23,043 results match your criteria advanced nuclear

Intratumoural Budding is Associated with Poor Clinical Outcome in Early-Stage Clear Cell Carcinoma of Ovary.

Histopathology 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Pathology, NYU Langone Health.

Aims: Clear cell carcinoma of ovary (CCC) is considered a high-grade malignancy by default and the role of histological grading for assessing clinical outcome is not established. We aimed to evaluate histopathological features associated with clinical outcome in CCC patients. Seventy-six cases of CCC with available clinical follow-up information were studied. Read More

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Probing Cerebral Metabolism with Hyperpolarized C Imaging after Opening the Blood-Brain Barrier with Focused Ultrasound.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Advanced Imaging Research Center, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, United States.

Transient disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) with focused ultrasound (FUS) is an emerging clinical method to facilitate targeted drug delivery to the brain. The focal noninvasive disruption of the BBB can be applied to promote the local delivery of hyperpolarized substrates. In this study, we investigated the effects of FUS on imaging brain metabolism using two hyperpolarized C-labeled substrates in rodents: [1-C]pyruvate and [1-C]glycerate. Read More

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Serum Troponin T Concentrations Are Frequently Elevated in Advanced Skin Cancer Patients Prior to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy: Experience From a Single Tertiary Referral Center.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 5;8:691618. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Dermatology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.

Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy has revolutionized the treatment of several human malignancies, particularly metastatic skin cancer. However, immune-related myocarditis (irM), an immune-mediated adverse event (irAE), is often fatal. In the absence of a reliable biomarker, measurement of pre-ICI therapy serum troponin concentration has been proposed to identify patients at risk of developing irM, although real-world studies examining this strategy are lacking. Read More

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Induction Chemotherapy Followed by Radiation Therapy Versus Surgery Followed by Concurrent Chemo-Radiation Therapy in Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity.

Cureus 2021 Jun 17;13(6):e15723. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Oncology, Ziauddin University, Karachi, PAK.

Introduction Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity is one of the top 10 malignancies reported globally. Pakistan has a high incidence of oral cancers due to the prevailing poor lifestyle habits/addictions of Pakistanis, and most patients with squamous cell carcinoma present with stage III or IV locally advanced disease. Recommended guidelines indicate surgery as the mainstay of treatment followed by radiotherapy (RT). Read More

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Serum levels of small HDL particles are negatively correlated with death or lung transplantation in an observational study of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

Eur Respir J 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Laboratory of Asthma and Lung Inflammation, Pulmonary Branch, NHLBI, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Serum lipoproteins, such as high density lipoproteins (HDL), may influence disease severity in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Here, we investigated associations between serum lipids and lipoproteins and clinical endpoints in IPF.

Methods: Clinical data and serum lipids were analyzed from a discovery cohort (59 IPF subjects, 56 healthy volunteers) and validated using an independent, multicenter cohort (207 IPF subjects) from the Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation registry. Read More

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Lu-DOTATATE Plus Radiosensitizing Capecitabine Versus Octreotide Long-Acting Release as First-Line Systemic Therapy in Advanced Grade 1 or 2 Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Single-Institution Experience.

JCO Glob Oncol 2021 Jul;7:1167-1175

Department of Radiotherapy, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Purpose: To compare the efficacy and safety of Lu-DOTATATE plus radiosensitizing capecitabine and octreotide long-acting release (LAR) as first-line systemic therapy in advanced well-differentiated gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs).

Materials And Methods: Data of consecutive patients of advanced inoperable or metastatic grade 1 or 2 GEP-NETs treated with first-line Lu-DOTATATE plus radiosensitizing capecitabine or octreotide LAR from September 2012 to December 2019 were collected and analyzed for response, toxicity, and survival outcomes.

Results: Seventy-six patients (median age: 53 years; range 14-81 years) with treatment-naïve advanced grade 1 or 2 GEP-NETs were included. Read More

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The human amniotic fluid stem cell secretome triggers intracellular Ca oscillations, NF-κB nuclear translocation and tube formation in human endothelial colony-forming cells.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Biology and Biotechnology "Lazzaro Spallanzani", Laboratory of General Physiology, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Second trimester foetal human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (hAFS) have been shown to possess remarkable cardioprotective paracrine potential in different preclinical models of myocardial injury and drug-induced cardiotoxicity. The hAFS secretome, namely the total soluble factors released by cells in their conditioned medium (hAFS-CM), can also strongly sustain in vivo angiogenesis in a murine model of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and stimulates human endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs), the only truly recognized endothelial progenitor, to form capillary-like structures in vitro. Preliminary work demonstrated that the hypoxic hAFS secretome (hAFS-CM ) triggers intracellular Ca oscillations in human ECFCs, but the underlying mechanisms and the downstream Ca -dependent effectors remain elusive. Read More

