166,041 results match your criteria agents concentrations

Novel Lignin-Capped Silver Nanoparticles against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Faculty of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada.

The emergence of bacteria resistant to antibiotics and the resulting infections are increasingly becoming a public health issue. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are responsible for infections leading to increased morbidity and mortality in hospitals, prolonged time of hospitalization, and additional burden to financial costs. Therefore, there is an urgent need for novel antibacterial agents that will both treat MDR infections and outsmart the bacterial evolutionary mechanisms, preventing further resistance development. Read More

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Changes in aqueous and vitreous inflammatory cytokine levels in diabetic macular oedema: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Acta Ophthalmol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Ophthalmology, St. Michael's Hospital/Unity Health Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Diabetic macular oedema (DME) is considered a chronic inflammatory disease associated with aberrations in many intraocular cytokines. Studies assessing the role of these cytokines as biomarkers in the diagnosis and management of DME have demonstrated inconsistent findings. We quantitatively summarized data related to 116 candidate aqueous and vitreous inflammatory cytokines as biomarkers in DME. Read More

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LC-MS/MS-based profiling of bioactive metabolites of endophytic bacteria from Cannabis sativa and their anti-Phytophthora activity.

Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Plant Pathology, Mid-Florida Research and Education Center, University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, 2725 Binion Rd, Apopka, FL, 32703, USA.

Protection of crop plants from phytopathogens through endophytic bacteria is a newly emerged area of biocontrol. In this study, endophytic bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of Cannabis sativa. Based on initial antimicrobial screening, three (03) bacteria Serratia marcescens MOSEL-w2, Enterobacter cloacae MOSEL-w7, and Paenibacillus MOSEL-w13 were selected. Read More

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single-nucleotide polymorphism rs1319501 and visfatin/NAMPT affect nitric oxide formation, sFlt-1 and antihypertensive therapy response in preeclampsia.

Pharmacogenomics 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Graduate Program in Genetics, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

We examined the relationships between visfatin/NAMPT and nitrite concentrations (a marker of nitric oxide [NO] formation) or sFlt-1 levels in 205 patients with preeclampsia (PE) responsive or nonresponsive to antihypertensive therapy, and whether SNPs rs1319501 and rs3801266 affect nitrite concentrations in PE and 206 healthy pregnant women. Circulating visfatin/NAMPT and sFlt-1 levels were measured by ELISA, and nitrite concentrations by using an ozone-based chemiluminescence assay. In nonresponsive PE patients, visfatin/NAMPT levels were inversely related to nitrite concentrations and positively related to sFlt-1 levels. Read More

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Macrophage activation in vitro by Parachartergus fraternus venom.

Toxicon 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Laboratory of Pharmacology and Inflammation, FACFAN/Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Electronic address:

Parachartergus fraternus wasp induces inflammation with a predominance of mononuclear cells, that can acquire macrophage functions at the sting site, amplifying the response. These cells can be activated by venomous animals and are involved in destruction of injurious agents and release of inflammatory mediators. The objective of this work was to evaluate the activity of P. Read More

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Disinfectant testing for veterinary and agricultural applications: A review.

Zoonoses Public Health 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Bacteriology, Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA - Weybridge), Addlestone, UK.

Disinfectants for veterinary and livestock use, plus skin antiseptics, are critical elements for the control of infectious agents, including zoonotic and antimicrobial-resistant micro-organisms, in managed animal species. Such agents impact animal welfare, economic performance and human health. Testing of disinfectants is needed for safety, efficacy and quality control. Read More

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Development of rebamipide-loaded spray-dried microsphere using distilled water and meglumine: physicochemical characterization and pharmacokinetics in rats.

Pharm Dev Technol 2021 May 3:1-37. Epub 2021 May 3.

College of Pharmacy, Hanyang University, Ansan, South Korea.

In this study, a novel rebamipide-loaded spray-dried microsphere (RSM) with enhanced drug solubility and oral bioavailability has been developed utilizing meglumine, an alkalizing agent. The influence of carriers on the drug solubility alone, and on the solubility and dissolution of drug in the RSM were investigated. Among the alkalizing agents and hydrophilic polymers tested, meglumine and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) showed the highest drug solubility and dissolution rate, respectively. Read More

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Preclinical Evaluation of Carfilzomib for Infant -Rearranged Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Front Oncol 2021 15;11:631594. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Division of Children's Leukaemia and Cancer Research, Telethon Kids Cancer Centre, Telethon Kids Institute, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia.

