5,434 results match your criteria african trauma


Paternal biopsychosocial resilience in triadic interactions among African American/Black families exposed to trauma and socioeconomic adversity.

Dev Psychobiol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA.

Fathers have a distinct and unique effect on child development, but little is known about fathering beyond White or majority White families. The current study includes African American/Black biological fathers (N = 88) and their two-year-old children. Fathers reported low incomes and high rates of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Read More

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Stress response asymmetries in African American emerging adults exposed to chronic social adversity.

Stress 2021 Jul 27:1-5. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Oklahoma Center for Evolutionary Analysis, Department of Psychology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA.

Chronic stress is linked to social adversity and underlies many health disparities among ethnic minorities. Cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) reflect sensitivity to adversity and are related to health outcomes. Our aim was to understand how social adversity influences biological responses to experimental and daily stressors in a sample of low-income African American emerging adults. Read More

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Rising incidence of interpersonal violence in Pennsylvania during COVID-19 stay-at home order.

Surgery 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and associated policies have had important downstream consequences for individuals, communities, and the healthcare system, and they appear to have been accompanied by rising interpersonal violence. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of injuries owing to interpersonal violence after implementation of a statewide stay-at-home order in Pennsylvania in March 2020.

Methods: Using the Pennsylvania Trauma Outcome Study registry, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with gunshot wounds, stab wounds, and blunt assault-related injuries attributable to interpersonal violence treated at Pennsylvania trauma centers from March 16 to July 31 of 2018, 2019, and 2020. Read More

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Clinic screening for adverse childhood experiences in people living with HIV to Improve Care Delivery.

AIDS Care 2021 Jul 22:1-9. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with negative health outcomes; however, screening for ACEs is not routinely performed among people living with HIV (PLWH). We conducted a single-center, cross-sectional pilot study to define the (1) prevalence of ACEs in PLWH and (2) acceptability of ACEs screening in routine out-patient clinical care. One hundred participants completed screening: median age of participants was 49 years (interquartile range: 38. Read More

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SIGH, what's in a name? An examination of the factor structure and criterion validity of the (Structured Interview Guide for the) Hamilton Anxiety scale (SIGH-A) in a sample of African American adults with co-occurring trauma experience and heavy alcohol use.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Psychiatry.

The Hamilton Anxiety Inventory (HAM-A) is one of the oldest and most commonly used anxiety rating scales in clinical research. Despite its ubiquity, no studies have examined the scale's underlying factor structure and criterion validity among Black and African American adults with psychopathology ( = 42.25, = 11. Read More

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Hair-Pulling Does Not Necessarily Serve an Emotion Regulation Function in Adults With Trichotillomania.

Front Psychol 2021 5;12:675468. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

South African Medical Research Council Unit on Risk and Resilience in Mental Disorders, Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience Institute, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Trichotillomania (TTM) has been associated with childhood trauma and perceived stress. While it has been hypothesized that hair-pulling regulate negative emotions, the relationship between childhood trauma, perceived stress, emotion regulation, and hair-pulling has not been well-studied. Fifty-six adults with TTM and 31 healthy controls completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). Read More

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Pediatric Firearm-Related Injuries: Taking Kids Out of Harm's Way Begins with Targeted Prevention.

J Surg Res 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Trauma and Burn Surgery, Cook County Health, Rush University, Midwestern University, Chicago, Illinois.

Background: Firearm-related injury is a public health crisis and remains the 3rd most common cause of death from ages 1 15 years. By evaluating events surrounding such injuries, evidence-based intervention strategies efforts may be targeted to maximize impact.

Material And Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed for firearm-related injuries in patients 15 years-old and under at an urban Pediatric Level 1 Trauma Center between January 2016 and December 2020. Read More

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Huge scalp Morel-Lavallée lesion with eye involvement in a 3-year-old girl: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2021 Jul 19;15(1):383. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Paediatrics, Cliniques Universitaires du Graben, Faculty of Medicine, Université Catholique du Graben, Butembo, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Background: Morel-Lavallée lesions are posttraumatic, closed degloving injuries in which the skin and subcutaneous tissue are separated abruptly from superficial underlying fascia. This condition leads to an effusion containing hemolymph and necrotic fat. Magnetic resonance imaging, when available, is the modality of choice in the evaluation of Morel-Lavallée lesion. Read More

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Investigating pupillometry to detect emotional regulation difficulties in post-traumatic stress disorder.

