1,509 results match your criteria age-adjusted hazard


Associations of healthy lifestyle and socioeconomic status with mortality and incident cardiovascular disease: two prospective cohort studies.

BMJ 2021 Apr 14;373:n604. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubating), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430030 Wuhan, China

Objective: To examine whether overall lifestyles mediate associations of socioeconomic status (SES) with mortality and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the extent of interaction or joint relations of lifestyles and SES with health outcomes.

Design: Population based cohort study.

Setting: US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (US NHANES, 1988-94 and 1999-2014) and UK Biobank. Read More

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Obstetric and perinatal health outcomes after pertussis vaccination during pregnancy in Ontario, Canada: a retrospective cohort study.

CMAJ Open 2021 Apr-Jun;9(2):E349. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute (Fakhraei, Sucha, Fell); Ottawa Hospital Research Institute (Fakhraei, Hawken, Wilson, Walker), Ottawa, Ont.; ICES Central (Crowcroft, Hawken, Kwong, Fell); University of Toronto (Crowcroft, Bolotin, Biringer, Dubey, Jamieson, Kwong); Public Health Ontario (Bolotin, Jamieson, Kwong), Toronto, Ont.; ICES uOttawa (Sucha); University of Ottawa (Hawken, Cook, Walker, Laverty, Fell); Bruyère Research Institute (Wilson), Ottawa, Ont.; Kingston Health Sciences Centre (Gaudet); Queen's University (Gaudet), Kingston, Ont.; Public Health England (Amirthalingam), London, UK; Mount Sinai Hospital (Biringer), Toronto, Ont.; Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (Cook), Ottawa, Ont.; Toronto Public Health (Dubey), Toronto, Ont.; Canadian Centre for Vaccinology (Halperin), Dalhousie University and IWK Health Centre, Halifax, NS; Vaccine Evaluation Center (Sadarangani), BC Children's Hospital Research Institute; Department of Pediatrics (Sadarangani), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC

Background: In February 2018, Canada's National Advisory Committee on Immunization recommended maternal vaccination with tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine during pregnancy to prevent severe pertussis infection in young infants. This study assessed the relation between maternal Tdap vaccination and obstetric and perinatal outcomes in Ontario.

Methods: We performed a population-based cohort study of all births from April 2012 to March 2017 using multiple linked health administrative databases. Read More

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Clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcomes in neuroendocrine prostate cancer: A population-based study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(15):e25237

Department of Oncology, the Affiliated Jiangyin Hospital of Southeast University Medical College, Jiangyin.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the clinicopathological features and the survival outcomes of neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC).

Methods: Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database of the National Cancer Institute, we identified a total of 510 patients with NEPC between 2006 and 2015. Age-adjusted incidence rates were evaluated in the study by the SEER∗Stat Software version 8. Read More

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Epidemiology and prognosis of lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma: a comprehensive analysis of surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) database.

Int J Clin Oncol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Aim: Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) is a rare histological types of solid tumors. The present study aims to comprehensively describe the demographic and clinical features of LELC using surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) database, with an emphasis on the prognostic difference according to primary tumor sites of LELC.

Materials And Methods: A population cohort with histologically diagnosed LELC were identified from SEER database between 1973 and 2016. Read More

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Managing older patients with heart failure calls for a holistic approach.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Internal Medicine, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, 1081HV, The Netherlands.

Aims: This study aims to assess the presence of geriatric domain impairments in an older heart failure (HF) outpatient population and to relate these domain impairments with 1 year mortality risk in comparison with a geriatric outpatient population without HF.

Methods And Results: Data were used from two different prospective cohort studies: 241 outpatients with HF (mean age 78 ± 9 years, 48% female) and 686 geriatric outpatients (mean age 80 ± 7 years, 55% female). We similarly assessed the following geriatric domains in both cohorts: physical function, nutritional status, polypharmacy, cognitive function, and activities in daily living. Read More

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Pediatric Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: Epidemiology, Molecular Features, and Importance of GST-Theta 1 in Chemotherapy Response and Outcome.

Front Oncol 2021 19;11:642744. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Pediatric Hematology-Oncology Program, Research Center, Instituto Nacional de Câncer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Previous studies have suggested a variation in the incidence of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) among the geographic regions with relatively higher percentages in the Latin American population. We aimed to explore the population burden of pediatric APL, gathering information from the population-based cancer registry (PBCR) and the diagnosis of APL obtained through incident cases from a hospital-based cohort. The homozygous deletion in glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) leads to a loss of enzyme detoxification activity, possibly affecting the treatment response. Read More

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High Expression of Solute Carrier Family 2 Member 1 (SLC2A1) in Cancer Cells Is an Independent Unfavorable Prognostic Factor in Pediatric Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Mar 26;11(4). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Pediatrics, Hematology and Oncology, Medical University of Gdansk, 7 Debinki Street, 80-211 Gdansk, Poland.

