19,114 results match your criteria affective states


Developmental Differences in Affective Representation Between Prefrontal and Subcortical Structures.

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Psychology, Weiss Hall, Temple University, 1701 N 13th St. Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA.

Developmental studies have identified differences in prefrontal and subcortical affective structures between children and adults, which correspond with observed cognitive and behavioral maturations from relatively simplistic emotional experiences and expressions to more nuanced, complex ones. However, developmental changes in the neural representation of emotions have not yet been well explored. It stands to reason that adults and children may demonstrate observable differences in the representation of affect within key neurological structures implicated in affective cognition. Read More

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Love and fear in the times of sickness.

Authors:
Robert Dantzer

Compr Psychoneuroendocrinol 2021 May 22;6. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Symptom Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Sickness induced by gastrointestinal malaise or by microbial pathogens is more than a private experience. Sick individuals share their illness within their social environment by communicating their sickness to others. In turn, recipients of the communication respond with appropriate behavioral adaptations. Read More

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The Role of Affect in Psychosocial Treatments for Substance Use Disorders.

Curr Addict Rep 2020 Jun 1;7(2):108-116. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico.

Purpose Of Review: This paper provides a narrative review of studies published over the past five years that have examined the role of affect, including both affective symptoms and affective disorders, in psychosocial treatments for substance use disorder.

Recent Findings: A growing body of literature suggests that affective symptoms and affective disorders may moderate substance use disorder treatment efficacy, mediate the effects of treatment on substance use outcomes, and may be directly changed by substance use disorder treatment.

Summary: Substance use disorders and affective disorders commonly co-occur, and both affect and affective disorders are associated with substance use disorder treatment outcomes. Read More

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Psychosocial interventions for childhood affective disorders: Is the family the key to success?

J Affect Disord 2021 Jul 22;294:447. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Children's Hospital Los Angeles; Department of Pediatrics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, CA, United States.

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Coping with job insecurity: Employees with grit create I-deals.

J Occup Health Psychol 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Faculty of Business Administration and Economy.

Although job insecurity has been shown to predict numerous adverse outcomes, more is yet to be known about the mechanisms that explain when and why these effects will occur. Using social exchange as our theoretical foundation and three-wave lagged survey data collected from = 300 employees within the United States, the current study found support for the contention that individuals with greater job insecurity pursue fewer idiosyncratic deals (I-Deals) with their employers. Fewer I-Deals in turn were associated with lower affective commitment, and higher turnover intentions, perceived psychological contract breach, and psychological contract violation. Read More

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Longitudinal coupling of momentary stress reactivity and trait neuroticism: Specificity of states, traits, and age period.

J Pers Soc Psychol 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Psychology.

Personality traits like neuroticism show both continuity and change across adolescence and adulthood, with most pronounced changes occurring in young adulthood. It has been assumed, but insufficiently examined, that trait changes occur gradually over the years through the accumulation of daily experiences. The current longitudinal measurement burst study examined (a) how changes in average momentary stress reactivity are coupled with changes in trait neuroticism, (b) the extent to which this coupling is specific to stress reactivity and neuroticism, and (c) the extent to which there are age differences in the association between changes in stress reactivity and changes in neuroticism. Read More

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Overlapping and specific neural correlates for empathizing, affective mentalizing, and cognitive mentalizing: A coordinate-based meta-analytic study.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

ICoN center, Scuola Universitaria Superiore IUSS, Pavia, Italy.

While the discussion on the foundations of social understanding mainly revolves around the notions of empathy, affective mentalizing, and cognitive mentalizing, their degree of overlap versus specificity is still unclear. We took a meta-analytic approach to unveil the neural bases of cognitive mentalizing, affective mentalizing, and empathy, both in healthy individuals and pathological conditions characterized by social deficits such as schizophrenia and autism. We observed partially overlapping networks for cognitive and affective mentalizing in the medial prefrontal, posterior cingulate, and lateral temporal cortex, while empathy mainly engaged fronto-insular, somatosensory, and anterior cingulate cortex. Read More

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High emotion differentiation buffers against internalizing symptoms following exposure to stressful life events in adolescence: An intensive longitudinal study.

