13,977 results match your criteria advances reviewed


Occupational exposure to crystalline silica and peripheral biomarkers: An update.

J Appl Toxicol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Laboratory of Toxicology (LATOX), Department of Analysis, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Peripheral biomarkers are important tools for detecting occupational exposures to prevent the onset and/or progression of diseases. Studies that reveal early peripheral biomarkers are highly important to preserve the health of workers and can potentially contribute to diagnosing and/or prognosing occupational pathologies. Exposure to crystalline silica is a problem in several workplaces because it increases the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tuberculosis, cancer, and pulmonary fibrosis, clinically defined as silicosis. Read More

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Advanced Wound Diagnostics: Towards Transforming Wound Care into Precision Medicine.

Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle) 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Tufts University School of Medicine, 12261, Molecular Physiology and Pharmacology, Boston, Massachusetts, United States.

Significance Non-healing wounds are an ever-growing global pandemic with mortality rates and management costs exceeding many common cancers. Although our understanding of the molecular and cellular factors driving wound healing continues to grow, standards for diagnosing and evaluating wounds remain largely subjective and experiential, while therapeutic strategies fail to consistently achieve closure and clinicians are challenged to deliver individualized care protocols. There is a need to apply precision medicine practices to wound care by developing evidence-based approaches, which are predictive, prescriptive, and personalized. Read More

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Research advances in bioactive components and health benefits of jujube ( Mill.) fruit.

J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2021 Jun;22(6):431-449

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Agro-Food Processing, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Jujube ( Mill.), a highly nutritious and functional fruit, is reported to have various health benefits and has been extensively planted worldwide, especially in China. Many studies have shown that bioactive components derived from jujube fruit have significant nutritional and potential biological effects. Read More

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Summary of the Proceedings of the Basic Science of Uterine Fibroids Meeting: New Developments February 28, 2020.

F S Sci 2021 Feb 7;2(1):88-100. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, George Washington University, Milken School of Public Health.

Scientists from multiple basic disciplines and an international group of physician-scientists from the field of obstetrics and gynecology presented recent studies and discussed new and evolving theories of uterine fibroid etiology, growth and development at The Basic Science of the Uterine Fibroids meeting, sponsored by the Campion Fund and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. The purpose was to share up-to date knowledge and to stimulate new concepts regarding the basic molecular biology and pathophysiology of uterine fibroids, and to promote future collaborations. The meeting was held at the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences in North Carolina on February 28, 2020. Read More

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February 2021

Fluorescent labeling of biocompatible block copolymers: synthetic strategies and applications in bioimaging.

Mater Adv 2021 Apr 6;2(10):3213-3233. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Laboratoire de Bioimagerie et Pathologies, UMR 7021, CNRS/Université de Strasbourg 74 route du Rhin 67401 Illkirch-Graffenstaden France

Among biocompatible materials, block copolymers (BCPs) possess several advantages due to the control of their chemistry and the possibility of combining various blocks with defined properties. Consequently, BCPs drew considerable attention as biocompatible materials in the fields of drug delivery, medicine and bioimaging. Fluorescent labeling of BCPs quickly appeared to be a method of choice to image and track these materials in order to better understand the nature of their interactions with biological media. Read More

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"Janus-Faced" α-Synuclein: Role in Parkinson's Disease.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 28;9:673395. Epub 2021 May 28.

College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a pathological condition characterized by the aggregation and the resultant presence of intraneuronal inclusions termed Lewy bodies (LBs) and Lewy neurites which are mainly composed of fibrillar α-synuclein (α-syn) protein. Pathogenic aggregation of α-syn is identified as the major cause of LBs deposition. Several mutations in α-syn showing varied aggregation kinetics in comparison to the wild type (WT) α-syn are reported in PD (A30P, E46K, H 50Q, G51D, A53E, and A53T). Read More

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Targeted Drug Delivery Systems for Kidney Diseases.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 28;9:683247. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Nephrology, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital, Institute of Translational Medicine, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Jinhua, China.

Kidney diseases have gradually become a global health burden. Along with the development of nanotechnology, many hybrids or nanomaterials have been utilized to promote treatment efficiency with negligible side effects. These therapeutic agents have been successfully applied in many fields. Read More

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Salvage Procedures of the Shoulder: Glenohumeral Arthrodesis and Resection Arthroplasty.

Indian J Orthop 2021 May 22;55(Suppl 1):27-37. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Advanced Reconstructive Osseous Surgery, San Juan de Dios Hospital, Pamplona, Spain.