Background: Infants with -rearranged B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have poor outcomes. There is an urgent need to identify novel agents to improve survival. Proteasome inhibition has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for several hematological malignancies. Read More

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In vitro susceptibility of human subtypes to simeprevir.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Apr 2;28(4):2491-2501. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Medical Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

Introduction And Aim: is a common enteric parasite, having a worldwide distribution. Many antimicrobial agents are effective against it, yet side effects and drug resistance have been reported. Thus, ongoing trials are being conducted for exploring anti- alternatives. Read More

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The mode of antibacterial action of quaternary N-benzylimidazole salts against emerging opportunistic pathogens.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Apr 23;112:104938. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Split, Ruđera Boškovića 33, Split, Croatia. Electronic address:

Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are antimicrobial agents displaying a broad spectrum of activity due to their mechanism of action targeting the bacterial membrane. The emergence of bacterial resistance to QACs, especially in times of pandemics, requires the continuous search for new and potent QACs structures. Here we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of QACs based on imidazole derivative, N-benzylimidazole. Read More

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Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel imidazole-chalcone derivatives as potential anticancer agents and tubulin polymerization inhibitors.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Apr 20;112:104904. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Biotechnology Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Novel imidazole-chalcone derivatives were designed and synthesized as tubulin polymerization inhibitors and anticancer agents. The antiproliferative activity of the imidazole-chalcone was assessed on some human cancer cell lines including A549 (adenocarcinoma human alveolar basal epithelial cells), MCF-7 (human breast cancer cells), MCF-7/MX (mitoxantrone resistant human breast cancer cells), and HEPG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma cells). Generally, the imidazole-chalcone derivatives exhibited more cytotoxicity on A549 cancer cells in comparison to the other three cell lines, among them compounds 9j' and 9g showed significant cytotoxicity with IC values ranging from 7. Read More

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The removal of Cu from wine by copolymer PVI/PVP: Impact on Cu fractions and binding agents.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 9;357:129764. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

National Wine and Grape Industry Centre, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia; School of Agricultural and Wine Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Locked Bag 588, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia.

Specific forms of Cu in wine can influence wine flavour and development. The co-polymer polyvinylimidazole/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVI/PVP) is known to remove Cu from wine, but its impact on different Cu forms is uncertain. In this study, three Cu fractions in white wine were determined by colorimetry and two Cu fractions in red wine were determined by diatomaceous earth depth filtration and atomic spectroscopy. Read More

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Optimized surface plasmon resonance immunoassay for staphylococcal enterotoxin G detection using silica nanoparticles.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Apr 28;558:168-174. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Cátedra de Inmunología and Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral Ricardo A. Margni (IDEHU), UBA-CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

Staphylococcal enterotoxins are one of the most important causative agents of food poisoning. These molecules function as both gastrointestinal toxins and superantigens (SAgs) which can simultaneously bind MHC-II and T cell receptor leading to a non-specific polyclonal T cell activation and massive proinflammatory cytokine release. Common symptoms include vomiting and diarrhea; however, in more severe cases, systemic dissemination may result in toxic shock syndrome and can be lethal in a few hours. Read More

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Exploring the potential of highly charged Ru(II)- and heteronuclear Ru(II)/Cu(II)-polypyridyl complexes as antimicrobial agents.

J Inorg Biochem 2021 Apr 22;220:111467. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Chemistry "Ugo Schiff", University of Florence, via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy.

The antimicrobial potential of two ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes, [Ru(phen)L1] and [Ru(phen)L2] (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) containing the 4,4'-(2,5,8,11,14-pentaaza[15])-2,2'-bipyridilophane (L1) and the 4,4'-bis-[methylen-(1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane)]-2,2' bipyridine (L2) units, is herein investigated. These peculiar polyamine frameworks afford the formation of highly charged species in solution, influence the DNA-binding and cleavage properties of compounds, but they do not undermine their singlet oxygen sensitizing capacities, thus making these complexes attractive O generators in aqueous solution. L1 and L2 also permit to stably host Fenton -active Cu ion/s, leading to the formation of mixed Ru/Cu forms capable to further strengthen the oxidative damages to biological targets. Read More

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Silver nanoparticles protect against arsenic induced genotoxicity via attenuating arsenic bioaccumulation and elevating antioxidation in mammalian cells.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 5;413:125287. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Key Laboratory of High Magnetic Field and Ion Beam Physical Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Pollution Control Technology, High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031, PR China. Electronic address:

Arsenic (As) and its compounds have been classified as Group I carcinogenic agents by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC); however, there is few specific and efficient antidotes used for As detoxification. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at non-toxic concentrations on As(Ⅲ) induced genotoxicity and the underlying mechanism. Our data showed that AgNPs pretreatment significantly inhibited the generation of phosphorylated histone H2AX (γ-H2AX, marker of nuclear DNA double strand breaks) and the mutation frequencies induced by As(Ⅲ) exposure. Read More

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Adsorption and self-assembly properties of the plant based biosurfactant, Glycyrrhizic acid.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Mar 30;598:444-454. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

ISIS Facility, STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Campus, Didcot, Oxon, UK.

