27 results match your criteria agents g-series

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Product Inhibition and the Catalytic Destruction of a Nerve Agent Simulant by Zirconium-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 23;13(26):30565-30575. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States.

Rapid degradation/destruction of chemical warfare agents, especially ones containing a phosphorous-fluorine bond, is of notable interest due to their extreme toxicity and typically rapid rate of human incapacitation. Recent studies of the hydrolytic destruction of a key nerve agent simulant, dimethyl 4-nitrophenylphosphate (DMNP), catalyzed by Zr-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), have suggested deactivation of the active sites due to inhibition by the products as the reaction progresses. In this study, the interactions of two MOFs, NU-1000 and MOF-808, and two hydrolysis products, dimethyl phosphate (DMP) and ethyl methyl phosphonate (EMP), from the hydrolysis of the simulant (DMNP) and nerve agent ethyl methylphosphonofluoridate (EMPF), resembling the hydrolysis degradation product of the G-series nerve agent, Sarin (GB), have been investigated to deconvolute the effect of product inhibition from other effects on catalytic activity. Read More

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Structural and Biochemical Insights into the Inhibition of Human Acetylcholinesterase by G-Series Nerve Agents and Subsequent Reactivation by HI-6.

Chem Res Toxicol 2021 Mar 4;34(3):804-816. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

United States Army Futures Command, Combat Capabilities Development Command, Chemical Biological Center, Chemcial Sciences Division, Agent Chemistry Branch, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, Maryland 21010-5424, United States.

The recent use of organophosphate nerve agents in Syria, Malaysia, Russia, and the United Kingdom has reinforced the potential threat of their intentional release. These agents act through their ability to inhibit human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE; E.C. Read More

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Improving Quantification of tabun, sarin, soman, cyclosarin, and sulfur mustard by focusing agents: A field portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry study.

J Chromatogr A 2021 Jan 13;1636:461784. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Hazardous Materials Research Center (HMRC), Battelle Columbus Laboratories, Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH, USA.

Commercial gas chromatograph-mass spectrometers, one of which being Inficon's HAPSITE® ER, have demonstrated chemical detection and identification of nerve agents (G-series) and blistering agents (mustard gas) in the field; however most analyses relies on self-contained or external calibration that inherently drifts over time. We describe an analytical approach that uses target-based thermal desorption standards, called focusing agents, to accurately calculate concentrations of chemical warfare agents that are analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Here, we provide relative response factors of focusing agents (2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, diisopropyl fluorophosphate, diethyl methylphosphonate, diethyl malonate, methyl salicylate, and dichlorvos) that are used to quantify concentrations of tabun, sarin, soman, cyclosarin and sulfur mustard loaded on thermal desorption tubes (Tenax® TA). Read More

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January 2021

A Fluorogenic and Chromogenic Probe Distinguishes Fluoride Anions and Thiols: Implications for Discrimination of Fluoride-Containing G Series and Sulfur-Containing V Series Nerve Agents.

J Fluoresc 2021 Jan 3;31(1):141-149. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Institute of Chemical Defence, Beijing, 102205, People's Republic of China.

A coumarin-based probe, FP2, was designed for the differential detection of fluoride anions and thiols, i.e., the corresponding nucleophilic substitution products from fluorine-containing G agents and sulfur-containing V agents, thus having the potential to discriminate between these two nerve agents. Read More

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January 2021

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (nerve agents) as weapons of mass destruction: History, mechanisms of action, and medical countermeasures.

Neuropharmacology 2020 12 6;181:108298. Epub 2020 Sep 6.

Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland, 20814, USA; Department of Psychiatry, F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, 20814, USA. Electronic address:

Nerve agents are organophosphorus acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Acute exposure to nerve agents can cause rapid death. In this review, we summarize the history of nerve agent development and use in warfare, the mechanisms by which these agents cause death or long-term brain damage, and the treatments for preventing death or long-term morbidity. Read More

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December 2020

A fluorescent probe bearing two reactive groups discriminates between fluoride-containing G series and sulfur-containing V series nerve agents.

Analyst 2020 Aug 6;145(16):5425-5429. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Institute of Chemical Defence, Beijing, 102205, China.

Herein, we present an approach to design a fluorescent molecule for detection and discrimination of fluoride-containing G series and sulfur-containing V series nerve agents. FP1 bearing two reactive groups can react with fluorides and thiols from the two types of nerve agents and generate different products with obvious and diverse fluorescences, which will be helpful when dealing with terrorist crises. Read More

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Lamellar nanoporous gold thin films with tunable porosity for ultrasensitive SERS detection in liquid and gas phase.

Nanoscale 2020 Jun 5;12(23):12602-12612. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel, IMN, Université de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssinière B.P. 32229, 44322 Nantes cedex 3, France.

