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Targeted delivery of thrombolytic enzymes.

Authors:
Young M Kwon

Bioimpacts 2021 29;11(2):85-86. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Health Professions Division, Nova Southeastern University 3200 S. University Dr. Fort Lauderdale, FL 33328.

Although thrombolytic agents have been used for several decades in the treatment of thromboembolic conditions, there is an unmet need for the development of safer thrombolytic agents. The development of new molecules themselves may not be sufficient. This has sparked a growing interest in the design of novel nanoscale drug carrier systems for the delivery of thrombolytic enzymes in an effort to address its fatal side effects. Read More

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October 2020

Synthesis of new substituted pyridine derivatives as potent anti-liver cancer agents through apoptosis induction: In vitro, in vivo, and in silico integrated approaches.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Mar 29;111:104877. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt. Electronic address:

Liver cancer is the most common type of cancer in many countries. New studies and statistics show rising liver cancer worldwide, so it is essential to seek new agents for this type of cancer. PIM1 has an attractive target in the discovery of cancer medications as it is very much expressed in a variety of malignancies and influences such as tumorigenesis, cell cycle progression, cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and cell migration. Read More

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Effect of anesthesia on electrocorticography for localization of epileptic focus: Literature review and future directions.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 Apr 1;118:107902. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Comprehensive Epilepsy Center, Dept. of Neurology, School of Medicine, Yale University, Yale New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT, United States; Human Brain Mapping Program, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, United States.

Intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG) is a useful technique to guide resections in epilepsy surgery and is mostly performed under general anesthesia. In this systematic literature review, we seek to investigate the effect of anesthetic agents on the quality and reliability of ECoG for localization of the epileptic focus. We conducted a systematic search using PubMed and EMBASE until January 2019, aiming to review the effects of anesthesia on ECoG yield. Read More

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Reservoir computing with swarms.

Chaos 2021 Mar;31(3):033121

Complex Systems Group, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia.

We study swarms as dynamical systems for reservoir computing (RC). By example of a modified Reynolds boids model, the specific symmetries and dynamical properties of a swarm are explored with respect to a nonlinear time-series prediction task. Specifically, we seek to extract meaningful information about a predator-like driving signal from the swarm's response to that signal. Read More

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Epidemiology of Mucormycosis in India.

Microorganisms 2021 Mar 4;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012, India.

Mucormycosis is an angioinvasive disease caused by saprophytic fungi of the order Mucorales. The exact incidence of mucormycosis in India is unknown due to the lack of population-based studies. The estimated prevalence of mucormycosis is around 70 times higher in India than that in global data. Read More

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Dreaming the impossible dream? An exploratory study on the expectations of Dutch clients with multiple problems concerning the co-production of public services.

Health Soc Care Community 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Erasmus School of Health Policy and Management, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Currently, many policymakers try to encourage client involvement during the public service delivery process and make it a co-production. Clients are encouraged to act as active agents and embrace an integrated approach to address their problems to empower them. However, different studies have raised questions regarding to what extent these ambitions are appropriate for clients with vulnerabilities, such as clients with multiple problems. Read More

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A Comparison of Artificial Intelligence and Human Doctors for the Purpose of Triage and Diagnosis.

Front Artif Intell 2020 30;3:543405. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Babylon Health, London, United Kingdom.

AI virtual assistants have significant potential to alleviate the pressure on overly burdened healthcare systems by enabling patients to self-assess their symptoms and to seek further care when appropriate. For these systems to make a meaningful contribution to healthcare globally, they must be trusted by patients and healthcare professionals alike, and service the needs of patients in diverse regions and segments of the population. We developed an AI virtual assistant which provides patients with triage and diagnostic information. Read More

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November 2020

Retrospective Inference as a Form of Bounded Rationality, and Its Beneficial Influence on Learning.

Front Artif Intell 2020 18;3. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

The Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Probabilistic models of cognition typically assume that agents make inferences about current states by combining new sensory information with fixed beliefs about the past, an approach known as Bayesian filtering. This is computationally parsimonious, but, in general, leads to suboptimal beliefs about past states, since it ignores the fact that new observations typically contain information about the past as well as the present. This is disadvantageous both because knowledge of past states may be intrinsically valuable, and because it impairs learning about fixed or slowly changing parameters of the environment. Read More

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February 2020

Can NSAIDs and Acetaminophen Effectively Replace Opioid Treatment Options for Acute Pain?

Expert Opin Pharmacother 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Paolo Procacci Foundation, Via Tacito 7, 00193, Rome, Italy.

