2,498 results match your criteria african continent


Temporal transition of racial/ethnic disparities in COVID-19 outcomes in 3108 counties of the United States: Three phases from January to December 2020.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 1;791:148167. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

School of the Environment, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States of America.

Early studies reported higher risk of COVID-19 outcomes for racial/ethnic minorities in the early phase of the pandemic in the United States. While the initial surge of COVID-19 was concentrated in some areas, COVID-19 became pervasive across the entire continent with high impacts in the northern region and central region in the end of 2020. With this geographical transition, we aim to investigate patterns of these racial/ethnic disparities over time. Read More

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Health of African refugee children outside Africa: A scoping review.

J Pediatr Nurs 2021 Jun 9;61:199-206. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Educational Psychology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G5, Canada. Electronic address:

Problem: Africa is the largest source continent of refugee children. However, we found no published synthesis of the literature on the health of African refugee children outside Africa. Conducting a review of the literature on this particular population will help illuminate the particular contextual health issues faced by African child refugees who live outside Africa. Read More

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The epidemiology of psychiatric disorders in Africa: a scoping review.

Lancet Psychiatry 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Division of Translational Epidemiology, Department of Psychiatry, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY, USA; Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons; New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

This scoping review of population-based epidemiological studies was done to provide background information on the prevalences and distribution of psychiatric disorders in Africa for calls to broaden diversity in psychiatric genetic studies. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science to retrieve relevant literature in English, French, and Portuguese from Jan 1, 1984, to Aug 18, 2020. In 36 studies from 12 African countries, the lifetime prevalence ranged from 3·3% to 9·8% for mood disorders, from 5·7% to 15·8% for anxiety disorders, from 3·7% to 13·3% for substance use disorders, and from 1·0% to 4·4% for psychotic disorders. Read More

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Bioecology of fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), its management and potential patterns of seasonal spread in Africa.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(6):e0249042. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, Nairobi, Kenya.

Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) has rapidly spread in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and has emerged as a major pest of maize and sorghum in the continent. Read More

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COVID-19 pandemic: impacts on the achievements of Sustainable Development Goals in Africa.

Pan Afr Med J 2021 11;38:251. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Since the launch of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2015, Africa has made some progress towards its achievements, particularly in the area of gender equality- SDG 5, climate change -SDG 13 and preserving life on land- SDG 15. Although, some African countries have made tangible impact on the other goals such as health, food production and economic growth; these efforts experienced some setbacks with attention shifting to curbing the spread of the novel coronavirus. As much as mitigating the spread of the spread of COVID-19 is important, so is ensuring efforts made on other goals are not lost, as the SDGs are much interconnected, and failure in one impacts others. Read More

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Chiropractic Practice in the Continent of Africa: A Structured Online Survey of 608 Chiropractors.

J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2021 May;44(4):280-288

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California; Department of Neurology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California; World Spine Care, Santa Ana, California.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the status, supply, demographics, and characteristics of chiropractic practice in the continent of Africa.

Methods: A survey consisting of questions on demographics, clinical practice, and patient profile was administered to 608 chiropractors practicing in the different countries of the African continent. Chiropractic association officers of each country were contacted via e-mail for assistance in the distribution of the survey link to chiropractors in their country. Read More

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Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder in Africa: What is the current state of knowledge?

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 Jul 25;206:106709. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Medicine, Neurology division, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile Ife, Nigeria.

Background: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, usually involving the optic nerve, brain, and spinal cord. While the disease is believed to be more common among individuals of African descent, the disease landscape across the continent has not been systematically explored. In this study, we carried out a systematic scoping review by synthesizing original studies on NMOSD from Africa. Read More

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Missed opportunities for vaccination in Africa.

Curr Opin Immunol 2021 Jun 1;71:55-61. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Cochrane South Africa, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa. Electronic address:

The purpose of this review is to assess the extent of missed opportunities for vaccination (MOV) in Africa, determine the associated factors, and provide recommendations that countries could adopt in reducing MOV. Two databases were searched for multinational studies and systematic reviews reporting MOV and involving African countries. A total of 288 records were identified and 12 studies included for synthesis. Read More

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Decompressive craniotomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction: The quest for an African perspective.