Lamellar nanoporous gold thin films, constituted of a stack of very thin layers of porous gold, are synthesized by chemical etching from a stack of successively deposited nanolayers of copper and gold. The gold ligament size, the pore size and the distance between lamellas are tunable in the few tens nanometer range by controlling the initial thickness of the layers and the etching time. The SERS activity of these lamellar porous gold films is characterized by their SERS responses after adsorption of probe bipyridine and naphtalenethiol molecules. Read More

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High-Throughput Screening of MOFs for Breakdown of V-Series Nerve Agents.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Apr 21;12(13):14672-14677. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, United States.

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have shown promise for the catalytic decomposition of chemical weapons. Finding the best materials for the degradation of nerve agents requires the ability to screen a high number of samples and elucidate the key parameters of effective catalysis. In this work, a high-throughput screening (HTS) method has been developed to evaluate MOFs as catalysts, specifically against the V-class of nerve agents. Read More

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Protein adduct binding properties of tabun-subtype nerve agents after exposure in vitro and in vivo.

Toxicol Lett 2020 Mar 14;321:1-11. Epub 2019 Dec 14.

State Key Laboratory of NBC Protection for Civilian, Beijing 102205, China. Electronic address:

Upon entering the body, nerve agents can bind active amino acid residues to form phosphonylated adducts. Tabun derivatives (O-alkyl-N,N-dialkyl phosphoroamidocyanidates) have strikingly different structural features from other G-series nerve agents, such as sarin and soman. Here, we investigate the binding mechanism for the phosphonylated adducts of nerve agents of tabun derivatives. Read More

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Gas phase detection of chemical warfare agents CWAs with portable Raman.

J Hazard Mater 2020 02 23;384:121279. Epub 2019 Sep 23.

Nanoscience Institute of Aragon (INA), University of Zaragoza, Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering, Edificio I+D+i, Campus Rio Ebro, C/Mariano Esquillor s/n, 50018, Zaragoza, Spain; Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), Universidad de Zaragoza-CSIC, 50009, Zaragoza, Spain; Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine, CIBER-BBN, 28029, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

The development of SERS substrates for chemical detection of specific analytes requires appropriate selection of plasmonic metal and the surface where it is deposited. Here we deposited Ag nanoplates on three substrates: i) conventional SiO/Si wafer, ii) stainless steel mesh and iii) graphite foils. The SERS enhancement of the signal was studied for Rhodamine 6 G (R6 G) as common liquid phase probe molecule. Read More

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February 2020

Screening for Improved Nerve Agent Simulants and Insights into Organophosphate Hydrolysis Reactions from DFT and QSAR Modeling.

Chemistry 2019 Jul 27;25(39):9217-9229. Epub 2019 May 27.

Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, 60208, USA.

The effective detoxification of chemical warfare agents, specifically nerve agents, is a pressing issue in the modern world. Due to the high toxicity of these molecules, simulants are often used in experiments as substitutes for the agents. However, there is little reason to believe that the current simulants used in the literature are optimal predictors of nerve agent reactivity. Read More

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Acetylcholinesterase-functionalized two-dimensional photonic crystal for the sensing of G-series nerve agents.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2019 May 7;411(12):2577-2585. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081, China.

G-series nerve agents, such as sarin, tabun, and soman, would cause tremendous harm in military and terrorist attacks, so it is necessary to develop a simple method for the rapid and efficient detection of these hazardous substances. We have developed a tunable acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-functionalized two-dimensional photonic crystal (2D PhC) for the detection of a real nerve agent, sarin. In accordance with the 2D PhC previously prepared by our group, the AChE-functionalized 2D PhC was optimized by adjustment of the amount of monomer in the hydrogel, which not only increased the sensitivity of the 2D PhC, with the detection limit decreasing by two orders of magnitude, but also ensured the structural color spanned the whole visible region in the detection range. Read More

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Rapid quantification of two chemical nerve agent metabolites in serum.

Biosens Bioelectron 2019 Apr 31;131:119-127. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Chemistry, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, 37615, USA. Electronic address:

Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) continue to represent a significant chemical threat to humans due to exposures from their use as weapons, their potential storage hazards, and from their continued use agriculturally. Existing methods for detection include ELISA and mass spectrometry. The new approach presented here provides an innovative first step toward a portable OP quantification method that surmounts conventional limitations involving sensitivity, selectivity, complexity, and portability. Read More

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On-substrate derivatization for detection of highly volatile G-series chemical warfare agents via paper spray mass spectrometry.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2018 Dec;32(23):1979-1983

Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, 8198 Blackhawk Rd, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, 21010-5424, USA.