Clin Psychol Sci 2021 Jul 29;9(4):699-718. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Psychology, Harvard University.

Exposure to stressful life events is strongly associated with internalizing psychopathology, and identifying factors that reduce vulnerability to stress-related internalizing problems is critical for development of early interventions. Drawing on research from affective science, we tested whether high emotion differentiation-the ability to specifically identify one's feelings-buffers adolescents from developing internalizing symptoms when exposed to stress. Thirty adolescents completed a laboratory measure of emotion differentiation before an intensive year-long longitudinal study in which exposure to stress and internalizing problems were assessed at both the moment-level (n=4,921 experience sampling assessments) and monthly-level (n=355 monthly assessments). Read More

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Susceptibility to Scams in Older Black and White Adults.

Front Psychol 2021 12;12:685258. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, United States.

Previous reports on racial differences in scam susceptibility have yielded mixed findings, and few studies have examined reasons for any observed race differences. Older Black and White participants without dementia ( = 592) from the Minority Aging Research Study and the Rush Memory and Aging Project who completed a susceptibility to scam questionnaire and other measures were matched according to age, education, sex, and global cognition using Mahalanobis distance. In adjusted models, older Black adults were less susceptible to scams than older White adults (Beta = -0. Read More

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Affective states in digital game-based learning: Thematic evolution and social network analysis.

PLoS One 2021 28;16(7):e0255184. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Mathematics and Information Technology, The Education University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR.

Research has indicated strong relationships between learners' affect and their learning. Emotions relate closely to students' well-being, learning quality, productivity, and interaction. Digital game-based learning (DGBL) has been widely recognized to be effective in enhancing learning experiences and increasing student motivation. Read More

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Clear the fog of negative emotions: A new challenge for intervention towards drug users.

J Affect Disord 2021 Jul 17;294:305-313. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China; Center for Intelligent Public Health, Institute for Artificial Intelligence, Peking University, Beijing, China; Center for Drug Abuse Control and Prevention, National Institute of Health Data Science, Peking University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: The psychological and emotional problems of drug users are a focus of research. However, quick and effective emotion assessment tools were scarce. We aimed to use facial expression recognition to assess the emotional states of drug users. Read More

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Using the Judgment Bias Task to Identify Behavioral Indicators of Affective State: Do Eye Wrinkles in Horses Reflect Mood?

Front Vet Sci 2021 8;8:676888. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Division of Livestock Sciences, Department of Sustainable Agricultural Systems, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.

Identifying and validating behavioral indicators of mood are important for the assessment of animal welfare. Here, we investigated whether horses' eye wrinkle expression in a presumably neutral situation is a measure of mood as assessed in a cognitive judgment bias task (JBT). To this end, we scored pictures of the left and right eyes of 16 stallions for different aspects of eye wrinkle expression and tested the same individuals on a spatial JBT with active trial initiation. Read More

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Cognitive-Affective Transdiagnostic Factors Associated With Vulnerability to Alcohol and Prescription Opioid Use in the Context of Pain.

Alcohol Res 2021 15;41(1):08. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Psychology, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York.

The use of alcohol and prescription opioids is common among people in pain and poses significant public health burdens. This review identifies factors associated with motivation to use alcohol and prescription opioids in the context of pain. Pain-relevant, cognitive-affective, transdiagnostic vulnerability factors-expectancies/motives, pain catastrophizing, pain-related anxiety, distress intolerance, anxiety sensitivity, and perceived interrelations-were selected from theoretical conceptualizations of pain and substance use. Read More

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The Impact of Pandemic Perception, National Feeling, and Media Use on the Evaluation of the Performance of Different Countries in Controlling COVID-19 by Chinese Residents.

