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The Development of Cognitive Reflection in China.

Cogn Sci 2021 Apr;45(4):e12966

Department of Psychology, Occidental College.

Cognitive reflection is the tendency to override an intuitive response so as to engage in the reflection necessary to derive a correct response. Here, we examine the emergence of cognitive reflection in a culture that values nonanalytic thinking styles, Chinese culture. We administered a child-friendly version of the cognitive reflection test, the CRT-D, to 130 adults and 111 school-age children in China and compared performance on the CRT-D to several measures of rational thinking (belief bias syllogisms, base rate sensitivity, denominator neglect, and other-side thinking) and normative thinking dispositions (actively open-minded thinking and need for cognition). Read More

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Obesity and the Risk of Infertility, Gestational Diabetes, and Type 2 Diabetes in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

Semin Reprod Med 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Monash Centre for Health Research and Implementation, Monash University, Victoria, Australia.

This review describes the relationship between obesity and the most common reproductive (infertility) and metabolic (gestational diabetes mellitus [GDM] and type 2 diabetes mellitus [T2DM]) consequences in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). It also describes the vital role of lifestyle management for PCOS. PCOS is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder common in reproductive-age women. Read More

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Distally Based Peroneus Brevis Muscle Flap for Lower Extremity Defect Reconstruction in Severely Ill Multimorbid Patients.

Z Orthop Unfall 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Plastic, Aesthetic, Reconstructive and Hand Surgery, Asklepios Hospital Harburg, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: Reconstruction of lower extremity soft tissue defects is an exceptional surgical challenge, especially in multimorbid, elderly and severely ill patients with their thin and tense local soft-tissue conditions and increased perioperative risk. The distally based peroneus brevis muscle flap (DPBM), a local flap based on the muscular branches of the fibular artery, could pose a pragmatic solution. The objective of this study was to evaluate and quantify DPBM defect reconstruction in the lower leg, especially in elderly, multimorbid and severely ill patients. Read More

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Agreement between the Skull Vibration-Induced Nystagmus Test and Semicircular Canal and Otolith Asymmetry.

J Am Acad Audiol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Vestibular and Balance Program, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background:  How significant asymmetries in otolith organ function in the presence of symmetrical and asymmetrical semicircular canal function influence skull vibration-induced nystagmus testing (SVINT) has not been well described.

Purpose:  The aim of the study is to examine the agreement between SVINT and caloric testing, ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP), and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP) for detecting asymmetric vestibular function.

Research Design:  This is a retrospective study of patients presenting with the chief complaint of vertigo, dizziness, or imbalance. Read More

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[Social Inequalities in Access to and Utilization of Medical Rehabilitation - Results of the Third German Sociomedical Panel of Employees (GSPE-III)].

Rehabilitation (Stuttg) 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Institut für Medizinische Soziologie, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg.

Aim Of The Study: The influence of social status on health is well documented. Preliminary research provides initial evidence for social inequalities in rehabilitation care. Our study examines the role of social inequalities with respect to access and utilisation of medical rehabilitation services by analysing a risk cohort of the German Statutory Pension Insurance Scheme (Deutsche Rentenversicherung Bund). Read More

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Nutritional Status Impacts Epigenetic Regulation in Early Embryo Development: A Scoping Review.

Adv Nutr 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

With the increasing maternal age and the use of assisted reproductive technology in various countries worldwide, the influence of epigenetic modification on embryonic development is increasingly notable and prominent. Epigenetic modification disorders caused by various nutritional imbalance would cause embryonic development abnormalities and even have an indelible impact on health in adulthood. In this scoping review, we summarize the main epigenetic modifications in mammals and the synergies among different epigenetic modifications, especially DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and histone methylation. Read More

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Predictive Factors Affecting the Success of Nephrectomy for the Treatment of Nephrogenic Hypertension: Multicenter Study.

Urol Int 2021 Apr 19:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Urology, Baskent University, Adana Dr. Turgut Noyan Medical and Research Center, Adana, Turkey.

Introduction: The aim of our study is to evaluate the predictive factors affecting the success of treatment with nephrectomy in patients with poorly functioning kidney and nephrogenic hypertension.

Methods: Data for patients who underwent nephrectomy with a diagnosis of nephrogenic hypertension in 3 centers between May 2010 and January 2020 were analyzed. In the postoperative period, if the blood pressure (BP) was below 140/90 mm Hg without medical treatment, it was accepted as complete response; if the arterial BP was below 140/90 mm Hg with medical treatment or less medication, it was accepted as partial response; and if BP did not decrease to normal values, it was accepted as unresponsive. Read More

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Effects of a Mindfulness-Based Intervention versus Health Self-Management on Subclinical Anxiety in Older Adults with Subjective Cognitive Decline: The SCD-Well Randomized Superiority Trial.