Rationale: The analysis of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) from ambient atmosphere presents an analytical challenge due to their ease of degradation and volatility. Herein is described a method for derivatizing CWAs directly onto a paper spray substrate prior to analysis. This derivatization allows for much longer times of analysis without sample degradation and with little to no sample preparation. Read More

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December 2018

Metal-Organic Framework Modified Glass Substrate for Analysis of Highly Volatile Chemical Warfare Agents by Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Mar 21;10(9):8359-8365. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Research and Technology Directorate , U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC) , Aberdeen Proving Ground , Maryland 21010 , United States.

Paper spray mass spectrometry has been shown to successfully analyze chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants. However, due to the volatility differences between the simulants and real G-series (i.e. Read More

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Increased expression of angiogenic cytokines in CD56+ uterine natural killer cells from women with recurrent miscarriage.

Cytokine 2018 10 1;110:272-276. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong. Electronic address:

Objective: To compare the expression pattern of angiogenic cytokines in CD56+ uNK cells from peri-implantation endometrium in women with a history of recurrent miscarriage and fertile controls.

Methods: 28 women were recruited, from which 18 women were diagnosed as recurrent miscarriage and 10 women were of proven fertility. Endometrial biopsy samples were obtained precisely 7 days after luteinization hormone surge in a natural cycle. Read More

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October 2018

Oxidized g-C N Nanospheres as Catalytically Photoactive Linkers in MOF/g-C N Composite of Hierarchical Pore Structure.

Small 2017 Jan 6;13(1). Epub 2016 Oct 6.

Department of Chemistry, The City College of New York, New York, NY, 10031, USA.

A unique composite of the copper-based metal-organic framework (Cu-benzene tricarboxylic acid (BTC)) with oxidized graphitic carbon nitride nanospheres is synthesized. For comparison, a hybrid material consisting of g-C N and Cu-BTC is also obtained. Their surface features are analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, sorption of nitrogen, thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy, photoluminescence, and diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectroscopy. Read More

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January 2017

Developments in alternative treatments for organophosphate poisoning.

Toxicol Lett 2015 Mar 13;233(2):200-6. Epub 2015 Jan 13.

Center for Life Sciences Technology, Engineering Technology, University of Houston, 300 Technology Building, Houston, TX 77204, USA.

Organophosphosphates (OPs) are highly effective acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors that are used worldwide as cheap, multi-purpose insecticides. OPs are also used as chemical weapons forming the active core of G-series and V-series chemical agents including tabun, sarin, soman, cyclosarin, VX, and their chemical analogs. Human exposure to any of these compounds leads to neurotoxic accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, resulting in abnormal nerve function and multiple secondary health complications. Read More

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Direct quantification of chemical warfare agents and related compounds at low ppt levels: comparing active capillary dielectric barrier discharge plasma ionization and secondary electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

Anal Chem 2015 Jan 10;87(1):723-9. Epub 2014 Dec 10.

Department of Chemistry and Applied Bioscience, ETH Zurich , HCI E329, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland.

A novel active capillary dielectric barrier discharge plasma ionization (DBDI) technique for mass spectrometry is applied to the direct detection of 13 chemical warfare related compounds, including sarin, and compared to secondary electrospray ionization (SESI) in terms of selectivity and sensitivity. The investigated compounds include an intact chemical warfare agent and structurally related molecules, hydrolysis products and/or precursors of highly toxic nerve agents (G-series, V-series, and "new" nerve agents), and blistering and incapacitating warfare agents. Well-defined analyte gas phase concentrations were generated by a pressure-assisted nanospray with consecutive thermal evaporation and dilution. Read More

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January 2015

Calculated infrared spectra of nerve agents and simulants.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2012 Jun 9;91:256-60. Epub 2012 Feb 9.

Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, United States.

Since organophosphorus nerve agents are among the most toxic known chemical warfare agents, it is desirable to have a way to distinguish between one and another. Infrared spectroscopy is a common tool for identifying molecules. Given the difficulty in handling these chemicals, calculated IR spectra can be useful. Read More

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Dust as a collection media for contaminant source attribution.

Forensic Sci Int 2012 Apr 21;217(1-3):39-49. Epub 2011 Oct 21.

Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, TX 78238, USA.

Dust was investigated for its ability to retain source attribution profiles (SAPs) after chemical exposure. Three distinct sources of the organophosphate pesticide acephate were investigated as a proof-of-concept model. In addition, attribution profiles were created and tested using compounds related to chemical warfare agents (CWAs), specifically VX and G-series agents: O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (EMPTA), N,N-diisopropylmethylamine (DIPMA), N,N-diisopropylethylamine (DIEA), diisopropylamine (DIPA), diethyl aniline (DEA), diethyl ethyl phosphonate (DEEP), trimethyl phosphite (TMP), dimethyl hydrogen phosphite (DMHP), diethyl hydrogen phosphite (DEHP), triethyl phosphate (TEP), ethyl methylphosphonate (EMPA), and diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP). Read More

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Assessing the reactivation efficacy of hydroxylamine anion towards VX-inhibited AChE: a computational study.