There is an increased interest in the use of natural surfactant as replacements for synthetic surfactants due to their biosustainable and biocompatible properties. A category of natural surfactants which are attracting much current interest is the triterpenoid saponins; surface active components found extensively in a wide range of plant species. A wide range of different saponin structures exist, depending upon the plant species they are extracted from; but regardless of the variation in structural details they are all highly surface active glycosides. Read More

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Inhibition of Aedes aegypti DNA topoisomerase II by etoposide: Impact on survival and morphology of larvae and pupae.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Apr 27:109066. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Laboratório Integrado de Bioquímica Hatisaburo Masuda, NUPEM, Instituto de Biodiversidade e Sustentabilidade, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida São José Barreto, N° 764, Bairro, São José do Barreto, Macaé, RJ CEP: 27.965-045, Brazil. Electronic address:

DNA topoisomerase II enzymes maintain DNA stability during vital processes, such as genome replication, transcription and chromosomal segregation during mitosis and meiosis. In the present work, we analyzed functional aspects of the DNA topoisomerase II (AeTopII) enzyme of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Here, we show that AeTopII mRNA is expressed at all stages of mosquito development. Read More

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Application of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier integrity.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Apr 27;127:171-183. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

School for Mental Health and Neuroscience (MHeNs), Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, the Netherlands; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, P.O. Box 5800, 6202 AZ Maastricht, the Netherlands; School for Cardiovascular Diseases (CARIM), Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, the Netherlands.


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Extracts of Euphorbia nivulia Buch.-Ham. showed both phytotoxic and insecticidal capacities against Lemna minor L. and Oxycarenus hyalinipennis Costa.

PLoS One 2021 30;16(4):e0250118. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Biotechnology, College of Sciences, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia.

Many phytochemicals can affect the growth and development of plants and insects which can be used as biological control agents. In this study, different concentrations of crude, hexane, chloroform, butanol, and aqueous extracts of Euphorbia nivulia Buch.-Ham. Read More

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Simultaneous determination of triclosan, triclocarban, triclocarban metabolites and byproducts in urine and serum by UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2021 Apr 29:e9117. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental and Biological Analysis, Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, 999077, China.

Rational: Triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) are ubiquitous antimicrobial agents incorporated in consumer and personal care products. Due to their human health risks, it is essential to develop a sensitive and accurate analytical method to simultaneously quantify TCS, TCC, as well as their metabolites and byproducts in urine and serum samples.

Methods: The quantitative parameters of TCS, TCC, TCC metabolites and byproducts (2'-OH-TCC, 3'-OH-TCC, 6-OH-TCC, DHC, DCC, NCC) were optimized by using the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Read More

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Combination of Cyclosporine A and Levosimendan Induces Cardioprotection under Acute Hyperglycemia.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 26;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Anesthesiology, Medical Faculty and University Hospital Duesseldorf, Heinrich-Heine-University Duesseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, 40225 Duesseldorf, Germany.

Prognosis of patients with myocardial infarction is detrimentally affected by comorbidities like diabetes mellitus. In the experimental setting, not only diabetes mellitus but also acute hyperglycemia is shown to hamper cardioprotective properties by multiple pharmacological agents. For Levosimendan-induced postconditioning, a strong infarct size reducing effect is demonstrated in healthy myocardium. Read More

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Formulation and Optimization of Sodium Alginate Polymer Film as a Buccal Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery System Containing Cetirizine Dihydrochloride.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Apr 26;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology and Regulatory Affairs, University of Szeged, Eötvös u. 6., H-6720 Szeged, Hungary.

Currently, pharmaceutical companies are working on innovative methods, processes and products. Oral mucoadhesive systems, such as tablets, gels, and polymer films, are among these possible products. Oral mucoadhesive systems possess many advantages, including the possibility to be applied in swallowing problems. Read More

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Antiviral Evaluation of UV-4B and Interferon-Alpha Combination Regimens against Dengue Virus.

Viruses 2021 Apr 27;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Institute for Therapeutic Innovation, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Orlando, FL 32827, USA.

Dengue virus (DENV) is a flavivirus associated with clinical manifestations ranging in severity from self-limiting dengue fever, to the potentially life threatening condition, severe dengue. There are currently no approved antiviral therapies for the treatment of DENV. Here, we evaluated the antiviral potential of four broad-spectrum antivirals, UV-4B, interferon-alpha (IFN), sofosbuvir (SOF), and favipiravir (FAV) against DENV serotype 2 as mono- and combination therapy in cell lines that are physiologically relevant to human infection. Read More

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Discovery of New Small Molecule Hits as Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Assembly Modulators: Structure and Pharmacophore-Based Approaches.

