Nitric Oxide System and Bronchial Epithelium: More Than a Barrier.

Front Physiol 2021 30;12:687381. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Airway epithelium forms a physical barrier that protects the lung from the entrance of inhaled allergens, irritants, or microorganisms. This epithelial structure is maintained by tight junctions, adherens junctions and desmosomes that prevent the diffusion of soluble mediators or proteins between apical and basolateral cell surfaces. This apical junctional complex also participates in several signaling pathways involved in gene expression, cell proliferation and cell differentiation. Read More

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Therapeutic plasma exchange in non-immune hemolytic anemia associated with henna ingestion: A case report.

Transfus Apher Sci 2021 Jul 1:103204. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Kayseri City Hospital, Hematology Department, Kayseri, Turkey. Electronic address:

Henna is a herb that is used in traditional medicine for medical purposes as well as in the field of cosmetic. It is one of the agents that can trigger hemolytic crisis in G6PD deficient patients but it is considered safe in patients with normal G6PD enzyme. Here we present a case of non-immune hemolytic anemia occurred after ingestion of a homemade solution containing henna powder. Read More

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[Preliminary study on the etiological characteristics and clinical treatment of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws].

Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Jul;56(7):659-664

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, the First People's Hospital of Jinzhong, Jinzhong Hospital Affiliated to Shanxi Medical University, Jinzhong 030600, China.

To summarize the etiological characteristics and clinical treatment effects of 17 patients with medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). The clinical data of 17 patients with MRONJ admitted to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, the First People's Hospital of Jinzhong, Shanxi Province, from July 2016 to December 2019 were retrospectively analyzed, including 9 males and 8 females, aged (63.6±9. Read More

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A small molecule that induces translational readthrough of CFTR nonsense mutations by eRF1 depletion.

Nat Commun 2021 07 16;12(1):4358. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Gregory Fleming James Cystic Fibrosis Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), Birmingham, AL, USA.

Premature termination codons (PTCs) prevent translation of a full-length protein and trigger nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Nonsense suppression (also termed readthrough) therapy restores protein function by selectively suppressing translation termination at PTCs. Poor efficacy of current readthrough agents prompted us to search for better compounds. Read More

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Ropinirole-Associated Orthostatic Hypotension as Cause of a Prescribing Cascade in an Elderly Man.

Cureus 2021 Jun 7;13(6):e15506. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Francis Hospital, Trinity Health of New England (NE), Hartford, USA.

Ropinirole is an overall well-tolerated antiparkinsonian medication that is also used to treat restless leg syndrome (RLS). The incidence of side effects is low, with orthostatic hypotension (OH) only anecdotally reported. Additionally, it is known that the elderly population is very susceptible to adverse drug effects and the prevalence of prescribing cascades that these can trigger is unknown. Read More

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Two-Dimensional MoO Nanosheet Composite Hydrogels with High Transmittance and Excellent Photothermal Property for Near-Infrared Responsive Actuators and Microvalves.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 11;13(28):33404-33416. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, 100 Kexue Road, Zhengzhou 450001, Henan, P. R. China.

Stimulus-responsive intelligent hydrogel actuators have highly promising applications in the fields of soft robotics, smart manipulators, and flexible devices. Near-infrared (NIR) light is considered an ideal method to trigger the response behavior remotely and precisely. In order to realize the excellent optical transmittance and photothermal property of NIR-responsive hydrogels at the same time, two-dimensional nonlayered MoO nanosheets (2D-MoO) with excellent photothermal efficiency (62% under an NIR light irradiation of 808 nm), splendid chemistry stability, and low preparation cost are used as photothermal agents and incorporated into the poly(-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) hydrogel network, forming the 2D-MoO/Laponite/PNIPAM ternary nanocomposite hydrogel (TN hydrogel). Read More

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A Biomimetic Aggregation-Induced Emission Photosensitizer with Antigen-Presenting and Hitchhiking Function for Lipid Droplet Targeted Photodynamic Immunotherapy.