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) in children is a rare mesenchymal malignancy developing predominantly in the setting of neurofibromatosis type 1. The prognosis in advanced MPNST is poor therefore new prognostic markers are highly needed for optimal therapeutic decisions. In many solid tumors, the bidirectional interactions between hypoxia and inflammation in the tumor microenvironment via functions of tumor-associated cells, like neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages, have been investigated recently. Read More

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Mortality predictors among patients with HIV-associated pulmonary tuberculosis in Northeast China: A retrospective cohort analysis.

J Med Virol 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Respiratory and Infectious Diseases, Beijing You An Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Institute of Hepatology, Beijing, China.

The coexistence of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection leads to high morbidity and mortality in these populations. Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) has decreased TB incidence in HIV-infected patients, this coexistence still prevails in China. Patients with HIV-PTB admitted to Beijing You An Hospital from 2014 to 2018 were retrospectively enrolled, and information on demographics, clinical characteristics, and laboratory findings were extracted from medical records. Read More

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Cardiorespiratory fitness is not associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer: A cohort study and review of the literature.

Eur J Clin Invest 2021 Mar 25:e13545. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.

Background: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has a strong inverse relationship with several chronic disease outcomes, including some cancers. The association between CRF and prostate cancer is controversial. We aimed to assess the prospective association of CRF with prostate cancer risk using a cohort study and review of the literature. Read More

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Association of spontaneous abortion with all cause and cause specific premature mortality: prospective cohort study.

BMJ 2021 03 24;372:n530. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Nutrition, Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health, 655 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA

Objective: To investigate the association of spontaneous abortion with the risk of all cause and cause specific premature mortality (death before the age of 70).

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Setting: The Nurses' Health Study II (1993-2017), United States. Read More

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Association between body mass index and severe infection in older adults with microscopic polyangiitis: a retrospective cohort in Japan.

BMC Geriatr 2021 Mar 9;21(1):171. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Nephrology and Rheumatology, Aichi Medical University, 1-1 Karimata, Yazako, Nagakute, Aichi, 480-1195, Japan.

Background: Although previous studies have evaluated risk factors for the incidence of severe infection in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV), the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and severe infection in AAV has not been elucidated. We hypothesized that older adults with AAV and a low BMI would be at a higher risk of infection. We therefore investigated the association between underweight status at AAV diagnosis and subsequent occurrence of severe infection in older adults with AAV. Read More

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Genetic predisposition to long telomeres is associated with increased mortality after melanoma: a study of 2101 melanoma patients from hospital clinics and the general population.

Pigment Cell Melanoma Res 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry and The Copenhagen General Population Study, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark.

Whether there is an association between measured and genetically predicted telomere length and melanoma mortality is unclear. We tested the hypotheses that measured and genetically predicted telomere length are associated with mortality after a melanoma diagnosis. We followed 2101patients with melanoma from hospital clinics and the general population for risk of death for up to 26 years. Read More

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Risk of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer in Association With Use of Hydrochlorothiazide-Containing Products in the United States.

JNCI Cancer Spectr 2021 Apr 4;5(2):pkab009. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: European studies reported an increased risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer associated with hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ)-containing products. We examined the risks of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) associated with HCTZ compared with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) in a US population.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in the US Food and Drug Administration's Sentinel System. Read More

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Gender disparities operate in opposite directions for hospitalizations and mortality among individuals receiving long-term ART in rural Uganda.

HIV Med 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Objectives: We conducted an analysis to determine if differences in health-seeking behaviour can explain gender disparities in mortality among long-term survivors receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in rural Uganda.

Methods: From June 2012 to January 2014, we enrolled patients receiving a first-line ART regimen for at least 4 years without previous viral load (VL) testing in Jinja, Uganda. We measured HIV VL at study entry. Read More

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Diet quality in an ethnically diverse population of older men in Australia.

Eur J Clin Nutr 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background/objectives: To compare the Australian Dietary Guideline Index (DGI-2013) and the Pyramid-based Mediterranean Diet Score (pyrMDS) as measures of diet quality in an ethnically diverse group of older men.