Introduction: Opioid analgesia for acute painful conditions has come under increasing scrutiny with the public health crisis of opioid overdose, leading clinicians to seek nonopioid alternatives, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and acetaminophen (paracetamol).

Areas Covered: This perspective evaluates recent clinical trials of nonopioids, opioids, and combination therapy for use in acute pain. Acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) often provide adequate analgesia, although these agents are not without risks. Read More

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Antidiabetic Potential of Naturally Occurring Sesquiterpenes: A Review

Curr Top Med Chem 2021 03 4. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Chemistry Section, Pharmacopoeia Commission for Indian Medicine and Homoeopathy (PCIM&H), Ghaziabad-201002, India.

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is an endocrine disease, which is the 3rd leading cause of death in humans; additionally, it is one of the major key concerns over the globe. The high levels of glucose in the blood stream are as well characterized by hyperglycaemia leading to serious damage to the heart, blood vessels, kidney, eyes, and nerves. The best treatment of DM is still not available; many scientists worldwide are trying hard to seek out suitable treatment of DM. Read More

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My Treatment Approach to Multiple System Atrophy.

Mayo Clin Proc 2021 03;96(3):708-719

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disorder primarily characterized by autonomic failure plus parkinsonism or cerebellar ataxia. The diagnosis may be challenging and is usually made at a tertiary care center. The long-term management issues are equally challenging and frequently require collaboration with the patient's local care providers. Read More

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Combining Celery Oleoresin, Limonene and Rhamnolipid as New Strategy to Control Endospore-Forming .

Foods 2021 Feb 19;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 19.

São Carlos Institute of Chemistry (IQSC), University of São Paulo, Trabalhador São-carlense Av., 400, P.O. Box 780, São Carlos, SP 13560-970, Brazil.

Foodborne diseases (FBD) are a great problem worldwide, leading millions of people to seek medical help and to significant economic losses for industry. Among the agents implicated in FDB is , a Gram-positive, toxigenic and endospore-forming bacterium. In this study, rhamnolipid (RL) biosurfactant, celery oleoresin (OR) and limonene (LN) were evaluated as bio-based alternatives for controlling the growth of vegetative cells and endospores of . Read More

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February 2021

Phenolic compounds of blueberries ( as a protective strategy against skin cell damage induced by ROS: A review of antioxidant potential and antiproliferative capacity.

Heliyon 2021 Feb 17;7(2):e06297. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Biomedical Innovation and Research Group, Faculty of Applied and Exact Sciences, Instituto Tecnológico Metropolitano, Medellín, Colombia.

The skin is a tissue with a high metabolic activity that acts as a protective layer for the internal organs of the body. This tissue is exposed to a variety of damaging agents, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can lead to oxidative damage to various macromolecules, disrupting vital cellular processes and increasing mutations. A situation referred to as oxidative stress occurs when a large amount of oxidants exceeds the capacity of the antioxidant defense system. Read More

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February 2021

Old drug, new Trick? The rationale for the treatment of COVID-19 with activated protein C.

Authors:
Steven B Pestka

Med Hypotheses 2021 Apr 16;149:110537. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Tufts University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Newton-Wellesley Hospital, 2014 Washington Street, Newton, MA 02462, USA. Electronic address:

As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, researchers seek to identify efficacious treatments. Current approaches to COVID-19 therapeutics focus on antiviral agents, convalescent plasma, monoclonal antibodies, immunomodulators and more traditional therapies such as steroids [1-6]. Reversing disturbances in coagulation has also been identified as a priority area for candidate therapies, such as through the Accelerating COVID-19 Therapeutic Interventions and Vaccines 4 adaptive clinical trial (ACTIV-4) which is currently evaluating aspirin, heparins and apixaban [7]. Read More

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Adverse events induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors.

Curr Opin Immunol 2021 Feb 25;69:29-38. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Departments of Immunobiology and Internal Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States. Electronic address:

Immune checkpoint inhibitors have revolutionized the treatments of cancers but are also associated with immune related adverse events that can interfere with their use. The types and severity of adverse events vary with checkpoint inhibitors. A single mechanism of pathogenesis has not emerged: postulated mechanisms involve direct effects of the checkpoint inhibitor, emergence of autoantibodies or autoreactive T cells, and destruction by toxic effects of activated T cells. Read More

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February 2021

A review of nanocellulose as a new material towards environmental sustainability.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Feb 15;775:145871. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

School of Science, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3083, Australia. Electronic address:

Synthetic polymers, commonly referred to as plastics, are anthropogenic contaminants that adversely affect the natural ecosystems. The continuous disposal of long lifespan plastics has resulted in the accumulation of plastic waste, leading to significant pollution of both marine and terrestrial habitats. Scientific pursuit to seek environment-friendly materials from renewable resources has focused on cellulose, the primary reinforcement component of the cell wall of plants, as it is the most abundantly available biopolymer on earth. Read More

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February 2021

"Those are things for married people" exploring parents'/adults' and adolescents' perspectives on contraceptives in Narok and Homa Bay Counties, Kenya.

