79,147 results match your criteria affective

Infralimbic cortex pyramidal neuron GIRK signaling contributes to regulation of cognitive flexibility but not affect-related behavior in male mice.

Physiol Behav 2021 Sep 15:113597. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI. Electronic address:

Dysfunction of the infralimbic cortical (ILC) region of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is thought to be an underlying factor in both affect- and cognition-related behavioral deficits that co-occur across neuropsychiatric disorders. Increasing evidence highlights pathological imbalances in prefrontal pyramidal neuron excitability and associated aberrant firing as an underlying factor in this dysfunction. G protein-gated inwardly rectifying K (GIRK/Kir3) channels mediate excitability of mPFC pyramidal neurons, however the functional role of these channels in ILC-dependent regulation of behavior and pyramidal neuron excitation is unknown. Read More

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September 2021

Decision-making in screening positive participants who follow up with colonoscopy in the Dutch colorectal cancer screening programme: A mixed-method study.

Psychooncology 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of General Practice, Cancer Center Amsterdam and Amsterdam Public Health, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objective: To explore worry and decision-making processes used by faecal immunochemical test (FIT)-positive participants in the Dutch national screening programme for colorectal cancer.

Methods: A mixed-methods study consisting of 22 semi-structured interviews in FIT-positive participants who underwent the recommended colonoscopy within 4-6 months after the FIT result, followed by a widespread questionnaire in a larger target population (N = 1495).

Results: In the interviews, we recognised two different decision-making processes. Read More

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September 2021

Mastery of type 2 diabetes prevention and treatment knowledge by general practitioners in Shanghai: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Fam Pract 2021 Sep 17;22(1):189. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Shanggang Community Healthcare Center of Pudong New Area, Shanghai, China.

Background: To study the competency of general practitioners (GPs) in Shanghai, China on prevention and management of type 2 diabetes, also understand factors that may prohibit it.

Methods: A survey questionnaire with 25 questions was designed based on 2013 Chinese Type 2 Diabetes Prevention Guidelines and Chinese Type 2 Diabetes Prevention Guidelines (Grassroots Edition) and conducted among 789 GPs who work at 54 community healthcare centers (CHCs) within 16 districts at Shanghai, China. Excel 2016 and SPSS 24. Read More

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September 2021

Mental health of patients with mental illness during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown: a questionnaire-based survey weighted for attrition.

Nord J Psychiatry 2021 Sep 17:1-10. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Affective Disorders, Aarhus University Hospital - Psychiatry, Aarhus, Denmark.

Background: Individuals with pre-existing mental illness may be particularly vulnerable to the negative impact that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic seems to have on mental health. Accordingly, the objective of the present study was to assess whether patients with mental illness experienced deterioration in mental health during the COVID-19 lockdown of Denmark in the Spring of 2020.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey coupled with sociodemographic and clinical data from the medical records of all invitees. Read More

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September 2021

Happiness and depression in psoriasis: a cross-sectional study in Germany.

Qual Life Res 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Dermatology and Allergy, School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: Prior research on the psychological consequences of skin diseases has focused on assessing mental comorbidities. The aim of this study was to investigate subjective well-being in a large sample of individuals affected by psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease, and to explore the associations with depression and disease-related parameters such as disease severity.

Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted from March to June 2019. Read More

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September 2021

Brain Circuits Involved in the Development of Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: Evidence From Non-invasive Brain Stimulation.

Front Neurol 2021 31;12:732034. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Institute of Cognitive and Clinical Neuroscience, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany.

It has been well-documented that the brain changes in states of chronic pain. Less is known about changes in the brain that predict the transition from acute to chronic pain. Evidence from neuroimaging studies suggests a shift from brain regions involved in nociceptive processing to corticostriatal brain regions that are instrumental in the processing of reward and emotional learning in the transition to the chronic state. Read More

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The Roles of Primary Emotional Systems and Need Satisfaction in Problematic Internet and Smartphone Use: A Network Perspective.

Front Psychol 2021 31;12:709805. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Molecular Psychology, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany.

Problematic Internet and smartphone use (PIU and PSU, respectively) have received significant attention over the past years. In the current work, we studied the associations between PIU and PSU, primary emotional systems, and need satisfaction. The effective sample comprised 399 people who responded to scales measuring these variables. Read More

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The effects of inducing self-compassion on affective and physiological recovery from a psychosocial stressor in depression.