Subjects/methods: Seven hundred and ninety-four older men aged ≥75 participated in wave 3 (2012-2013) of the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated diet history questionnaire. Read More

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High-throughput STELA provides a rapid test for the diagnosis of telomere biology disorders.

Hum Genet 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Division of Cancer and Genetics, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff, CF14 4XN, UK.

Telomere biology disorders are complex clinical conditions that arise due to mutations in genes required for telomere maintenance. Telomere length has been utilised as part of the diagnostic work-up of patients with these diseases; here, we have tested the utility of high-throughput STELA (HT-STELA) for this purpose. HT-STELA was applied to a cohort of unaffected individuals (n = 171) and a retrospective cohort of mutation carriers (n = 172). Read More

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Racial Disparities in the Incidence and Survival of Spinal Meningioma.

Asian J Neurosurg 2020 Oct-Dec;15(4):877-881. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

College of Medicine, Sulaiman Al Rajhi University, Al Bukayriyah, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: Race is a significant prognostic factor in various cancers, including the breast. Its prognostic association with spinal meningioma has not been established, although the incidence of spinal meningioma varies by race. In this retrospective cohort study, we aimed to investigate the association of race with the incidence and survival of spinal meningioma among a large population sample. Read More

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December 2020

Epidemiological Study of Malignant Gliomas in Korea Using Nationwide Dataset from 2007 to 2017.

J Korean Med Sci 2021 Mar 8;36(9):e68. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, Cell Death Disease Research Center, St. Vincent's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, Korea.

Background: The purpose of the study was to investigate the incidence, prevalence, and survival of malignant gliomas (MGs) using population-based Korean National Health Insurance Database (NHID) data.

Methods: Using the Korean NHID, we identified patients with MG as C71 codes in KCD 5-7 according to ICD-10 from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2017. Epidemiological characteristics of MG, including annual incidence, prevalence, mortality rates, and survival rates, were collected and analyzed according to socioeconomic state (SES) and treatments received. Read More

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The Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Russian Population Cohort According to Data from the HAPIEE Project.

J Pers Med 2021 Feb 11;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Institute of Internal and Preventive Medicine-Branch of Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 630089 Novosibirsk, Russia.

The aim of this study is to investigate the 14-year risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and develop a risk score for T2DM in the Siberian cohort. A random population sample (males/females, 45-69 years old) was examined at baseline in 2003-2005 (Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) project, = 9360, Novosibirsk) and re-examined in 2006-2008 and 2015-2017. After excluding those with baseline T2DM, the final analysis included 7739 participants. Read More

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February 2021

Rituximab plus high-dose chemotherapy (MegaCHOEP) or conventional chemotherapy (CHOEP-14) in young, high-risk patients with aggressive B-cell lymphoma: 10-year follow-up of a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Haematol 2021 Apr 2;8(4):e267-e277. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Medicine A, Haematology, Oncology, and Pneumology, University Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: R-MegaCHOEP was the first phase 3 study comparing high-dose chemotherapy plus rituximab followed by autologous haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) with conventional chemotherapy plus rituximab in first-line therapy for patients aged 60 years or younger with high-risk aggressive B-cell lymphoma. Little is known about the long-term outcomes of these patients. We aimed to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of conventional chemotherapy versus high-dose chemotherapy after 10 years of follow-up in the R-MegaCHOEP trial. Read More

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Association between self-rated health and the risk of hip fracture and mortality in a cohort of older women during a 10-year follow-up.

PLoS One 2021 5;16(3):e0247924. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Family Medicine and Primary Care, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.

Fragility fracture of the hip is associated with reduced functional status and mortality. Poor self-rated health (SRH) might be such an indicator. Our aim was to study if SRH was associated with hip fractures and all-cause mortality within the next 10 years in community-dwelling older women. Read More

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Increased COVID-19 infections in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a population-based study.

Eur J Endocrinol 2021 May;184(5):637-645

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

Objective: Several recent observational studies have linked metabolic comorbidities to an increased risk from COVID-19. Here we investigated whether women with PCOS are at an increased risk of COVID-19 infection.

Design: Population-based closed cohort study between 31 January 2020 and 22 July 2020 in the setting of a UK primary care database (The Health Improvement Network, THIN). Read More

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Effects of Volatile Anesthetics on Postoperative Ischemic Stroke Incidence.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Feb 26;10(5):e018952. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine Beth Israel Deaconess Medical CenterHarvard Medical School Boston MA.