Authors:
Ruixia Han Jian Xu

Front Psychol 2021 8;12:650367. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

School of Media and Communication, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Different nations responded to the global spread of COVID-19 differently. How do people view the governance practices and effects of various countries? What factors affect their views? Starting from the three-dimensional model of cognitive-affective-media, this study examines how pandemic perception, the national feeling, which is the emotional preference of public for different countries, and media use affect the Chinese public views on the performance of other countries in controlling COVID-19. After performing regression analysis on the data of 619 Chinese public samples collected by an online survey, it reveals the following: (1) pandemic perception is negatively correlated with the evaluation of controlling-pandemic performance in different countries by Chinese residents, whereas national feeling is positively correlated with the evaluation of controlling-pandemic performance. Read More

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What Do We Hear in the Voice? An Open-Ended Judgment Study of Emotional Speech Prosody.

Pers Soc Psychol Bull 2021 Jul 23:1461672211029786. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Tripura University, Agartala, India.

The current study investigated what can be understood from another person's tone of voice. Participants from five English-speaking nations (Australia, India, Kenya, Singapore, and the United States) listened to vocal expressions of nine positive and nine negative affective states recorded by actors from their own nation. In response, they wrote open-ended judgments of what they believed the actor was trying to express. Read More

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Pain modulation by your partner: An experimental investigation from a social-affective perspective.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0254069. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Clinical Psychology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

Background: Social context such as the relationship between a person experiencing pain and a caregiver has been shown to affect the experience of pain, yet, results are not consistent. Possibly, differential effects of interpersonal relationships are modulated by affective states expressed by social partners. Viewing partner pictures in experimental designs is not only associated with lowered perceived pain intensity, but also affects neural responses. Read More

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Response to sertraline is associated with reduction in anxiety-potentiated startle in premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA.

Rationale: Women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) appear to have altered central nervous system sensitivity to neuroactive steroid hormones, manifesting as affective symptoms and heightened arousal in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. In particular, women with PMDD appear less sensitive to allopregnanolone, a positive allosteric GABA-A receptor (GABA-A-R) modulator.

Objectives: This study evaluated psychophysiologic reactivity in women with PMDD in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, utilizing anxiety-potentiated startle (APS), a potential translational marker of GABA-A-R sensitivity. Read More

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A pilot randomized controlled trial of smartphone-assisted mindfulness-based intervention with contingency management for smokers with mood disorders.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

School of Nursing.

Cigarette smoking disproportionately affects individuals with mood disorders, but smoking cessation interventions have modest effects in this population. Home mindfulness practice during abstinence incentivized via contingency management (CM) may help those in affective distress quit smoking.

Method: Adult smokers receiving outpatient psychiatric treatment for mood disorders were randomized to receive a smartphone-assisted mindfulness-based smoking cessation intervention with contingency management (SMI-CM, = 25) or enhanced standard treatment (EST, = 24) with noncontingent rewards. Read More

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Assessment of distinct subcortical and cortical contributions to affect and approach/withdrawal behavior by means of resting-state functional connectivity approach.

Behav Neurosci 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Applied Physics.

The relevance of subcortical structures and interhemispheric subcortical-cortical interactions among positive/negative affect and approach/withdrawal tendencies during resting-state are not fully understood. Gaining this knowledge may foster the know-how on their role in subsequent task-engagement and also on the interlinkage among affective measures and approach/withdrawal dichotomy. Here we performed a study based on Region of Interest (ROI)-based analysis and graph-theory estimates for global and subnetworks on a limited sample of healthy 50 male volunteers who recorded resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and self-reported measures of Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and BAS-BIS (Behavioral Activation System-Behavioral Inhibition System) scores. Read More

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Cognitive Empathy in Subtypes of Antisocial Individuals.

Front Psychiatry 2021 5;12:677975. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States.