Psychother Psychosom 2021 Apr 19:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Swiss Center for Affective Sciences, Department of Medicine and Department of Psychology, Department of Political Science and International Relations, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Introduction: Older adults experiencing subjective cognitive decline (SCD) have a heightened risk of developing dementia and frequently experience subclinical anxiety, which is itself associated with dementia risk.

Objective: To understand whether subclinical anxiety symptoms in SCD can be reduced through behavioral interventions.

Methods: SCD-Well is a randomized controlled trial designed to determine whether an 8-week mindfulness-based intervention (caring mindfulness-based approach for seniors; CMBAS) is superior to a structurally matched health self-management program (HSMP) in reducing subclinical anxiety. Read More

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Autologous Calvarial Bone Remodeling Technique for Small to Medium-Sized Cranial Defects in Young Children: The "Switch-Cranioplasty" Technique.

Pediatr Neurosurg 2021 Apr 19:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Nicklaus Children's Hospital, Miami, Florida, USA.

Introduction: Reconstruction of cranial defects in children less than 2 years of age, particularly when there is an associated dural defect, is challenging due to the need to accommodate active skull growth, limited options for autologous bone graft and thin calvarial bones. We use a simple remodeling technique that exploits the normal dura's inherent potential for new bone growth while covering the dural defect with adjacent skull.

Case Presentation: We describe an alternating, two-piece craniotomy or "switch-cranioplasty technique" to repair an occipital meningocele. Read More

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Association between Temporary Housing Habitation after the 2011 Japan Earthquake and Mite Allergen Sensitization and Asthma Development.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2021 Apr 19:1-13. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Allergy and Respirology, Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka, Japan.

Introduction: We previously reported an increased prevalence of asthma in adults who lived in temporary housing after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. The goal of the current study was to investigate changes in asthma prevalence and mite-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) titers in temporary housing residents during 2014-2019.

Methods: By using the Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines, we diagnosed asthma in Ishinomaki city temporary housing residents aged 15 years or older. Read More

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Evaluation of Allergic Disease Prevalence and Related Risk Factors in Children with Autoimmune Thyroiditis.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2021 Apr 19:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Ankara Child Health and Diseases Hematology Oncology Training and Research Hospital, University of Health Sciences, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: Allergic and autoimmune diseases are caused by an impaired immunological response resulting from different types of T-helper (Th) cells. Since the Th cell production is in a certain balance, an inverse relationship between the 2 disease groups may exist. In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of allergic diseases in children with autoimmune thyroiditis (AT). Read More

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Baseline Characteristics and Survival of an Australian Interstitial Pneumonia with Autoimmune Features Cohort.

Respiration 2021 Apr 19:1-12. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Respiratory, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Background And Objective: The research term "interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features" (IPAF) encompasses interstitial lung disease (ILD) patients with autoimmune features not meeting diagnostic criteria for a defined connective tissue disease (CTD). It remains unclear if IPAF is a distinct disease entity with implications for management and prognosis. We describe an Australian IPAF population and compare their baseline characteristics and outcomes with distinct cohorts of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP), CTD-ILD, and unclassifiable ILD. Read More

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Systematic Review of Microthrombi in COVID-19 Autopsies.

Acta Haematol 2021 Apr 19:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Instituto de Patologia Mejia Jimenez, Department of Pathology, Cali, Colombia.

Background: Histopathological analysis can provide additional clues in COVID-19 understanding. During the last year, autopsy reports have revealed that diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) is the most significant observed finding. The aim of this study is to review cases in the literature about COVID-19 autopsies that reported microthrombi in different organs. Read More

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Personal dosimeter utilisation among South African Interventionalists.

J Radiol Prot 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Medical Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital and Community Health Services, Randwick, New South Wales, AUSTRALIA.

Ionising radiation (IR) is increasingly being used in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and offers increased benefits to patients but poses an increased occupational health risk to operators. The consistent use and monitoring of radiation health care workers' dosimeters is an important part of the process for ensuring adequate monitoring and control of IR in the workplace. There is however often inconsistent dosimeter utilisation among these workers. Read More

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Weaker McGurk Effect for Rubin's Vase-Type Speech in People With High Autistic Traits.

Multisens Res 2021 Apr 16:1-17. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

School of Psychology, Chukyo University, 101-2 Yagoto Honmachi, Showa-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi, 466-8666, Japan.