Viruses 2021 Apr 27;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Center for Drug Design, College of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsid assembly modulators (CpAMs) have shown promise as potent anti-HBV agents in both preclinical and clinical studies. Herein, we report our efforts in identifying novel CpAM hits via a structure-based virtual screening against a small molecule protein-protein interaction (PPI) library, and pharmacophore-guided compound design and synthesis. Curated compounds were first assessed in a thermal shift assay (TSA), and the TSA hits were further evaluated in an antiviral assay. Read More

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Real-Time Monitoring the Effect of Cytopathic Hypoxia on Retinal Pigment Epithelial Barrier Functionality Using Electric Cell-Substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) Biosensor Technology.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 27;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Ophthalmology, Visual, and Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, 540 East Canfield, Gordon Scott Hall (room 7133), Detroit, MI 48201, USA.

Disruption of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE barrier integrity is a hallmark feature of various retinal blinding diseases, including diabetic macular edema and age-related macular degeneration, but the underlying causes and pathophysiology are not completely well-defined. One of the most conserved phenomena in biology is the progressive decline in mitochondrial function with aging leading to cytopathic hypoxia, where cells are unable to use oxygen for energy production. Therefore, this study aimed to thoroughly investigate the role of cytopathic hypoxia in compromising the barrier functionality of RPE cells. Read More

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Compounds with Distinct Targets Present Diverse Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Efficacy against and and Combinations of Compounds Potentiate Their Effect.

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Apr 28;7(5). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, São Paulo State University (Unesp), Araraquara. Rua Humaitá, 1680, Araraquara, São Paulo 14801-903, Brazil.

and interact synergistically in biofilms associated with a severe form of dental caries. Their synergism is driven by dietary sucrose. Thus, it is necessary to devise strategies to hinder the development of those biofilms and prevent cavities. Read More

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Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Functional Hierarchy of Pacemaker Clusters in the Sinoatrial Node: New Insights into Sick Sinus Syndrome.

J Cardiovasc Dev Dis 2021 Apr 13;8(4). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Medicine, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705, USA.

The sinoatrial node (SAN), the primary pacemaker of the heart, consists of a heterogeneous population of specialized cardiac myocytes that can spontaneously produce action potentials, generating the rhythm of the heart and coordinating heart contractions. Spontaneous beating can be observed from very early embryonic stage and under a series of genetic programing, the complex heterogeneous SAN cells are formed with specific biomarker proteins and generate robust automaticity. The SAN is capable to adjust its pacemaking rate in response to environmental and autonomic changes to regulate the heart's performance and maintain physiological needs of the body. Read More

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Comparative Analysis of Gradient Diffusion and Disk Diffusion with Agar Dilution for Susceptibility Testing of .

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Apr 16;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, E-Da Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 824, Taiwan.

has recently emerged as a cause of life-threatening infections. This study compared the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) conducted for through different methods. isolates collected between January 2005 and June 2019 were examined for their susceptibility to 14 antimicrobial agents by using disk diffusion, gradient diffusion (Etest; bioMérieux S. Read More

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Exposure Media and Nanoparticle Size Influence on the Fate, Bioaccumulation, and Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles to Higher Plant .

Molecules 2021 Apr 16;26(8). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Emerging Contaminants Ecological and Risk Assessment (ECERA) Research Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0001, South Africa.

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are favoured antibacterial agents in nano-enabled products and can be released into water resources where they potentially elicit adverse effects. Herein, interactions of 10 and 40 nm AgNPs (10-AgNPs and 40-AgNPs) with aquatic higher plant at 600 µg/L in moderately hard water (MHW), MHW of raised calcium (Ca), and MHW containing natural organic matter (NOM) were examined. The exposure media variants altered the AgNPs' surface properties, causing size-dependent agglomeration. Read More

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Antiglycating Effect of Phenolics from the Chilean Currant under Thermal Treatment.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Apr 25;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Laboratorio de Cultivo Celular, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Campus Lircay, Universidad de Talca, Talca 3460000, Chile.

Numerous dietary polyphenols possess antiglicating activity, but the effects of thermal treatment on this activity are mostly unknown. The effect of thermal treatment in the antiglycating activity of polyphenolic enriched extracts (PEEs) from towards glyoxal-induced glycation of sarcoplasmic proteins was assessed. Sarcoplasmic proteins from chicken, beef, salmon, and turkey, were incubated 2 h at 60 °C with and without glyoxal and different concentrations of PEEs (0. Read More

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