Cognitive empathy allows individuals to recognize and infer how others think and feel in social situations and provides a foundation for the formation and maintenance of mutually constructive relationships. It may seem intuitive to assume that individuals who engage in antisocial behavior, who disregard the rights of others, might have problems with cognitive empathy. However, careful examination of the literature suggests that any dysfunction in cognitive empathy associated with antisociality varies by subtype of antisocial individual and is specific to subcomponents of cognitive empathy. Read More

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Functional Brain Connectivity During Narrative Processing Relates to Transportation and Story Influence.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 5;15:665319. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Psychology, Brain and Creativity Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

Engaging with narratives involves a complex array of cognitive and affective processes. These processes make stories persuasive in ways that standard arguments are not, though the underlying reasons for this remain unclear. Transportation theory proposes a potential explanation for this: narratives are processed in a way which makes individuals feel immersed in the world of a story, which in turn leads people to resonate emotionally with the events of the story. Read More

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Moderate Alcohol Intake Changes Visual Perception by Enhancing V1 Inhibitory Surround Interactions.

Front Neurosci 2021 5;15:682229. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China.

Moderate alcohol consumption is considered to enhance the cortical GABA-ergic inhibitory system and it also variously affects visual perception. However, little behavioral evidence indicates changes of visual perception due to V1 modulated by alcohol intoxication. In this study, we investigated this issue by using center-surround tilt illusion (TI) as a probe of V1 inhibitory interactions, by taking into account possible higher-order effects. Read More

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EXPRESS: In the hands of the beholder: Wearing a COVID-19 mask is associated with its attractiveness.

Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 2021 Jul 21:17470218211037128. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

University of British Columbia, Department of Psychology, 2136 West Mall, Vancouver, B.C. Canada, V6T 1Z4 8166.

Protective facial masks reduce the spread of COVID-19 infection and save lives. Yet a substantial number of people have been resistant to wearing them. Considerable effort has been invested in convincing people to put on a mask, if not for their own sake than for those more vulnerable. Read More

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Structural atrophy of the right superior frontal gyrus in adolescents with severe irritability.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.

Severe irritability is common in youths with psychiatric disorders and results in significant dysfunction across domains (academic, social, and familial). Prior structural MRI studies in the pediatric population demonstrated that aberrations of cortical thickness (CT) and gray matter volume (GMV) in the fronto-striatal-temporal regions which have been associated with irritability. However, the directions of the correlations between structural alteration and irritability in the individual indices were not consistent. Read More

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Do psychiatric diseases follow annual cyclic seasonality?

PLoS Biol 2021 Jul 19;19(7):e3001347. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Committee on Genetics, Genomics and Systems Biology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) famously follows annual cycles, with incidence elevation in the fall and spring. Should some version of cyclic annual pattern be expected from other psychiatric disorders? Would annual cycles be similar for distinct psychiatric conditions? This study probes these questions using 2 very large datasets describing the health histories of 150 million unique U.S. Read More

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Overcoming Resistance to Immunotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer Using Radiation: A Review.

Front Oncol 2021 1;11:592319. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA, United States.

Radiation therapy remains at the center of head and neck cancer treatment. With improvements in treatment delivery, radiation therapy has become an affective ablative modality for head and neck cancers. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are now also playing a more active role both in the locally advanced and metastatic setting. Read More

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Biophysical and synaptic properties of NMDA receptors in the lateral habenula.

Neuropharmacology 2021 Jul 14;196:108718. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

The Department of Fundamental Neuroscience, The University of Lausanne, 1005, Lausanne, Switzerland; Inserm, UMR-S 839, 75005, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Excitatory synaptic transmission in the lateral habenula (LHb), an evolutionarily ancient subcortical structure, encodes aversive stimuli and affective states. Habenular glutamatergic synapses contribute to these processes partly through the activation of AMPA receptors. Yet, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are also expressed in the LHb and support the emergence of depressive symptoms. Read More

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Investigating the Neural Correlates of the Affect Heuristic Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

J Cogn Neurosci 2021 Jul 16:1-14. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Linköping University.

This study investigated the neural correlates of the so-called "affect heuristic," which refers to the phenomenon whereby individuals tend to rely on affective states rather than rational deliberation of utility and probabilities during judgments of risk and utility of a given event or scenario. The study sought to explore whether there are shared regional activations during both judgments of relative risk and relative benefit of various scenarios, thus being a potential candidate of the affect heuristic. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we developed a novel risk perception task, based on a preexisting behavioral task assessing the affect heuristic. Read More

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