World J Biol Psychiatry 2021 Jul 19:1-9. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Objective: Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been found to exhibit emotional regulation difficulties. However, the specific neural mechanisms that underlie these difficulties remain understudied. This study aimed to use pupillometry as an index function of parasympathetic nervous system activation, to investigate the mechanisms underlying emotional regulation difficulties in individuals with PTSD. Read More

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"The cops didn't make it any better": Perspectives on police and guns among survivors of gun violence.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Jul 5;284:114197. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Violence Intervention Program, Yale New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT, 06510, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, 06510, USA.

Background: Survivors of gun violence in the United States (US) are twenty times more likely to be re-injured with a firearm and three times more likely to be arrested under a violence or a weapons-related charge. The mechanisms for these outcomes are multifactorial and remain largely understudied. We aimed to examine perspectives on both the police and guns among survivors of guns violence. Read More

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The impact of regionality and hospital status on mortality associated with non-accidental trauma.

Am J Surg 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Non-accidental trauma (NAT) affects 2 per 100,000 children annually in the US and may go unrecognized. The aim of this study to quantify the burden of NAT and to evaluate regional variations in mortality.

Methods: The Kids Inpatient Database (2000-2012) was queried for pediatric patients presenting with a diagnosis of NAT. Read More

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Independent Risk Factors Predicting Gradual Onset Injury in 2824 Trail Running Race Entrants: SAFER XVIII Study.

Wilderness Environ Med 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Biostatistics Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa; Statistics and Population Studies Department, University of the Western Cape, Western Cape, South Africa.

Introduction: Trail running is characterized by elevation changes, with uneven and varying running surfaces. Risk factors that may predict gradual-onset running-related injuries (GORRIs) in short-distance trail running have not been explored. The objective was to determine risk factors that predict GORRIs in trail running race entrants who entered mass community-based trail running events. Read More

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Tackler and ball-carrier technique during moderate and severe injuries (≥8 days lost) compared with player-matched and team-matched injury-free controls in Elite Rugby Union.

Br J Sports Med 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Division of Physiological Sciences, Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

Objective: To analyse tackler and ball-carrier technical proficiency during moderate and severe contact injuries (≥8 days lost) in professional rugby union, and compare it with injury-free event-matched controls from the same player and from the same team.

Methods: Technical proficiency for 74 (n=74) (moderate and severe; ≥8 days lost) tackler and ball-carrier injuries during The Currie Cup (2014-2018) and 623 matched non-injury events (253 own controls, 370 team controls) were examined through video analysis using a standardised list of technical criteria.

Results: Mean technical proficiency score for injured tacklers during front-on tackles was 6. Read More

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Examining Individual and Synergistic Contributions of PTSD and Genetics to Blood Pressure: A Trans-Ethnic Meta-Analysis.

Front Neurosci 2021 23;15:678503. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Psychiatry, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States.

Growing research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be a risk factor for poor cardiovascular health, and yet our understanding of who might be at greatest risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes after trauma is limited. In this study, we conducted the first examination of the individual and synergistic contributions of PTSD symptoms and blood pressure genetics to continuous blood pressure levels. We harnessed the power of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium-PTSD Physical Health Working Group and investigated these associations across 11 studies of 72,224 trauma-exposed individuals of European ( = 70,870) and African ( = 1,354) ancestry. Read More

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Insights into fear: A phenomenological study of Black mothers.

J Adv Nurs 2021 Jul 10. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, Bryan, TX, USA.

Aim: The aim of the study was to explore the lived experience of stress as described by Black childbearing women.

Design: A phenomenological approach was used.

Methods: Seven mothers who met inclusion criteria participated in both individual and group interviews between August 2018 and August 2019. Read More

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Exploring the Usability of a Community Resiliency Model Approach in a High Need/Low Resourced Traumatized Community.