Authors:
Dinesh Naidoo

Surg Neurol Int 2021 3;12:200. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Neurosciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa.

Background: Although associated with controversy, decompressive craniotomy (DC) for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMCAI) is an unequivocally lifesaving intervention. DC for MMCAI is rarely performed in lower- to middle-income countries.

Methods: A systemic review was performed in attempt to determine the rates of utilization and outcomes of DC on the African continent. Read More

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Availability of Therapies and Services for Parkinson's Disease in Africa: A Continent-Wide Survey.

Mov Disord 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria.

Background: The growing burden of Parkinson's disease (PD) in Africa necessitates the identification of available therapies and services to improve patient care.

Objective: To investigate the availability, affordability, frequency of usage, and insurance coverage of PD therapies (pharmacological, surgical, physical, and speech therapies) and services including specialized clinics, specialists, and nurses across Africa.

Methods: A comprehensive web-based survey was constructed and distributed to neurologists/physicians with a special interest in PD across Africa. Read More

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How will a Biden presidency influence reproductive and women's health and development on the African continent?

Afr J Reprod Health 2020 Dec;24(4):17-22

Associate Professor, University of Louisville, School of Public Health & Information Sciences, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health; Director, MPH in Global Maternal & Child Health, Louisville, Kentucky, USA.

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December 2020

COVID-19 in African Countries versus other World Regions: A Review.

Afr J Reprod Health 2020 Jun;24(s1):125-141

Independent Scholar, New Jersey.

This review examines the spread of COVID-19 (coronavirus) in Africa. By May 15, 2020, while the COVID-19 infections were 1,741,129 in Europe, 1,632,167 in North America, 757,924 in Asia, 401,072 in South America, there were only 79,780 infections in Africa, a continent with 1.34 billion people. Read More

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Don't Let Sexual and Reproductive Health become Collateral Damage in the Face of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Public Health Perspective.

Afr J Reprod Health 2020 Jun;24(s1):56-63

Discipline of Public Health Medicine, University of KwaZulu- Natal.

South Africa, similar to many other countries in the African continent is still experiencing challenges in its efforts to provide sexual and reproductive health (SRH) care to women and adolescent girls, and it has become clear that the COVID-19 pandemic is the latest threat to universal access to SRH. In the face of this threat, the Sustainable Developmental Goals that call on the global community to -leave no one behind‖ may become a blurred vision unless we adopt a wider lens away from the tunnel vision that currently plagues health systems around the globe. This paper therefore exposes how SRH may become collateral damage in the face of the present COVID-19 pandemic. Read More

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Overview of Bat and Wildlife Coronavirus Surveillance in Africa: A Framework for Global Investigations.

Viruses 2021 05 18;13(5). Epub 2021 May 18.

Centre for Viral Zoonoses, Department of Medical Virology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0001, South Africa.

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had devastating health and socio-economic impacts. Human activities, especially at the wildlife interphase, are at the core of forces driving the emergence of new viral agents. Global surveillance activities have identified bats as the natural hosts of diverse coronaviruses, with other domestic and wildlife animal species possibly acting as intermediate or spillover hosts. Read More

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Edible Insects and Global Food Security.

Insects 2021 May 19;12(5). Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Political Science, University of Naples Federico II, Via Rodinò 22/A, 80138 Naples, Italy.

Starting in 2008 and lasting up until 2011, the crisis in agricultural and, in particular, cereal prices triggered a period of riots that spread from the Mediterranean basin to the rest of the world, reaching from Asia to Central America and the African continent. [.. Read More

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Pharmacoeconomics in Africa: needs, prospect and challenges.

J Pharm Policy Pract 2021 May 31;14(1):47. Epub 2021 May 31.

Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Africa as a continent has experienced a continuous increase in the cost of healthcare as its demands increase. With many of these African countries living below the poverty threshold, Africans continue to die from preventable and curable diseases. Population increases have led to an increase in demands for healthcare, which unfortunately have been met with inequitable distribution of drugs. Read More

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KASPar SNP genetic map of cassava for QTL discovery of productivity traits in moderate drought stress environment in Africa.

Sci Rep 2021 May 28;11(1):11268. Epub 2021 May 28.

Cassava Breeding Unit, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria.