Adv Mater 2021 Jul 11:e2102322. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Branch of Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Institute for Advanced Study and Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising alternative approach for effective cancer treatment that is associated with an antitumor immune response. However, immunosuppression of the tumor microenvironment limits the immune response induced by PDT. Stimulation and proliferation of T cells is a critical step for generating immune responses and depends on the efficient presentation of tumor antigens and co-stimulatory molecules by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Read More

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Regulatory roles of galectins on influenza A virus and their potential as a therapeutic strategy.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jul 14;139:111713. Epub 2021 May 14.

Center for Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan; Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan; Department of Medical Research, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Galectins, are β-galactoside binding lectins expressed in numerous cells and are known to regulate various immune responses and cellular physiological functions. Galectins have been reported to participate in the regulation of several viral infections via carbohydrate‑dependent/independent manner. Galectins have displayed various regulatory functions on viral infection, however, the detailed mechanism remains unclear. Read More

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Phase-changeable nanoparticle-mediated energy conversion promotes highly efficient high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation.

Curr Med Chem 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Ultrasound, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

This review describes how phase-changeable nanoparticles enable highly efficient high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation (HIFU). HIFU is effective in the clinical treatment of solid malignant tumors. However, it has intrinsic disadvantages for treating some deep lesions, such as damage to surrounding normal tissues. Read More

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Overcoming Tumor Hypoxia through Multiple Pathways Using an All-in-One Polymeric Therapeutic Agent to Enhance Synergistic Cancer Photo/Chemotherapy Effects.

Bioconjug Chem 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

State Key Laboratory of Organic Electronics and Information Displays & Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biosensors, Institute of Advanced Materials & Institute of Flexible Electronics (Future Technology), Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, 9 Wenyuan Road, Nanjing, 210023, China.

Hypoxia is a significant characteristic of tumors, which causes aggressive tumor growth and strong therapy resistance. Inspired by the improved therapeutic efficacy of synergistic treatment, herein, an all-in-one polymeric therapeutic agent was developed, which could overcome tumor hypoxia through multiple pathways. Multiple therapeutic agents were incorporated into the polymer, including the singlet oxygen (O) carrier unit to store cytotoxic reactive oxygen species, the photosensitized and photothermal unit to trigger the capture and release of O, and the hypoxia-responsive prodrug unit to maintain a long-term tumor inhibition. Read More

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Lyme arthritis: linking infection, inflammation and autoimmunity.

Nat Rev Rheumatol 2021 Aug 5;17(8):449-461. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases, Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Immunology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Infectious agents can trigger autoimmune responses in a number of chronic inflammatory diseases. Lyme arthritis, which is caused by the tick-transmitted spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi, is effectively treated in most patients with antibiotic therapy; however, in a subset of patients, arthritis can persist and worsen after the spirochaete has been killed (known as post-infectious Lyme arthritis). This Review details the current understanding of the pathogenetic events in Lyme arthritis, from initial infection in the skin, through infection of the joints, to post-infectious chronic inflammatory arthritis. Read More

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Fenton-magnetic based therapy by dual-chemodrug-loaded magnetic hydroxyapatite against colon cancer.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Aug 7;127:112238. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran; Novel Diagnostics and Therapeutics Research Group, Institute of Biotechnology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

Fenton-based therapy is emerging as an effective and selective strategy against cancer. However, a low concentration of transition metal ions, insufficient endogenous HO and a high level of antioxidant activity within the cancer cells have hindered the therapeutic efficacy of this strategy. To address these issues, in this study, the Fenton reagent (magnetic hydroxyapatite, mHAP) was accompanied with chemotherapy drugs (cisplatin (CDDP) and methotrexate (MTX)) and static magnetic field (SMF), in such a way to be a pH-, redox-, and magnetic-responsive nanoplatform. Read More

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Amplified antitumor efficacy by a targeted drug retention and chemosensitization strategy-based "combo" nanoagent together with PD-L1 blockade in reversing multidrug resistance.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 Jul 5;19(1):200. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Ultrasound, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Ultrasound Molecular Imaging, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400010, People's Republic of China.

Background: Recent studies have demonstrated that multidrug resistance (MDR) is a critical factor in the low efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. The main mechanism of MDR arises from the overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which actively enhances drug efflux and limits the effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents.