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Longitudinal neural connection detection using a ferritin-encoding adeno-associated virus vector and in vivo MRI method.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

The investigation of neural circuits is important for interpreting both healthy brain function and psychiatric disorders. Currently, the architecture of neural circuits is always investigated with fluorescent protein encoding neurotropic virus and ex vivo fluorescent imaging technology. However, it is difficult to obtain a whole-brain neural circuit connection in living animals, due to the limited fluorescent imaging depth. Read More

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Optimization of scintillator-reflector optical interfaces for the LUT Davis model.

Med Phys 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California Davis, Davis, CA, United States of America.

Purpose: Designing and optimizing scintillator-based gamma detector using Monte Carlo simulation is of great importance in nuclear medicine and high energy physics. In scintillation detectors, understanding the light transport in the scintillator and the light collection by the photodetector plays a crucial role in achieving high performance. Thus, accurately modeling them is critical. Read More

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Optimization of injection dose in F-FDG PET/CT based on the 2020 national diagnostic reference levels for nuclear medicine in Japan.

Ann Nucl Med 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Division of Functional Imaging, Exploratory Oncology Research and Clinical Trial Center, National Cancer Center, 6-5-1 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8577, Japan.

Objective: Recently, the national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in Japan were revised as the DRLs 2020, wherein the body weight-based injection dose optimization in positron emission tomography/computed tomography using F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (F-FDG PET/CT) was first proposed. We retrospectively investigated the usefulness of this optimization method in improving image quality and reducing radiation dose.

Methods: A total of 1,231 patients were enrolled in this study. Read More

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Malignant Sinonasal Tumors: Update on Histological and Clinical Management.

Curr Oncol 2021 Jul 1;28(4):2420-2438. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Sarcomas and Rare Tumors Unit, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, IRCCS-Fondazione "G. Pascale", 80131 Naples, Italy.

Tumors of nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses (TuNSs) are rare and heterogeneous malignancies, presenting different histological features and clinical behavior. We reviewed the literature about etiology, biology, and clinical features of TuNSs to define pathologic features and possible treatment strategies. From a diagnostic point of view, it is mandatory to have high expertise and perform an immunohistochemical assessment to distinguish between different histotypes. Read More

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Electrochemiluminescence platform for transcription factor diagnosis by using CRISPR-Cas12a -cleavage activity.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

NHC Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214063, China.

Herein, we exploited the double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) binding property of transcription factor (TF), combined with the trans cleavage characteristic of CRISPR-Cas12a, for the detection of NF-κB p50. Read More

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Structure of disordered materials under ambient to extreme conditions revealed by synchrotron x-ray diffraction techniques at SPring-8-recent instrumentation and synergic collaboration with modelling and topological analyses.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Jul 20;33(38). Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Research Center for Advanced Measurement and Characterization, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148, Japan.

The structure of disordered materials is still not well understood because of insufficient experimental data. Indeed, diffraction patterns from disordered materials are very broad and can be described only in pairwise correlations because of the absence of translational symmetry. Brilliant hard x-rays from third-generation synchrotron radiation sources enable us to obtain high-quality diffraction data for disordered materials from ambient to high temperature and high pressure, which has significantly improved our grasp of the nature of order in disordered materials. Read More

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Postoperative radiotherapy after upfront radical prostatectomy: debated issues at a turning point-a survey exploring management trends on behalf of AIRO (Italian Association of Radiotherapy and Clinical Oncology).

Clin Transl Oncol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milan Bicocca, Milan, Italy.

Objectives: Postoperative prostate cancer patients are a heterogeneous population, and many prognostic factors (e.g., local staging, PSA kinetics, margin status, histopathological features) may influence their clinical management. Read More

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Immunogenicity study of engineered ferritins with C- and N-terminus insertion of Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 epitope.

Vaccine 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Computer and Mathematical Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia. Electronic address:

Human ferritin heavy chain, an example of a protein nanoparticle, has recently been used as a vaccine delivery platform. Human ferritin has advantages of uniform architecture, robust thermal and chemical stabilities, and good biocompatibility and biodegradation. There is however a lack of understanding about the relationship between insertion sites in ferritin (N-terminus and C-terminus) and the corresponding humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Read More

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Unique regional patterns of amyloid burden predict progression to prodromal and clinical stages of Alzheimer's disease.