Cassava is an important staple in Sub-Sahara Africa. While its production has rapidly expanded to the dry savannahs of the continent, productivity is low in this ecology due to drought by farmers, extending the growth cycle from 12 months to 18, and sometimes 24 months to ensure better harvests. Yield is a complex trait and often difficult to manipulate for genetic gain in conventional breeding. Read More

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Parental expectations for children with intellectual disability or autism in Ghana and Zambia: A concept mapping study.

Res Dev Disabil 2021 Jul 25;114:103989. Epub 2021 May 25.

Virginia Commonwealth University, United States.

Introduction: Parent expectations have an important impact on children's outcomes. Despite a wealth of research on the familial experience of children with disabilities in African countries, very few studies have examined expectations these children's parents hold for them.

Aims: This study explores parental expectations for children with intellectual disability, or autism and assesses their perceived importance and likelihood of attainment. Read More

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Multivariate visualization of the global COVID-19 pandemic: A comparison of 161 countries.

PLoS One 2021 28;16(5):e0252273. Epub 2021 May 28.

School of Medical and Life Sciences, Sunway University, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: The aim of the study was to visualize the global spread of the COVID-19 pandemic over the first 90 days, through the principal component analysis approach of dimensionality reduction.

Methods: This study used data from the Global COVID-19 Index provided by PEMANDU Associates. The sample, representing 161 countries, comprised the number of confirmed cases, deaths, stringency indices, population density and GNI per capita (USD). Read More

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Intramarital Status Differences across Africa's Educational Expansion.

J Marriage Fam 2020 Apr 2;82(2):733-750. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

University of Michigan, Department of Sociology.

Objective: This paper documents how intra-marital differences in educational status vary across Africa's heterogeneous educational expansion, which has encompassed an enormous breadth of educational opportunities over the past 50 years.

Background: Educational expansion influences intra-marital status differences both by altering the educational composition of men and women and by reconfiguring the social conventions associated with a given educational context. Status differentials between marital partners can influence spousal wellbeing and, in the aggregate, determine the extent to which marriage provides a pathway to upward social mobility. Read More

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Epidemiology and genetic diversity of SARS-CoV-2 lineages circulating in Africa.

medRxiv 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

COVID-19 disease dynamics have been widely studied in different settings around the globe, but little is known about these patterns in the African continent. To investigate the epidemiology and genetic diversity of SARS-CoV-2 lineages circulating in Africa, more than 2400 complete genomes from 33 African countries were retrieved from the GISAID database and analyzed. We investigated their diversity using various clade and lineage nomenclature systems, reconstructed their evolutionary divergence and history using maximum likelihood inference methods, and studied the case and death trends in the continent. Read More

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Hepatitis B virus genotypes in Brazil: Introduction and dissemination.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 May 21;93:104936. Epub 2021 May 21.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Celular e Molecular Aplicada à Saúde, Universidade Luterana do Brasil (ULBRA), Canoas, RS, Brazil; Laboratório de Diagnóstico Molecular, ULBRA, Canoas, RS, Brazil.

Hepatitis B is a viral infectious disease highly spread worldwide with a long evolutionary history associated with human migrations through the continents and countries. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) was disseminated probably from Africa and diverged into ten genotypes (HBV-A to HBV-J) distributed around the world. In Brazil, almost all HBV genotypes were already reported, with a predominance of three ones: A (52. Read More

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Ecological Risk Assessment of Per- and Polyfluorinated Alkyl Substances: Foreword.

Integr Environ Assess Manag 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Ramboll US Consulting, Beachwood, Ohio, USA.

During the last five years, data and guidance to support ecological risk assessment (ERA) of per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substance (PFAS) have become increasingly available. The studies presented in this special series exemplify and advance this progress. Among the highlights are a whole-colony honey bee toxicity study, a critical evaluation of contrasting evidence to understand avian toxicity of PFAS, a bioaccumulation model incorporating PFOS precursor transformation, and an assessment of PFAS monitoring and regulatory needs on the African continent. Read More

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The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on nitrogen dioxide levels in Nigeria.

PeerJ 2021 7;9:e11387. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Sustainable Development, College of Science and Engineering, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Education City, Doha, Qatar.