Results: In this study, we fabricated a "combo" nanoagent equipping with triple synergistic strategies for enhancing antitumor efficacy against MDR cells. Read More

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ALKBH3 partner ASCC3 mediates P-body formation and selective clearance of MMS-induced 1-methyladenosine and 3-methylcytosine from mRNA.

J Transl Med 2021 Jul 3;19(1):287. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU, 7491, Trondheim, Norway.

Background: Reversible enzymatic methylation of mammalian mRNA is widespread and serves crucial regulatory functions, but little is known to what degree chemical alkylators mediate overlapping modifications and whether cells distinguish aberrant from canonical methylations.

Methods: Here we use quantitative mass spectrometry to determine the fate of chemically induced methylbases in the mRNA of human cells. Concomitant alteration in the mRNA binding proteome was analyzed by SILAC mass spectrometry. Read More

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Microbial dysbiosis and epigenetics modulation in cancer development - A chemopreventive approach.

Semin Cancer Biol 2021 Jun 30. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Centre of Advanced Study in Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221005, India.

An overwhelming number of research articles have reported a strong relationship of the microbiome with cancer. Microbes have been observed more commonly in the body fluids like urine, stool, mucus of people with cancer compared to the healthy controls. The microbiota is responsible for both progression and suppression activities of various diseases. Read More

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Natural Merosesquiterpenes Activate the DNA Damage Response via DNA Strand Break Formation and Trigger Apoptotic Cell Death in p53-Wild-type and Mutant Colorectal Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jun 30;13(13). Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Division of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Kaiserslautern, 67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a frequently occurring malignant disease with still low survival rates, highlighting the need for novel therapeutics. Merosesquiterpenes are secondary metabolites from marine sponges, which might be useful as antitumor agents. To address this issue, we made use of a compound library comprising 11 isolated merosesquiterpenes. Read More

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Ex Vivo Activation of Red Blood Cell Senescence by Plasma from Sickle-Cell Disease Patients: Correlation between Markers and Adhesion Consequences during Acute Disease Events.

Biomolecules 2021 Jun 30;11(7). Epub 2021 Jun 30.

INSERM U955 Équipe Pirenne "Transfusion et Maladies du Globule Rouge" et Institut Mondor de Recherche Biomédicale (IMRB), F-94000 Créteil, France.

Background: Blood transfusion remains a key treatment for managing occlusive episodes and painful crises in sickle-cell disease (SCD). In that clinical context, red blood cells (RBCs) from donors and transfused to patients, may be affected by plasma components in the recipients' blood. Senescence lesion markers appear on the red cells after transfusion, shortening the RBC lifespan in circulation. Read More

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Antimicrobial Peptides: Differential Expression during Development and Potential Involvement in Vector Interaction with Microbiota and .

Microorganisms 2021 Jun 11;9(6). Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Laboratório de Biologia Molecular de Parasitas e Vetores, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz, Av. Brasil 4365, Rio de Janeiro 21040-360, Brazil.

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are produced to control bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and other infectious agents. Sand fly larvae develop and feed on a microbe-rich substrate, and the hematophagous females are exposed to additional pathogens. We focused on understanding the role of the AMPs attacin (Att), cecropin (Cec), and four defensins (Def1, Def2, Def3, and Def4) in the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. Read More

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Acrylonitrile Derivatives against : In Vitro Activity and Programmed Cell Death Study.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 Jun 9;14(6). Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Instituto Universitario de Enfermedades Tropicales y Salud Pública de Canarias, Universidad de La Laguna, Avda. Astrofísico Fco. Sánchez, S/N, 38203 La Laguna, Tenerife, Islas Canarias, Spain.