Reprod Health 2021 Feb 23;18(1):48. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

African Population and Health Research Center-APHRC, Nairobi, Kenya.

Background: Contraceptive use among adolescent girls is low in many sub-Saharan African countries including Kenya. Attitude and perspectives about contraception of community members including adolescent girls themselves may be likely to limit contraceptive use among adolescent girls. This study was conducted to explore and compare adults'/parents' and adolescent girls' narratives and perspectives about contraception in Narok and Homa Bay counties, Kenya. Read More

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February 2021

Incidence and Mortality of Prostate Cancer in Canada during 1992-2010.

Curr Oncol 2021 Feb 21;28(1):978-990. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC H4A 3J1, Canada.

In Canada, prostate cancer is the most common reportable malignancy in men. We assessed the temporal trends of prostate cancer to gain insight into the geographic incidence and mortality trends of this disease. Three independent population-based cancer registries were used to retrospectively analyze demographic data on Canadian men diagnosed with prostate cancer and men who died of prostate cancer between the years of 1992 and 2010. Read More

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February 2021

Treatment of Chemotherapy-Induced Subungual Pyogenic Granuloma with Topical Timolol Solution.

Skin Appendage Disord 2021 Jan 10;7(1):62-65. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Dr. Phillip Frost Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA.

Introduction: Subungual pyogenic granuloma (PG) can be caused by numerous medications including chemotherapeutic agents. These lesions grow rapidly, oftentimes causing significant pain and bleeding, prompting patients to seek treatment. The management of subungual PG ranges from topical steroids to surgical excision. Read More

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January 2021

Confirmation bias is adaptive when coupled with efficient metacognition.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2021 Apr 22;376(1822):20200131. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Wellcome Centre for Human Neuroimaging, University College London, London WC1N 3BG, UK.

Biases in the consideration of evidence can reduce the chances of consensus between people with different viewpoints. While such altered information processing typically leads to detrimental performance in laboratory tasks, the ubiquitous nature of confirmation bias makes it unlikely that selective information processing is universally harmful. Here, we suggest that confirmation bias is adaptive to the extent that agents have good metacognition, allowing them to downweight contradictory information when correct but still able to seek new information when they realize they are wrong. Read More

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A multidisciplinary approach to the management of liver disease and alcohol disorders in psychiatric settings (Review).

Exp Ther Med 2021 Mar 25;21(3):271. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Psychiatry, 'Alex. Obregia' Clinical Hospital for Psychiatry, 041914 Bucharest, Romania.

Society is burdened with the uncontrolled use of alcohol, an ongoing issue, with a substantial associated morbidity and a pressing economical reverberation. It is inevitable that a series of psychiatric patients who display alcohol disorders will be admitted to hospital while also suffering from health conditions, such as liver disease, due to the consumption of alcohol. Managing comorbid patients in a psychiatric facility is a delicate matter that requires a collaborative team. Read More

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The evolving landscape of immunotherapy in solid tumors.

J Surg Oncol 2021 Mar;123(3):798-806

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

While surgical resection, local and cytotoxic therapies have long formed the basis of cancer care, immunotherapy now plays a key role in supplementing and even replacing these agents in the first line. Here we review the early success of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 blockade and discuss biomarkers of therapeutic response. We next highlight a select group of novel targets in Phase III trials both as monotherapies and in combination with PD-1 inhibitors. Read More

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Aortitis: recent advances, current concepts and future possibilities.

Heart 2021 Feb 16. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

University/BHF Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK

Broadly defined, aortitis refers to inflammation of the aorta and incorporates both infectious and non-infectious aetiologies. As advanced imaging modalities are increasingly incorporated into clinical practice, the phenotypic spectrum associated with aortitis has widened. The primary large vessel vasculitides, giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis, are the most common causes of non-infectious aortitis. Read More

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February 2021

Hospital outbreak of fluconazole-resistant : arguments for clonal transmission and long-term persistence.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 Feb 16. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

AP-HP, Groupe Hospitalier La Pitié-Salpêtrière, Service de Parasitologie Mycologie, Paris, France.