The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been transmitted worldwide over a very short time after it originated in China in December 2019. In an attempt to control its spread and reduce its health impacts, several countries including those in the African continent imposed restrictive measures that was termed "lockdown". The outcomes of this lockdown have been reported to be beneficial to air quality worldwide. Read More

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External quality assessment of Rift Valley fever diagnosis in countries at risk of the disease: African, Indian Ocean and Middle-East regions.

PLoS One 2021 19;16(5):e0251263. Epub 2021 May 19.

The Ministry of Environment, Water and Agriculture (MEWA), Jazan Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Jizan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), an arbovirus belonging to the Phlebovirus genus of the Phenuiviridae family, causes the zoonotic and mosquito-borne RVF. The virus, which primarily affects livestock (ruminants and camels) and humans, is at the origin of recent major outbreaks across the African continent (Mauritania, Libya, Sudan), and in the South-Western Indian Ocean (SWIO) islands (Mayotte). In order to be better prepared for upcoming outbreaks, to predict its introduction in RVFV unscathed countries, and to run efficient surveillance programmes, the priority is harmonising and improving the diagnostic capacity of endemic countries and/or countries considered to be at risk of RVF. Read More

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Modelling COVID-19 transmission in Africa: countrywise projections of total and severe infections under different lockdown scenarios.

BMJ Open 2021 03 8;11(3):e044149. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Center for Disease Dynamics Economics and Policy, Washington, District of Columbia, USA.

Objectives: As of 13 January 2021, there have been 3 113 963 confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 and 74 619 deaths across the African continent. Despite relatively lower numbers of cases initially, many African countries are now experiencing an exponential increase in case numbers. Estimates of the progression of disease and potential impact of different interventions are needed to inform policymaking decisions. Read More

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sp. n. (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) from (Smith, 1846) (Mugilidae) from Table Bay, South Africa.

Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl 2021 Aug 7;15:87-94. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Fish Health Research Group, P.O. Box 750, Sentrum, NO-0106, Oslo, Norway.

sp. n. is described from the body surface and fins of the South African mullet, (Smith, 1846) collected from Table Bay Harbour, Cape Town and is compared to five other species described from grey mullets globally namely Ling, 1963 and Zhukov, 1970 from (Temminck and Schlegel, 1845); Rawson, 1973 from L. Read More

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Design and performance analysis of a parabolic trough power plant under the climatological conditions of Tamanrasset, Algeria.

Int J Environ Sci Technol (Tehran) 2021 May 8:1-18. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.

Algeria's energy demands are tremendously growing, and on the African continent it ranks among the countries with the highest energy consumption. To counter its growing energy demand, the country is progressively adopting renewable energy technologies, although conventional energy technologies still play a central role in its electricity production. The huge solar energy potential in Algeria can be exploited and utilized to meet the country's growing energy demand with minimal greenhouse gas production. Read More

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An investment case for the prevention and management of rheumatic heart disease in the African Union 2021-30: a modelling study.

Lancet Glob Health 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Global Health Equity, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Program in Global Noncommunicable Disease and Social Change, Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Partners In Health, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Despite declines in deaths from rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in Africa over the past 30 years, it remains a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality on the continent. We present an investment case for interventions to prevent and manage RHD in the African Union (AU).

Methods: We created a cohort state-transition model to estimate key outcomes in the disease process, including cases of pharyngitis from group A streptococcus, episodes of acute rheumatic fever (ARF), cases of RHD, heart failure, and deaths. Read More

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International Society of Nephrology Global Kidney Health Atlas: structures, organization, and services for the management of kidney failure in Africa.

Kidney Int Suppl (2011) 2021 May 12;11(2):e11-e23. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Urinary Tract Diseases Department, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy of Casablanca, University Hassan II of Casablanca, Casablanca, Morocco.

Despite positive economic forecasts, stable democracies, and reduced regional conflicts since the turn of the century, Africa continues to be afflicted by poverty, poor infrastructure, and a massive burden of communicable diseases such as HIV, malaria, tuberculosis, and diarrheal illnesses. With the rising prevalence of chronic kidney disease and kidney failure worldwide, these factors continue to hinder the ability to provide kidney care for millions of people on the continent. The International Society of Nephrology Global Kidney Health Atlas project was established to assess the global burden of kidney disease and measure global capacity for kidney replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney transplantation). Read More

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