The neglected infection known as Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite results in more than 7000 deaths per year, with an increasing number of cases in non-endemic areas such as Europe or the United States. Moreover, with the current available therapy, only two compounds which are active against the acute phase of the disease are readily available. In addition, these therapeutic agents display multiple undesired side effects such as high toxicity, they are expensive, the treatment is lengthy and the resistant strain has emerged. Read More

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Spiky Gold Nanoparticles for the Photothermal Eradication of Colon Cancer Cells.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Jun 18;11(6). Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Dipartimento di Chimica "Giacomo Ciamician", Alma Mater Studiorum-Università di Bologna, Via Francesco Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna, Italy.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a widespread and lethal disease. Relapses of the disease and metastasis are very common in instances of CRC, so adjuvant therapies have a crucial role in its treatment. Systemic toxic effects and the development of resistance during therapy limit the long-term efficacy of existing adjuvant therapeutic approaches. Read More

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Optimization of Collagen Chemical Crosslinking to Restore Biocompatibility of Tissue-Engineered Scaffolds.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Jun 3;13(6). Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear and Schepens Eye Research Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

Collagen scaffolds, one of the most used biomaterials in corneal tissue engineering, are frequently crosslinked to improve mechanical properties, enzyme tolerance, and thermal stability. Crosslinkers such as 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) are compatible with tissues but provide low crosslinking density and reduced mechanical properties. Conversely, crosslinkers such as glutaraldehyde (GTA) can generate mechanically more robust scaffolds; however, they can also induce greater toxicity. Read More

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The Intestinal Microbiota: Impacts of Antibiotics Therapy, Colonization Resistance, and Diseases.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 20;22(12). Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, China.

Trillions of microbes exist in the human body, particularly the gastrointestinal tract, coevolved with the host in a mutually beneficial relationship. The main role of the intestinal microbiome is the fermentation of non-digestible substrates and increased growth of beneficial microbes that produce key antimicrobial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids, etc., to inhibit the growth of pathogenic microbes besides other functions. Read More

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In-Situ One-Step Direct Loading of Agents in Poly(acrylic acid) Coating Deposited by Aerosol-Assisted Open-Air Plasma.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Jun 10;13(12). Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Laboratory for Biomaterials and Bioengineering (CRC-I), Department of Min-Met-Mat Engineering and the CHU de Québec Research Center, Laval University, PLT-1745G, 2325 Rue de l'Université, Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada.

In biomaterials and biotechnology, coatings loaded with bioactive agents are used to trigger biological responses by acting as drug release platforms and modulating surface properties. In this work, direct deposition of poly(acrylic acid) coatings containing various agents, such as dyes, fluorescent molecules, was achieved by aerosol-assisted open-air plasma. Using an original precursors injection strategy, an acrylic acid aerosol was loaded with an aqueous aerosol and deposited on silicon wafers. Read More

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Mutagenic Consequences of Sublethal Cell Death Signaling.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 7;22(11). Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3086, Australia.

Many human cancers exhibit defects in key DNA damage response elements that can render tumors insensitive to the cell death-promoting properties of DNA-damaging therapies. Using agents that directly induce apoptosis by targeting apoptotic components, rather than relying on DNA damage to indirectly stimulate apoptosis of cancer cells, may overcome classical blocks exploited by cancer cells to evade apoptotic cell death. However, there is increasing evidence that cells surviving sublethal exposure to classical apoptotic signaling may recover with newly acquired genomic changes which may have oncogenic potential, and so could theoretically spur the development of subsequent cancers in cured patients. Read More

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Phenylbenzothiazole derivatives: effects against a Trypanosoma cruzi infection and toxicological profiles.

Parasitol Res 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Laboratory of Biochemistry Research, Escuela Superior de Medicina, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Plan de San Luis y Díaz Mirón S/N, Casco de Santo Tomas, Miguel Hidalgo, 11340, Mexico City, Mexico.

Current treatments for Chagas disease have a limited impact during the chronic stage and trigger severe side effects. Treatments target Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of the disease. The aims of this study were to evaluate the trypanocidal activity of four 2-phenylbenzothiazole derivatives (BZT1-4) in vitro by using the infectious and non-infectious forms of T. Read More

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Borax Pentahydrate and Disodium Pentaborate Decahydrate Are Candidates as Anti-leukemic Drug Components by Inducing Apoptosis and Changing Bax/Bcl-2 Ratio in HL-60 Cell Line.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Jun 29. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Dokuz Eylül University, Izmir, Turkey.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common form of acute leukemia and has the lowest 5-year survival rates. Current treatment strategies do not meet the expectations also. Therefore, there is a need to improve therapeutic approaches still. Read More

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