The worldwide emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogenic fungi is a threat to human health. At this very moment, an emergence of isolates harbouring a resistance to fluconazole, one of the most popular antifungal drugs, is being described in several countries. We seek to better understanding the epidemiology, pathogenicity and transmission of resistant Faced with an outbreak of invasive infections due to resistant isolates of , we performed a 7-year retrospective and prospective analysis of 283 isolates collected in 240 patients, among who 111 had invasive candidiasis. Read More

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February 2021

Maternal Sepsis: Presentation, Course, Treatment, and Outcomes.

MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Courtney Stanley Sundin is a Quality and Simulation Specialist, Labor & Delivery, Andrew's Womens Hospital, Baylor Scott & White All Saints Medical Center, Fort Worth, TX. The author can be reached via email at Kendall Rigg is a Charge Nurse, Labor & Delivery, Andrew's Womens Hospital, Baylor Scott & White All Saints Medical Center, Fort Worth, TX. Dr. Kathleen Kistner Ellis is an Assistant Professor, Texas Woman's University, Houston, TX.

Abstract: Purpose: The current adult definition of sepsis and septic shock, as developed in 1992, does not adequately define sepsis in the pregnant and peripartum women due to the alteration of sepsis presentation in the maternal population. The purpose of this study was to determine potential causative factors for sepsis with the aim of prevention and reducing morbidity/mortality.Study Design and Methods: A descriptive observational design via a retrospective medical record review was used with a convenience sample of 22 women who were identified after admission as having sepsis. Read More

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February 2021

In Esophageal Squamous Cells From Eosinophilic Esophagitis Patients, Th2 Cytokines Increase Eotaxin-3 Secretion Through Effects on Intracellular Calcium and a Non-Gastric Proton Pump.

Gastroenterology 2021 Feb 11. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Medicine, Center for Esophageal Diseases, Baylor University Medical Center and Center for Esophageal Research, Baylor Scott & White Research Institute, Dallas, Texas. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: In upper airway cells, T helper 2 cytokines that signal through interleukin-4 (IL-4) receptor-α have been shown to stimulate eotaxin-3 secretion via a nongastric proton pump (ngH,KATPase). To seek novel targets for eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) treatments, we evaluated ngH,KATPase expression in EoE squamous cells, and explored molecular pathways involved in eotaxin-3 secretion by IL-4 receptor-α signaling.

Methods: ngH,KATPase expression in EoE cells was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Read More

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February 2021

Preclinical Pharmacokinetic Interaction and Histopathological Analyses of on Sorafenib in Rats.

ACS Omega 2021 Feb 24;6(4):3060-3067. Epub 2021 Jan 24.

Institute of Traditional Medicine, School of Medicine,National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei 112, Taiwan.

Sorafenib is one of the most effective target therapeutic agents for patients with late-stage hepatocellular carcinoma. To seek possible alternative adjuvant agents to enhance the efficacy and improve the side effect of sorafenib, , one of the most prescribed phytomedicines for treating liver cancer patients in Taiwan, was evaluated in this work. We hypothesized that extract is a safety herb combination on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of sorafenib. Read More

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February 2021

Reactive Oxygen Species-Regulating Strategies Based on Nanomaterials for Disease Treatment.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Feb 20;8(3):2002797. Epub 2020 Dec 20.

College of Materials Science and Optoelectronic Technology University of Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing 100049 China.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an essential role in physiological and pathological processes. Studies on the regulation of ROS for disease treatments have caused wide concern, mainly involving the topics in ROS-regulating therapy such as antioxidant therapy triggered by ROS scavengers and ROS-induced toxic therapy mediated by ROS-elevation agents. Benefiting from the remarkable advances of nanotechnology, a large number of nanomaterials with the ROS-regulating ability are developed to seek new and effective ROS-related nanotherapeutic modalities or nanomedicines. Read More

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February 2021

A Study of the Disruptive Effect of the Acetate Fraction of Extract on Biofilms.

Front Microbiol 2020 18;11:568258. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Laboratório de Microbiologia Ambiental, Universidade Ceuma, São Luís, Brazil.

Cryptococcosis, caused by yeasts of the genus , is an infectious disease with a worldwide distribution. and are the species that commonly cause this disease in humans; however, infections caused by , especially in immunocompromised patients, are increasingly being reported. Owing to the increase in the resistance of fungi to antifungals, and a lack of treatment options, it is important to seek new therapeutic alternatives such as natural products. Read More

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January 2021