J Mol Model 2012 May 18;18(5):1801-8. Epub 2011 Aug 18.

Analytical Science Discipline, Central Salt & Marine Chemicals Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India.

Oximate anions are used as potential reactivating agents for OP-inhibited AChE because of they possess enhanced nucleophilic reactivity due to the α-effect. We have demonstrated the process of reactivating the VX-AChE adduct with formoximate and hydroxylamine anions by applying the DFT approach at the B3LYP/6-311 G(d,p) level of theory. The calculated results suggest that the hydroxylamine anion is more efficient than the formoximate anion at reactivating VX-inhibited AChE. Read More

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Study of efficacy of reactivator HI 6 in reactivation of immobilized acetylcholinesterase, inhibited by organophosphorus chemical warfare agents of the "G" series.

Drug Metab Lett 2009 Jan;3(1):54-7

University of Defence, Brno, Institute of NBC Defence, Víta Nejedlého, 682 03 Vyskov, Czech Republic.

Reactivation with bis quaternary aldoxime HI-6, chemical formula 1-(2-hydroxyamino-methylpyridinium)-3-(4-carbamoylpyridinium)-2-oxapropane dichloride of immobilized enzyme acetylcholinesterase inhibited by nerve agent type "G" was studied. This aldoxime is effective in reactivation of sarin-inhibited acetylcholinesterase. Substantially lower reactivation potency was observed with cyclosarin-inhibited enzyme and almost no effect was found for that acetylcholinesterase is the enzyme complex. Read More

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January 2009

Ultraviolet Raman spectra and cross-sections of the G-series nerve agents.

Appl Spectrosc 2008 Oct;62(10):1078-83

US Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, APG-EA, Maryland 21010-5424, USA.

Ultraviolet (UV) Raman spectroscopy is being applied to the detection of chemical agent contamination of natural and man-made surfaces. In support of these efforts, we have measured the UV Raman signatures of the G-series nerve agents GA (tabun), GB (sarin), GD (soman), GF (cyclosarin), and the agent simulant diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) at 248 nm and 262 nm, as well as taking their UV Raman and UV absorption cross-sections. Of these chemicals, only GA exhibits any significant pre-resonance enhancement. Read More

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October 2008

Catalytic methods for the destruction of chemical warfare agents under ambient conditions.

Authors:
Bryan M Smith

Chem Soc Rev 2008 Mar 4;37(3):470-8. Epub 2007 Dec 4.

Anchorage, AK 99517, USA.

This tutorial review--which should particularly appeal to chemists, biochemists, and molecular biologists interested in catalysis, redox processes, and enzymology--summarizes the recent progress toward developing catalysts capable of destroying one or more of the classical chemical warfare agents under ambient conditions. Specifically, we explore the reactions of sulfur mustard, the G-series of organophosphorus nerve agents including sarin and soman, and the organophosphorus nerve agent, VX. Catalysts range from metal-centered oxidation catalysts to engineered catalytic antibodies. Read More

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Detection of aqueous phase chemical warfare agent degradation products by negative mode ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometry [IM(tof)MS].

J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2006 Feb 18;17(2):241-5. Epub 2006 Jan 18.

SAIC/Geo-Centers, Edgewood Chemical Biological Center Operations, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, USA.

The use of negative ion monitoring mode with an atmospheric pressure ion mobility orthogonal reflector time-of-flight mass spectrometer [IM(tof)MS] to detect chemical warfare agent (CWA) degradation products from aqueous phase samples has been determined. Aqueous phase sampling used a traditional electrospray ionization (ESI) source for sample introduction and ionization. Certified reference materials (CRM) of CWA degradation products for the detection of Schedule 1, 2, or 3 toxic chemicals or their precursors as defined by the chemical warfare convention (CWC) treaty verification were used in this study. Read More

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February 2006

Volatile anesthetics give a false-positive reading in chemical agent monitors in the "H" mode.

Mil Med 2001 Aug;166(8):708-10

Therapy Group, Chemical Biological Defence Section, Defence Research Establishment Suffield, Box 4000, Medicine Hat, Alberta, Canada T1A 8K6.

Chemical agent monitors (CAMs) are routinely used by the armed forces and emergency response teams of many countries for the detection of the vesicant sulfur mustard (HD) and the G series of organophosphate nerve agents. Ambient operating room isoflurane levels were found to produce strong positive signals in the "H" mode when the CAM was used to monitor the efficacy of decontamination procedures during routine surgical procedures on HD-poisoned animals requiring up to 8 hours of general anesthesia. Subsequent testing showed that isoflurane, as well as desflurane, sevoflurane, halothane and methoxyflurane, produce two ionization peaks in the CAM response. Read More

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