Behav Res Ther 2021 Sep 11;146:103965. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

The University of British Columbia, 2136 West Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T1Z4, Canada.

The current study was designed to extend previous research by testing whether self-compassion acts as a protective factor that facilitates faster affective and physiological recovery from stress in people with elevated depressive symptoms. Specifically, we examined the effect of experimentally induced self-compassion on positive affect, negative affect, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) recovery from stress. Participants (N = 59) experiencing elevated depressive symptoms completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a standardized psychosocial stressor, and then were randomly assigned to either a self-compassion induction or a no-strategy control induction before resting quietly during the 30-min recovery period. Read More

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September 2021

Negative self-evaluation induced by acute stress indexed using facial EMG.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 Aug 30;133:105402. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linköping University, Sweden.

Maladaptive stress responses are a key feature of several psychiatric disorders, but findings of stress effects on social behavior are inconsistent. Using a within-subject design, we investigated, in 35 healthy participants, the effects of acute stress on psychophysiological and behavioral responses during a simulated online social interaction task. Participants were exposed to established stress and non-stress exposure procedures in two separate sessions. Read More

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Diagnostic Stability in Bipolar Disorder: A Follow-up Study in 130,000 Patient-Years.

J Clin Psychiatry 2021 Sep 14;82(6). Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Universitario Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Madrid, Spain.

Diagnostic stability is the degree to which a diagnosis remains unchanged during time. Our main objective was to evaluate the diagnostic stability of bipolar disorder (BD) in psychiatric outpatient consultations and determine the socio-demographic variables influencing its stability.

The Cumulative Register of Cases of the Community of Madrid provided data on all outpatient visits conducted at Madrid's Community Mental Healthcare Centers between 1980-2009. Read More

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September 2021

Premorbid Characteristics as Predictors of Early Onset Versus Adult Onset in Patients With a First Episode of Psychosis.

J Clin Psychiatry 2021 09 14;82(6). Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Members of the PEPs Group are listed at the end of the article.

To study the differences in early-life characteristics between patients with an early onset of psychotic disorders (EOP, aged < 18 years) versus adult onset of psychotic disorders (AOP, aged ≥ 18 years) and to identify predictors of earlier onset.

278 patients with a first episode of psychosis between the ages of 7 and 35 years were recruited as part of a multicenter prospective longitudinal study conducted in Spain between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2011, with diagnoses made for AOP using the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) and for EOP using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children (K-SADS). Early-stage factors such as prenatal, perinatal, and other premorbid factors were registered and compared between EOP and AOP patients. Read More

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September 2021

Structural measures to prevent radicalism among youth.

J Community Psychol 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Sociology, L. N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan.

Extremism has an antilegal nature, that is, it denies consensus ways of solving social problems, giving preference to violent methods and methods of achieving various goals, in particular political ones. The spread of radical, intolerant leadership among young people and attempts to involve young people in extremist activities are especially dangerous. The novelty of the research is determined by the fact that the socio-psychological characteristics inherent in a young person, his superficial and uncritical perception of social life, determine his appeal to protest-activist methods of increasing his social status and role in public life, which are mostly spontaneous, spontaneous. Read More

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September 2021

Elevated emotion reactivity and emotion regulation in individuals at clinical high risk for developing psychosis and those diagnosed with a psychotic disorder.

Early Interv Psychiatry 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Aims: Disrupted affective processes are core features of psychosis; yet emotion reactivity and emotion regulation impairments have not been fully characterized in individuals at clinical high-risk for developing psychosis (CHR) or adolescents diagnosed with a psychotic disorder (AOP). Characterizing these impairments may provide a fuller understanding of factors contributing to psychosis risk and psychosis onset. Using cross-sectional and longitudinal data, we evaluated (1) group-level effects of emotion reactivity and regulation, (2) stability of group-level effects over time and age, (3) relationships between emotion reactivity and regulation, and (4) associations between these measures and psychosocial functioning and clinical symptomatology. Read More

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September 2021

The role of BDNF exon I region methylation in the treatment of depression with sertraline and its clinical diagnostic value.

J Clin Lab Anal 2021 Sep 15:e23993. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Affective Disorder, Ningbo Kangning Hospital, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China.

Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is considered to be one of the best candidate genes for depression. However, whether sertraline treatment affects the methylation level of this gene remains unknown.

Methods: Fifty-three patients with depression and 51 healthy controls were included in the study. Read More

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September 2021

A longitudinal study of preadolescent and adolescent substance use: Within-individual patterns and protective factors.