While visual information from facial speech modulates auditory speech perception, it is less influential on audiovisual speech perception among autistic individuals than among typically developed individuals. In this study, we investigated the relationship between autistic traits (Autism-Spectrum Quotient; AQ) and the influence of visual speech on the recognition of Rubin's vase-type speech stimuli with degraded facial speech information. Participants were 31 university students (13 males and 18 females; mean age: 19. Read More

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The Influence of Muscle Fiber Typology on the Pacing Strategy of 200-m Freestyle Swimmers.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2021 Apr 19:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Purpose: To determine the influence of muscle fiber typology (MFT) on the pacing strategy of elite swimmers competing in the 200-m freestyle event.

Method: The top 3 career-best performances from 25 elite 200-m freestyle swimmers were analyzed-12 women (1:58.0 [0:01. Read More

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Using SHRP2 NDS data to examine infrastructure and other factors contributing to older driver crashes during left turns at signalized intersections.

Accid Anal Prev 2021 Apr 16;156:106141. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 214 Marston Hall, 130 Natural Resources Road, Amherst, MA, 01003, USA.

Drivers age 65 and over have higher rates of crashes and crash-related fatalities than other adult drivers and are especially over-represented in crashes during left turns at intersections. This research investigated the use of SHRP2 Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) data to assess infrastructure and other factors contributing to left turn crashes at signalized intersections, and how to improve older driver safety during such turns. NDS data for trips involving signalized intersections and crash or near-crash events were obtained for two driver age groups: drivers age 65 and over (older drivers) and a sample of drivers age 30-49, along with NDS pre-screening and questionnaire data. Read More

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EASY score (Eloquent, Age and baseline SYmptoms score) for outcome prediction in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 Apr 1;205:106626. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Southampton, Tremona Rd, Southampton, UK.

Objective: A pragmatic tool for the early and reliable prediction of recovery in patients with acute ischemic stroke is needed. We aimed to test the addition of brain eloquent areas involvement in variables predicting poor outcome, using a simple scoring system.

Methods: Retrospective study of patients with anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke treated with best medical treatment and/or endovascular reperfusion. Read More

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Employing metabolomic approaches to determine the influence of age on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE).

Mol Immunol 2021 Apr 16;135:84-94. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Molecular Recognition Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul, 02792, Republic of Korea; Division of Bio-Medical Science & Technology, KIST-School, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), Seoul, 02792, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The immune system plays a critical role not only in homeostasis of the body but also in pathogenesis. Autoimmunity and dysregulation of the immune balance are closely related to age. To examine the influence of age on autoimmunity, the pathophysiological features of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced at different ages were elucidated on the basis of plasma-level metabolic changes. Read More

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External rotation of the tibial component should be avoided in lateral unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

Knee 2021 Apr 16;30:70-77. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan.

Background: Lateral unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) leads to good clinical outcomes for isolated lateral osteoarthritis. However, the impact of the tibial component position on postoperative outcomes in lateral UKA is yet to be determined.

Purpose: This study investigated the influence of tibial component malposition on clinical outcomes in lateral UKA. Read More

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Revision knee arthroplasty: Can good outcomes be achieved at lower volumes?

Knee 2021 Apr 16;30:63-69. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background: The National Joint Registry (NJR) demonstrates a re-revision rate for primary knee arthroplasty of 14.2% at 7 years. The 2015 Getting it Right First Time (GIRFT) report highlighted that 58% of surgeons undertaking revision knee arthroplasty (RKA) performed fewer than five cases per year. Read More

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Artificial intelligence (AI) in the detection of rectosigmoid deep endometriosis.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Apr 14;261:29-33. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, School of Medicine, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of seven classical Machine Learning (ML) models trained with ultrasound (US) soft markers to raise suspicion of endometriotic bowel involvement.

Materials And Methods: Input data to the models was retrieved from a database of a previously published study on bowel endometriosis performed on 333 patients. The following models have been tested: k-nearest neighbors algorithm (k-NN), Naive Bayes, Neural Networks (NNET-neuralnet), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Decision Tree, Random Forest, and Logistic Regression. Read More

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Demographic risk factors for pelvic organ prolapse: Do smoking, asthma, heavy lifting or family history matter?

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Apr 12;261:25-28. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Sydney Medical School Nepean, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Objective: Our objective was to identify non-obstetric risk factors for pelvic organ prolapse in women attending a urogynecology clinic.