Background: With the advances of modern medicine and technology there has been an increase of indications of shoulder reconstruction techniques and shoulder arthroplasty. Consequently, the number of complications and failures have increased in parallel. Not negligible number of cases are driven to an end-stage situation where salvage procedures, such as glenohumeral arthrodesis (GHA) and shoulder resection arthroplasty (SRA), are the only remaining solution. Read More

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Advances of Nonlinear Photonics in Low-Dimensional Halide Perovskites.

Small 2021 Jun 13:e2100809. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Joint Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Institute of Applied Physics and Materials Engineering, University of Macau, Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macao SAR, 999078, P. R. China.

Hybrid halide perovskites emerging as a highly promising class of functional materials for semiconductor optoelectronic applications have drawn great attention from worldwide researchers. In the past few years, prominent nonlinear optical properties have been demonstrated in perovskite bulk structures indicating their bright prospect in the field of nonlinear optics (NLO). Following the surge of 3D perovskites, more recently, the low-dimensional perovskites (LDPs) materials ranging from two-, one-, to zero-dimension such as quantum-wells or colloidal nanostructures have displayed unexpectedly attractive NLO response due to the strong quantum confinement, remarkable exciton effect, and structural diversity. Read More

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The biogenesis and biological function of PIWI-interacting RNA in cancer.

J Hematol Oncol 2021 Jun 12;14(1):93. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Jiangsu Cancer Hospital, Jiangsu Institute of Cancer Research, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing, 211166, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are vital regulators of biological activities, and aberrant levels of small ncRNAs are commonly found in precancerous lesions and cancer. PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a novel type of small ncRNA initially discovered in germ cells that have a specific length (24-31 nucleotides), bind to PIWI proteins, and show 2'-O-methyl modification at the 3'-end. Numerous studies have revealed that piRNAs can play important roles in tumorigenesis via multiple biological regulatory mechanisms, including silencing transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene processes and accelerating multiprotein interactions. Read More

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Toward an Understanding of the Detection and Function of R-loops in Plants.

J Exp Bot 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

State Key Laboratory for Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, JCIC-MCP, CIC-MCP, Nanjing Agricultural University, No.1 Weigang, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095, P.R. China.

Although lagging behind studies in humans and other mammals, R-loop studies in plants have recently entered an exciting stage in which the roles of R-loops in gene expression, genome stability, epigenomic signatures, and plant development and stress responses are being elucidated. Here, we reviewed the strengths and weaknesses of existing methodologies, which were largely developed for R-loop studies in mammals, and then we discussed the potential challenges of applying these methodologies to R-loop studies in plants. We then focused on recent advances in the functional characterization of R-loops in Arabidopsis thaliana and rice. Read More

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Inorganic material based macrophage regulation for cancer therapy: basic concepts and recent advances.

Biomater Sci 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Institute of Smart Biomaterials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang, China. and Zhejiang-Mauritius Joint Research Center for Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang, China.

Macrophages with the M1 phenotype are a type of immune cell with exciting prospects for cancer therapy; however, when these macrophages infiltrate into tumours, many of them are induced by the tumour microenvironment to transform into the M2 type, which can enable tumour defence against external therapeutic strategies, assisting in tumour development. Macrophages have strong plasticity and functional heterogeneity, and their phenotypic transformation is complex and still poorly understood in relation to cancer therapy. Recent material advances in inorganic nanomaterials, especially inorganic elements in vivo, have accelerated the development of macrophage regulation-based cancer treatments. Read More

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Diagnostic interpretation of non-contrast qualitative MR imaging features for characterisation of uterine leiomyosarcoma.

Br J Radiol 2021 Jun 16:20210115. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Cancer Research UK Cambridge Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Objective: To assess the value of non-contrast MRI features for characterisation of uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) and differentiation from atypical benign leiomyomas.

Methods: This study included 57 atypical leiomyomas and 16 LMS which were referred pre-operatively for management review to the specialist gynaeoncology multidisciplinary team meeting. Non-contrast MRIs were retrospectively reviewed by five independent readers (three senior, two junior) and a 5-level Likert score (1-low/5-high) was assigned to each mass for likelihood of LMS. Read More

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Recent advances of emerging green chitosan-based biomaterials with potential biomedical applications: A review.