Int J Clin Health Psychol 2021 Sep-Dec;21(3):100251. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

University of Cordoba, Spain.

Substance use is one of the main risks for adolescent health. Many research projects have studied longitudinal patterns of use and risk/protective factors, but the number of studies focused on within-individual stability and change is low. The objective of this study was to discover specific longitudinal profiles of drug use and explore the role of social and emotional competencies, and empathy as possible protective factors against substance use. Read More

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Affective Contagion: How Attitudes Expressed by Others Influence Our Perception of Actions.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 30;15:712550. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Cognitive Architecture for Collaborative Technologies Unit, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genova, Italy.

Vitality forms represent a fundamental aspect of social interactions by characterizing actions are performed and words are pronounced on the basis of the attitude of the agent. Same action, such as a handshake, may have a different impact on the receiver when it is performed kindly or vigorously, and similarly, a gentle or rude tone of voice may have a different impact on the listener. In the present study, we carried out two experiments that aimed to investigate whether and how vocal requests conveying different vitality forms can influence the perception of goal-directed actions and to measure the duration of this effect over time. Read More

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Dopamine D1 and D2 Receptors Are Important for Learning About Neutral-Valence Relationships in Sensory Preconditioning.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 30;15:740992. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

School of Psychology, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Dopamine neurotransmission has been ascribed multiple functions with respect to both motivational and associative processes in reward-based learning, though these have proven difficult to tease apart. In order to better describe the role of dopamine in associative learning, this series of experiments examined the potential of dopamine D1- and D2-receptor antagonism (or combined antagonism) to influence the ability of rats to learn neutral valence stimulus-stimulus associations. Using a sensory preconditioning task, rats were first exposed to pairings of two neutral stimuli (S2-S1). Read More

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Psychometric Properties of Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy (QCAE): Reliability and Factor Analysis Study in Turkish Sample.

Noro Psikiyatr Ars 2021 26;58(3):228-233. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

University of Health Sciences Turkey Istanbul Erenkoy Mental Health and Neurological Disease Education and Research Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Istanbul, Turkey.

Introduction: The Questionnaire Cognitive and Affective Empathy (QCAE) scale is a tool that is widely used because of its multi-dimensional assessment of ability for empathy and is currently available in many languages. The aim of the current study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of QCAE, which evaluates cognitive and emotional empathy with its multi-dimensional structure, and to bring it into the Turkish.

Methods: The study was carried out in a Turkish population of 412 healthy volunteers. Read More

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Multivariate pattern analysis links drug use severity to distributed cortical hypoactivity during emotional inhibitory control in opioid use disorder.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 Aug 29;32:102806. Epub 2021 Aug 29.

Center for Studies of Addiction, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, 3535 Market St Ste 500, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

Opioid use disorder (OUD) is characterized by emotional and cognitive impairements that are associated with poor treatment outcomes. The present study investigated the neural mechanism underlying emotion evaluation and inhibitory control using an affective go/no-go (AGN) task and its association with drug use severity and craving in patients with OUD. Twenty-six recently detoxified patients with OUD underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing the AGN task that required response to frequently presented appetitive stimuli ("go") and inhibition of response to infrequently presented aversive stimuli ("no-go"). Read More

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Perturbations in Gut Microbiota Composition in Psychiatric Disorders: A Review and Meta-analysis.

JAMA Psychiatry 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Centre for Affective Disorders, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

Importance: Evidence of gut microbiota perturbations has accumulated for multiple psychiatric disorders, with microbiota signatures proposed as potential biomarkers. However, no attempts have been made to evaluate the specificity of these across the range of psychiatric conditions.

Objective: To conduct an umbrella and updated meta-analysis of gut microbiota alterations in general adult psychiatric populations and perform a within- and between-diagnostic comparison. Read More

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September 2021

Is Ignorance Bliss? Examining the Effect of News Media Exposure on Anxiety and Depression During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

J Nerv Ment Dis 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Psychology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts Department of Agriculture, Nutrition, and Food Systems, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire.

Abstract: There has been a widespread increase in affective disorders after the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic. In the current study, we investigated the effects of exposure to and perceived accuracy of news media and demographic characteristics on anxiety and depressive symptoms. We conducted an online survey of US adults (N = 480) using hierarchical linear regression models to understand the predictive roles of duration and frequency of news media exposure, as well as the perceived accuracy of COVID-19 portrayal by the news media, on anxiety and depression. Read More

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September 2021

[Neuropsychiatric recovery after COVID-19 - an observational cohort-study].