Study Design: A retrospective study of 662 women referred for pelvic floor dysfunction between January 2017 and August 2018. Participants underwent a standardized interview, clinical exam including Pelvic Organ Prolapse Qualification (POP-Q) assessment, and four-dimensional transperineal ultrasound. Read More

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Analysis of factors that could affect symptomatic outcome in patients having laparoscopic excision of deep rectovaginal endometriosis in BSGE endometriosis centres.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Apr 16;261:17-24. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Birmingham Women's and Children's Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TG, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Objective: Investigate factors that influence quality of life after laparoscopic excision of deep rectovaginal endometriosis.

Study Design: A multicentre prospective cohort study involving 63 hospitals accredited as British Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy specialist endometriosis centres was conducted. The study population comprised of 8368 women who had undergone laparoscopic surgical excision of deep rectovaginal endometriosis requiring dissection of the pararectal space. Read More

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Obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly (OHVIRA): Early diagnosis, treatment and outcomes.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Apr 16;261:12-16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Urology, Children's Medicine Affiliated to Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, PR China; Paediatrics Research Institute, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, National Clinical Research Centre for Child Health and Disorders, China International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Child Development and Critical Disorders, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, PR China; Chongqing Key Laboratory of Paediatrics, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Children Urogenital Development and Tissue Engineering, PR China. Electronic address:

Objective: To describe and summarize the early diagnosis, treatment and outcomes of obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly (OHVIRA).

Methods: Data from patients with OHVIRA treated at the study centre over the last decade were analysed retrospectively, including demographic characteristics, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and outcomes. Relevant published literature was also reviewed in this study. Read More

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Long-term survival by repeat resection for metastases from primary retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 15;82:105891. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Surgery, Onomichi General Hospital, Onomichi, Hiroshima, Japan. Electronic address:

Backgound: Retroperitoneal (RP) leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a rare type of cancer, accounting for 0.1% of all malignancies. The gold-standard treatment for sarcoma is complete resection, and a 50% 5-year overall survival (OS) rate can be achieved by curative surgery. Read More

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Use of Pulmonary Computed Tomography for Evaluating Suspected Stroke-Associated Pneumonia.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Apr 16;30(6):105757. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Greater Manchester Comprehensive Stroke Centre, Manchester Centre for Clinical Neurosciences, Geoffrey Jefferson Brain Research Centre, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Salford Royal Foundation Trust, UK; Division of Cardiovascular Sciences, Lydia Becker Institute of Immunology and Inflammation, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Objectives: Accurate and timely diagnosis of pneumonia complicating stroke remains challenging and the diagnostic accuracy of chest X-ray (CXR) in the setting of stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP) is uncertain. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the use of pulmonary computed tomography (CT) in diagnosis of suspected SAP.

Materials And Methods: Patients with acute ischemic stroke (IS) or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) were recruited within 24h of clinically suspected SAP and underwent non-contrast pulmonary CT within 48h of antibiotic initiation. Read More

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Fast-acting insulin aspart (Fiasp®) improves glycemic outcomes when used with MiniMed 670G hybrid closed-loop system in simulated trials compared to NovoLog®.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Apr 8;205:106087. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Medtronic Diabetes, United States.

Introduction: Medtronic has developed a virtual patient simulator for modeling and predicting insulin therapy outcomes for people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). An enhanced simulator was created to estimate outcomes when using the MiniMed 670G system with standard NovoLog® (EU: NovoRapid, US: NovoLog) versus Fiasp ® by using clinical data.

Methods: Sixty-seven participants' PK profiles were generated per type of insulin (Total of 134 PK profiles). Read More

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Knowledge, attitude and practice of patients with chronic diseases towards COVID-19 pandemic in Dessie town hospitals, Northeast Ethiopia.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2021 Apr 8;15(3):847-856. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Pediatric and Child Health Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Wollo University, P.O. Box: 1145, Dessie, Ethiopia.

Background And Aims: Corona virus disease-19 first detected in China, December 2019. The government of Ethiopia takes preventive measures but the number of peoples infected with COVID-19 has been increased. Control of the pandemic requires changing of knowledge, attitude and practice of people. Read More

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Clinical features and prognostic factors of pediatric idiopathic sudden hearing loss from moderate to profound degree.

Am J Otolaryngol 2021 Apr 16;42(5):103027. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

ENT institute and Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Eye & ENT Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031, China; NHC Key Laboratory of Hearing Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031, China. Electronic address:

Background: The pediatric idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (PISSNHL) is not rare in the clinics, however, the prognostic factors of PISSNHL are still unclear.

Objectives: To investigate the clinical and audiologic characteristics associated with prognosis in PISSNHL.

Material And Methods: Clinical and audiological characteristics and possible prognostic factors were retrospectively evaluated in 76 PISSNHL patients aged less than 19 years. Read More

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