Carbohydr Res 2021 Jun 3;506:108368. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Chitosan is the most abundant natural biopolymer, after cellulose. It is mainly derived from the fungi, shrimp's shells, and exoskeleton of crustaceans, through the deacetylation of chitin. The ecological sustainability associated with its exercise and the flexibility of chitosan owing to its active functional hydroxyl and amino groups makes it a promising candidate for a wide range of applications through a variety of modifications. Read More

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Repurposing of Anti-Diabetic Agents as a New Opportunity to Alleviate Cognitive Impairment in Neurodegenerative and Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

Front Pharmacol 2021 24;12:667874. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Pharmacy, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Cognitive impairment is a shared abnormality between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and many neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and schizophrenia. Emerging evidence suggests that brain insulin resistance plays a significant role in cognitive deficits, which provides the possibility of anti-diabetic agents repositioning to alleviate cognitive deficits. Both preclinical and clinical studies have evaluated the potential cognitive enhancement effects of anti-diabetic agents targeting the insulin pathway. Read More

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Biophotonic probes for bio-detection and imaging.

Light Sci Appl 2021 Jun 9;10(1):124. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Institute of Nanophotonics, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 511443, China.

The rapid development of biophotonics and biomedical sciences makes a high demand on photonic structures to be interfaced with biological systems that are capable of manipulating light at small scales for sensitive detection of biological signals and precise imaging of cellular structures. However, conventional photonic structures based on artificial materials (either inorganic or toxic organic) inevitably show incompatibility and invasiveness when interfacing with biological systems. The design of biophotonic probes from the abundant natural materials, particularly biological entities such as virus, cells and tissues, with the capability of multifunctional light manipulation at target sites greatly increases the biocompatibility and minimizes the invasiveness to biological microenvironment. Read More

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Implementation of radioguided surgery in prostate cancer.

Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Urology, West German Cancer Center, University Hospital Essen, Germany -

Introduction: With the development of new imaging technologies and tracers, the applications of radioguided surgery for prostate cancer are growing rapidly. The current paper aims to give an overview of the recent advances of radioguided surgery in the management of prostate cancer.

Evidence Acquisition: We performed a literature search to give an overview of the current status of radioguided surgery for prostate cancer. Read More

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The roles of vitamin D in increasing the body's immunity and reducing injuries due to viral infections: With an emphasis on its possible role in SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19).

Curr Pharm Des 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Medical Plants Research Center, Basic Health Sciences Institute, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran.

Background: It is known that Vitamin D can increase the body's immunity against some viral infections. Many people around the world have vitamin D deficiency and, therefore, this has become a public concern whether vitamin D is an important factor protecting against COVID-19 infection. In this paper, the data about the roles of vitamin D on immunity and recovery from viral infections, especially novel Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is reviewed. Read More

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Current State of Self-Administered Brief Computerized Cognitive Assessments for Detection of Cognitive Disorders in Older Adults: A Systematic Review.

J Prev Alzheimers Dis 2021 ;8(3):267-276

Katherine L. Possin, PhD, Associate Professor in Residence, Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, Memory and Aging Center, Box 1207, 675 Nelson Rising Lane, Suite 190, San Francisco, CA 94158, Tel: 415-476-1889, E-mail:

Early diagnosis of cognitive disorders in older adults is a major healthcare priority with benefits to patients, families, and health systems. Rapid advances in digital technology offer potential for developing innovative diagnostic pathways to support early diagnosis. Brief self-administered computerized cognitive tools in particular hold promise for clinical implementation by minimizing demands on staff time. Read More

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January 2021

Microglia and HPA axis in depression: an overview of participation and relationship.

World J Biol Psychiatry 2021 Jun 8:1-53. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Center of Health Sciences, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.

Depression is considered a public health challenge worldwide, and its pathophysiology is not yet fully understood. Exposition to stressful events is considered a common factor in the mechanisms proposed to explain it. Stressful conditions can activate microglial cells, important immune components of the central nervous system (CNS) involved in the maintenance of brain homeostasis. Read More

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Association of long-term endoscopic biliary stent placement with choledocholithiasis: a literature review.

Clin J Gastroenterol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Gastroenterology, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, 880, Kitakobayashi, Mibu, Shimotsuga, Tochigi, 321-0293, Japan.

Endoscopic stone removal is currently the first-line procedure for the treatment of common bile duct stones. Advances in equipment and treatment techniques have expanded the scope of application of endoscopic treatment to include stones that have previously been difficult to remove endoscopically, such as stacked stones and large stones. For the treatment of common bile duct stones in elderly patients in particular, long-term placement of a biliary stent is increasingly being selected. Read More

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Pediatric Airway Endoscopy: Recommendations of the Society for Pediatric Pneumology.

Respiration 2021 Jun 7:1-18. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Division of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, University Children's Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

For many decades, pediatric bronchoscopy has been an integral part of the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic pulmonary diseases in children. Rapid technical advances have continuously influenced the performance of the procedure. Over the years, the application of pediatric bronchoscopy has considerably expanded to a broad range of indications. Read More

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Multiple Sclerosis.