Tijdschr Psychiatr 2021 ;63(7):514-521

Background: Since the end of 2019, COVID-19 and its consequences are present everywhere. Dutch professionals are concerned about the mental consequences, and in particular that during and after hospitalization little attention is paid to psychological problems.

Aim: To monitor the short-term course and severity of (neuro)psychiatric symptoms after hospitalization for COVID-19. Read More

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September 2021

Patient narratives of hope in stem cell technologies: Trust in biomedicine and the body's natural ability to heal itself.

Health (London) 2021 Sep 15:13634593211046834. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

University of California San Diego, USA.

The scholarship on patient hope in biomedical technologies describes two narratives of hope: the biomedical and the individual. The biomedical narrative represents patients' beliefs that the institution of science will eventually produce treatment for their disease, whereas the individual narrative represents patients' beliefs that they can alter their prognosis through affective and behavioral modifications. The distinct analytical categories of "biomedical" and "individual," however, fail to account for the fact that patient hope has been found to be much more complex. Read More

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September 2021

Mental imagery-based self-regulation: Effects on physical activity behaviour and its cognitive and affective precursors over time.

Br J Health Psychol 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Objectives: (1) Test whether a mental imagery-based self-regulation intervention increases physical activity behaviour over 90 days; (2) Examine cognitive and affective precursors of change in physical activity behaviour.

Design: A randomized control trial with participants (N = 500) randomized to one of six intervention conditions in a 3 (risk communication format: bulleted list, table, risk ladder) x 2 (mental imagery behaviour: physical activity, active control [sleep hygiene]) factorial design.

Methods: After receiving personalized risk estimates via a website on a smartphone, participants listened to an audiorecording that guided them through a mental imagery activity related to improving physical activity (intervention group) or sleep hygiene behaviour (active control). Read More

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September 2021

A Cognitive Autopsy Approach Towards Explaining Diagnostic Failure.

Cureus 2021 Aug 9;13(8):e17041. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Emergency Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, CAN.

Diagnostic failure has emerged as one of the most significant threats to patient safety. It is important to understand the antecedents of such failures both for clinicians in practice as well is those in training. A consensus has developed in the literature that the majority of failures are due to individual or system factors or some combination of the two. Read More

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Psychiatric morbidity amongst adolescents in a Nigerian juvenile correctional facility.

S Afr J Psychiatr 2021 16;27:1590. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Behavioural Science, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Kwara State, Nigeria.

Background: The high occurrence of psychiatric disorders amongst adolescents within the Juvenile Justice System (JJS) has been confirmed. Most of the available data are from developed countries and some of them focus on just a single psychiatric disorder which may not be representative of the situation in low-income countries, hence the need for more studies in developing countries, including Nigeria.

Aim: The study aimed to determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders amongst adolescent residents of a correctional facility. Read More

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Defining clinical empathy: a grounded theory approach from the perspective of healthcare workers and patients in a multicultural setting.

BMJ Open 2021 Sep 14;11(9):e045224. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Geriatic Medicine, Khoo Teck Puat Hospital, Singapore.

Objective: To define clinical empathy from the perspective of healthcare workers and patients from a multicultural setting.

Design: Grounded theory approach using focus group discussions.

Setting: A health cluster in Singapore consisting of an acute hospital, a community hospital, ambulatory care teams, a medical school and a nursing school. Read More

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September 2021

Adults with type 2 diabetes benefit from self-management support intervention regardless of depressive symptoms.

J Diabetes Complications 2021 Aug 18:108024. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Ferkauf Graduate School of Psychology, Yeshiva University, Bronx, NY, United States of America; Departments of Medicine (Endocrinology) and Epidemiology & Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, United States of America; New York Regional Center for Diabetes Translation Research, Bronx, NY, United States of America.

Aims: Elevated depressive symptoms are common among adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In a secondary analysis from an RCT of a diabetes self-management support intervention that did not target depressive symptoms, we sought to determine if depressive symptoms were reduced by the intervention (i.e. Read More

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The development of depressogenic self-schemas: Associations with children's regional grey matter volume in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

Dev Psychopathol 2021 Sep 15:1-11. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Psychology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA.

Cognitive theories of depression contend that biased cognitive information processing plays a causal role in the development of depression. Extensive research shows that deeper processing of negative and/or shallower processing of positive self-descriptors (i.e. Read More

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September 2021