Background Preclinical studies suggest that volatile anesthetics decrease infarct volume and improve the outcome of ischemic stroke. This study aims to determine their effect during noncardiac surgery on postoperative ischemic stroke incidence. Methods and Results This was a retrospective cohort study of surgical patients undergoing general anesthesia at 2 tertiary care centers in Boston, MA, between October 2005 and September 2017. Read More

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February 2021

Sirolimus Can Increase the Disappearance Rate of Cardiac Rhabdomyomas Associated with Tuberous Sclerosis: A Prospective Cohort and Self-Controlled Case Series Study.

J Pediatr 2021 Feb 23. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Pediatrics, First Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China; Center of Epilepsy, Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: To investigate the efficacy and safety of sirolimus in the treatment of cardiac rhabdomyomas associated with tuberous sclerosis complex and the specific benefits in different subgroups.

Study Design: The study was a prospective cohort and self-controlled case series study. Based on the prevalence of cardiac rhabdomyoma at different ages, we estimated the natural tumor disappearance rate. Read More

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February 2021

Association of beta-hydroxybutyrate with development of heart failure: Sex differences in a Dutch population cohort.

Eur J Clin Invest 2020 Dec 7:e13468. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: In the failing heart, energy metabolism is shifted towards increased ketone body oxidation. Nevertheless, the association of beta-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) with development of heart failure (HF) remains unclear. We investigated the association between plasma β-OHB and the risk of HF in a prospective population-based cohort. Read More

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December 2020

Association between vision impairment and mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Lancet Glob Health 2021 04 16;9(4):e418-e430. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

International Centre for Eye Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: The number of individuals with vision impairment worldwide is increasing because of an ageing population. We aimed to systematically identify studies describing the association between vision impairment and mortality, and to assess the association between vision impairment and all-cause mortality.

Methods: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase, and Global Health database on Feb 1, 2020, for studies published in English between database inception and Feb 1, 2020. Read More

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Mortality and readmission risk can be predicted by the record-based Multidimensional Prognostic Index: a cohort study of medical inpatients older than 75 years.

Eur Geriatr Med 2021 Apr 11;12(2):253-261. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Geriatrics, Aarhus University Hospital, Palle Juul-Jensens Boulevard 99, 8200, Aarhus N, Denmark.

Purpose: To examine the predictive value of the record-based Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI) on mortality, readmission and length of hospital stay (LOS) among older medical inpatients.

Methods: A cohort of medical inpatients aged ≥ 75 years was rated using the record-based MPI to assess frailty retrospectively. 90-day and 1-year mortality hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated in a sex- and age-adjusted Cox proportional hazards model. Read More

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Socioeconomic disparities in head and neck cancer survival in Germany: a causal mediation analysis using population-based cancer registry data.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2021 May 11;147(5):1325-1334. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Health Services Research Group, University Hospital Halle (Saale), Ernst-Grube-Str. 40, 06120, Halle (Saale), Germany.

Purpose: Despite recent improvements in cancer treatment in Germany, a marked difference in cancer survival based on socioeconomic factors persists. We aim to quantify the effect of socioeconomic inequality on head and neck cancer (HNC) survival.

Methods: Information on 20,821 HNC patients diagnosed in 2009-2013 was routinely collected by German population-based cancer registries. Read More

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Quantifying the Sex-Race/Ethnicity-Specific Burden of Obesity on Incident Diabetes Mellitus in the United States, 2001 to 2016: MESA and NHANES.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Feb 10;10(4):e018799. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Preventive Medicine Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine Chicago IL.

Background Given the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in the United States, estimating the effects of population-level increases in obesity on incident DM has substantial implications for public health policy. Therefore, we determined the population attributable fraction, which accounts for the prevalence and excess risk of DM associated with obesity. Methods and Results We included non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Mexican American participants without DM at baseline from MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) with available data on body mass index and key covariates from 2000 to 2017 to calculate unadjusted and adjusted (age, study site, physical activity, diet, income, and education level) hazard ratios (HR) for obesity-attributable DM. Read More

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February 2021

Excess mortality in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders in Malaga (Spain): A cohort study.

Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci 2021 Feb 4;30:e11. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Mental Health, University General Hospital of Malaga. Biomedical Research Institute of Malaga (IBIMA), Spain.

Aims: There is evidence that patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders present higher mortality in comparison with the general population. The aim of this study was to analyse the causes of mortality and sociodemographic factors associated with mortality, standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), life expectancy and potential years of life lost (YLL) in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders in Spain.

Methods: The study included a cohort of patients from the Malaga Schizophrenia Case Register (1418 patients; 907 males; average age 42. Read More

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February 2021