Community Ment Health J 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Psychology, Loma Linda University, 11130 Anderson Street, Loma Linda, CA, 9254, USA.

This study tested the usability of a non-stigmatizing community-based trauma intervention delivered by trained community members. The Community Resiliency Model (CRM) was taught to a high-crime, low-income community designated as a Mental Health Provider Shortage Area (19 MPSA score). Five groups of Latino, African-American, LGBTQ, Asian Pacific Islander, and Veteran participants (N-57) with a history of complex/cumulative traumas and untreated posttraumatic stress undertook a five-day 40-h CRM training with master trainers. Read More

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Fibroid expulsion: a unique presentation of mechanical small bowel obstruction 11 years after uterine artery embolization: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2021 Jul 9;15(1):356. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Division of Trauma, Surgical Critical Care, and Emergency Surgery, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.

Background: Uterine artery embolization in the treatment of uterine leiomyoma has been rarely associated with dislodgement and expulsion of infarcted uterine fibroids through the vagina, peritoneum, or bowel wall, predominantly occurring within 6 months of uterine artery embolization.

Case Presentation: We present the case of a 54-year-old African American woman who underwent uterine artery embolization 11 years prior and developed mechanical small bowel obstruction from the migration of fibroid through a uteroenteric fistula with ultimate impaction within the distal small bowel lumen. Small bowel resection and hysterectomy were curative. Read More

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Maternal psychosocial risk factors and child gestational epigenetic age in a South African birth cohort study.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 07 2;11(1):358. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Accelerated epigenetic aging relative to chronological age has been found to be associated with higher risk of mortality in adults. However, little is known about whether and how in utero exposures might shape child gestational epigenetic age (EA) at birth. We aimed to explore associations between maternal psychosocial risk factors and deviation in child gestational EA at birth (i. Read More

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Transgenerational Trauma and Trust Restoration.

AMA J Ethics 2021 06 1;23(6):E480-486. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Associate member of the American College of Surgeon's Academy of Master Surgeon Educators.

Transgenerational trauma is a potential barrier to achieving a healthy and holistic patient-physician relationship, particularly for Black Americans. Examination of deeply rooted historical injustices that Black patients suffer in health care and how they undermine trust can help clarify connections between historical trauma, distrust, and health outcomes. Furthering clinicians' understanding of how daily practice can respond to Black patients' experiences can help restore trust and mitigate racial and ethnic health inequity. Read More

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Early posttraumatic ankle osteoarthritis following ankle fracture-dislocations in a sub-Saharan African setting.

Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2021 Jun 29:102996. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of orthopaedics and trauma, Aristide-Le-Dantec university teaching hospital, Dakar, Senegal.

Introduction: Ankle fracture-dislocation (AFD) represents a major threat to the joint and a potential source of complication and functional disability. This study was performed to assess the outcome of AFD in a resource-limited setting and factors associated with the posttraumatic ankle osteoarthritis (PTAOA). We hypothesized that conservative treatment after AFD was associated with higher risk of PTAOA compared to surgical treatment. Read More

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Dysphagia in cervical spinal cord injury: How international literature trends can guide South African practice patterns - A scoping review.

Authors:
Kim A Coutts

S Afr J Physiother 2021 10;77(1):1542. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Speech Pathology, Faculty of Humanities, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: The limited data regarding dysphagia in high-level spinal cord injuries (SCIs) stem from economically developed countries. Dysphagia is prevalent in patients with cervical SCI; however, in a South African context, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are not seen as key when managing this population. This may result in patients not being screened or identified early, leading to possible complications. Read More

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A clinical retrospective study of Caparinia tripilis (Psoroptidae) mite dermatitis in pet African pygmy hedgehogs (Ateletrix albiventris) in southern Italy.

Vet Dermatol 2021 Jun 27. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, 2015 SW 16th Ave, Gainesville, FL, 32610, USA.

Background: Caparinia tripilis is a common ectoparasitic mite affecting African pygmy hedgehogs, and is associated with pruritus and self-trauma. There have been no published surveys on the prevalence of such mites in pet African pygmy hedgehogs in Italy.

Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and clinical signs of C. Read More

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Pediatric internal carotid artery dissection and stroke after minor head injury.

J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open 2021 Jun 18;2(3):e12463. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

College of Medicine University of Toledo Toledo Ohio USA.

Pediatric arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) is an important cause of juvenile brain injury. There are no well-established guidelines for universal management of childhood stroke. Although cerebral arteriopathies are the most common cause of pediatric AIS, head or neck trauma is an established risk factor. Read More

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A Genome-Wide Association Study and Polygenic Risk Score Analysis of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Metabolic Syndrome in a South African Population.

Front Neurosci 2021 10;15:677800. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a trauma-related disorder that frequently co-occurs with metabolic syndrome (MetS). MetS is characterized by obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. To provide insight into these co-morbidities, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis to identify genetic variants associated with PTSD, and determined if PTSD polygenic risk scores (PRS) could predict PTSD and MetS in a South African mixed-ancestry sample. Read More

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Impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and associated lockdown measures on attendances at emergency departments in English hospitals: A retrospective database study.

Lancet Reg Health Eur 2021 Mar 13;2:100034. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

The Strategy Unit, NHS Midlands and Lancashire Commissioning Support Unit, West Bromwich, West Midlands UK.

Background: The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak and associated lockdown measures have challenged healthcare. We examine how attendances to ED in England were impacted.

Methods: Interrupted time series regression (January 2019 to June 2020) of data from EDs in 41 English NHS Trusts was used to estimate the initial decrease in attendances and the rate of increase following an interruption from 11 March - 7 April 2020, which included the 23 March lockdown in England. Read More

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Unintentional firearm mortality in African-American youths, 2010-2019.

J Natl Med Assoc 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Public Health Education, University of North Carolina Greensboro, Greensboro, NC 27412, USA.

Background/ Purpose: There is a dearth of studies that have examined unintentional firearm-related mortality in African-American (AA) youths. The purpose of this article is to assess the epidemiology of unintentional firearm mortality in AA youth, examine the risk factors associated with unintentional AA youth firearm mortality, and explore the evidence for preventing unintentional firearm-mortality in AA youths.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS) data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was used. Read More

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Pathways to and factors associated with rape stigma experienced by rape survivors in South Africa: Analysis of baseline data from a rape cohort.

Clin Psychol Psychother 2021 Jun 25. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Gender and Health Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa.

Rape stigma, both external and self-stigmatization (self-blame), is associated with adverse health outcomes. Understanding its origins and resilience factors is critical for reducing and preventing it. We describe the prevalence of rape stigma, the characteristics of women experiencing it and the pathways to experiencing greater stigma. Read More

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Childhood trauma, the stress response and metabolic syndrome: A focus on DNA methylation.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

Childhood trauma (CT) is well established as a potent risk factor for the development of mental disorders. However, the potential of adverse early experiences to exert chronic and profound effects on physical health, including aberrant metabolic phenotypes, has only been more recently explored. Among these consequences is metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is characterised by at least three of five related cardiometabolic traits: hypertension, insulin resistance/hyperglycaemia, raised triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein and central obesity. Read More

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Psychiatric hospitalization among youth at high risk for HIV.

AIDS Care 2021 Jun 24:1-10. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

College of Osteopathic Medicine, Nova Southeastern University, Miami, FL, USA.

Youth at-risk for HIV are also at-risk for mental health disorders and psychiatric hospitalization. Understanding the association between engagement in HIV prevention, concurrent risk behaviors, and psychiatric hospitalization may lead to improvements in integrated prevention and mental health treatment efforts. Youth at-risk for HIV, aged 14-24 years old, predominantly Black/African American and Latinx (75%) were recruited through youth-serving clinics and community sites in Los Angeles ( = 839) and New Orleans ( = 647). Read More

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The effects of orthopedic pathological conditions and systemic diseases on the prevalence of hip osteoarthritis in Modern African- and European-Americans.

Homo 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Physical Therapy, Movement & Rehabilitation Sciences, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of disability among aging adults. In the U.S. Read More

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