Authors:
Michael J Olek

Ann Intern Med 2021 Jun 8;174(6):ITC81-ITC96. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Touro University Nevada, Henderson, Nevada.

Many groundbreaking advances have occurred in the field of multiple sclerosis since this series last reviewed the disorder in 2014. The U.S. Read More

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Publication trends in clinical ophthalmology journals in the last decade.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2021 Jun 6:11206721211023725. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Ophthalmology, Centre Hospitalier Intercommunal de Créteil and University Paris Est, 94000 Créteil, France.

Purpose: To examine the absolute number and the proportions of articles published in general high-ranked ophthalmology journals for each ophthalmic subspecialty during the last decade, and to examine the publishing trends over the study period.

Methods: All original articles published between January 2010 and December 2019 in the selected general clinical ophthalmic journals were included in the study. All abstracts of original articles were reviewed and deemed to be related to 1 of the 11 ophthalmic subspecialties. Read More

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Immune checkpoints in targeted-immunotherapy of pancreatic cancer: New hope for clinical development.

Acta Pharm Sin B 2021 May 15;11(5):1083-1097. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 5173957616, Iran.

Immunotherapy has been recently considered as a promising alternative for cancer treatment. Indeed, targeting of immune checkpoint (ICP) strategies have shown significant success in human malignancies. However, despite remarkable success of cancer immunotherapy in pancreatic cancer (PCa), many of the developed immunotherapy methods show poor therapeutic outcomes in PCa with no or few effective treatment options thus far. Read More

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Breakthroughs and challenges in the management of pediatric viral hepatitis.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 May;27(20):2474-2494

Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Transplantation, ASST Papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo 24127, Italy.

Chronic infections by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) major causes of advanced liver disease and mortality worldwide. Although regarded as benign infections in children, their persistence through adulthood is undoubtedly of concern. Recent advances in HCV treatment have restored the visibility of these conditions and raised expectations for HBV treatment, which is currently far from being curative. Read More

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Endotension: twenty years of a controversial term.

CVIR Endovasc 2021 Jun 5;4(1):46. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Surgery, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Use of the term endotension in the treatment of aortic aneurysm is currently controversial. Initially it was proposed to define the circumstance in which there is an enlargement of the aneurysm sac after endovascular repair without a demonstrable endoleak. The term was established with the aim of transmitting the possibility of causes other than pressure applying stress to the aneurysm wall. Read More

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Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2020.

J Gynecol Oncol 2021 Jul;32(4):e53

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

In 2020 series, we summarized the major clinical research advances in gynecologic oncology with providing representative figures of the most influential study for 1 of each 3 gynecologic cancers: cervix, ovary, and uterine corpus. Review for cervical cancer covered targeted agents and immune checkpoint inhibitors, adjuvant radiation therapy or concurrent/sequential chemoradiation therapy after radical hysterectomy in early cervical cancer, radical surgery in early cervical cancer; and prevention and screening. Ovarian cancer research included studies of various combinations of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors with chemotherapy, immune checkpoint inhibitors, and/or vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors according to the clinical setting. Read More

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Mechanochemical methods for the transfer of electrons and exchange of ions: inorganic reactivity from nanoparticles to organometallics.

Chem Soc Rev 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Centre in Green Chemistry and Catalysis, Department of Chemistry, McGill University, 801 Sherbrooke Street West, Montréal, Québec H3A 0B8, Canada. and Department of Materials Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montréal, Québec H3A 0C5, Canada.

Mechanochemistry by milling, grinding, extrusion or other types of shear and mechanical agitation has shown novel reactivity for a wide range of reactions, not seen in traditional solution-based environments. While the area has been extensively investigated and reviewed in the context of organic and solid-state supramolecular chemistry, less attention has been given to the recent advances in the context of inorganic transformations. Here we provide a perspective of inorganic mechanochemical reactions, focusing on transformations that are based on transfer of charged species: exchange of ions and electrons (redox reactions). Read More

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Black Cumin ( L.): A Comprehensive Review on Phytochemistry, Health Benefits, Molecular Pharmacology, and Safety.

Nutrients 2021 May 24;13(6). Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Pathology, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea.

Mounting evidence support the potential benefits of functional foods or nutraceuticals for human health and diseases. Black cumin ( L.), a highly valued nutraceutical herb with a wide array of health benefits, has attracted growing interest from health-conscious individuals, the scientific community, and pharmaceutical industries. Read More

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