Neurobiol Aging 2021 Jun 21;106:119-129. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Multimodal Neuroimaging Group, University of Cologne, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Although beta-amyloid (Aβ) positivity has shown to be associated with higher risk of progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), information on the time to conversion to manifest dementia cannot be readily deduced from this binary classification. Here, we assessed if regional patterns of Aβ deposition measured with F-florbetapir may serve as biomarker for progression risk in Aβ-positive cognitively normal (CN) and MCI patients, including clinical follow-up data and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers. Voxel-wise group comparisons between age and sex-matched Aβ-positive groups (i. Read More

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A community-powered search of machine learning strategy space to find NMR property prediction models.

PLoS One 2021 20;16(7):e0253612. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.

The rise of machine learning (ML) has created an explosion in the potential strategies for using data to make scientific predictions. For physical scientists wishing to apply ML strategies to a particular domain, it can be difficult to assess in advance what strategy to adopt within a vast space of possibilities. Here we outline the results of an online community-powered effort to swarm search the space of ML strategies and develop algorithms for predicting atomic-pairwise nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) properties in molecules. Read More

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Thyroid surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic: results from a systematic review.

J Endocrinol Invest 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Clinic for Endocrinology and Diabetology, Lugano Regional Hospital, Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale, Lugano, Switzerland.

Purpose: During the COVID-19 pandemic, elective thyroid surgery is experiencing delays. The problem is that the COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing. The research purposes were to systematically collect the literature data on the characteristics of those thyroid operations performed and to assess the safety/risks associated with thyroid surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic. Read More

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Implication of FDG-PET/CT without synchronous colonic lesion in patients with stenotic left-sided colorectal cancer.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 19;11(1):14730. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-gil, Nowon-gu, Seoul, Korea.

Although 18-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) is useful for detecting synchronous colorectal cancer (CRC) in stenotic CRC, long-term outcomes of patients without synchronous FDG-avid lesions are not well reported. We investigated postoperative colonoscopy results in patients with left-sided stenosing CRC without synchronous FDG-avid lesions. In this retrospective review, 754 patients with left-sided CRC without synchronous FDG-avid lesions on preoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT were divided into two groups based on the completeness of preoperative colonoscopy. Read More

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Diffusion-weighted MRI and F-FDG PET/CT in assessing the response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Radiat Oncol 2021 Jul 19;16(1):132. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 160 Pujian Road, Shanghai, 200127, China.

Background: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) followed by surgery is a currently widely used strategy for locally advanced esophageal cancer (EC). However, the conventional imaging methods have certain deficiencies in the evaluation and prediction of the efficacy of nCRT. This study aimed to explore the value of functional imaging in predicting the response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) in locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Read More

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Cooperative Motion in Water-Methanol Clusters Controls the Reaction Rates of Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Reactions.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Physics Department & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance, School of Physics and Electronic Science, East China Normal University, North Zhongshan Road 3663, Shanghai 200062, People's Republic of China.

Detailed information about the influences of the cooperative motion of water and methanol molecules on practical solid-liquid heterogeneous photocatalysis reactions is critical for our understanding of photocatalytic reactions. The present work addresses this issue by applying operando nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, in conjunction with density functional theory (DFT) calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations, to investigate the dynamic behaviors of heterogeneous photocatalytic systems with different molar ratios of water to methanol on rutile-TiO photocatalyst. The results demonstrate that methanol and water molecules are involved in the cooperative motions, and the cooperation often takes the form of methanol-water clusters that govern the number of methanol molecules reaching to the active sites of the photocatalyst per unit time, as confirmed by the diffusion coefficients of the methanol molecule calculated in the binary methanol-water solutions. Read More

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State of the art of F-FDG PET/CT application in inflammation and infection: a guide for image acquisition and interpretation.

Clin Transl Imaging 2021 Jul 10:1-41. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Translational Research and Advanced Technologies in Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Aim: The diagnosis, severity and extent of a sterile inflammation or a septic infection could be challenging since there is not one single test able to achieve an accurate diagnosis. The clinical use of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([F]FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging in the assessment of inflammation and infection is increasing worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to achieve an Italian consensus document on [F]FDG PET/CT or PET/MRI in inflammatory and infectious diseases, such as osteomyelitis (OM), prosthetic joint infections (PJI), infective endocarditis (IE), prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE), cardiac implantable electronic device infections (CIEDI), systemic and cardiac sarcoidosis (SS/CS), diabetic foot (DF), fungal infections (FI), tuberculosis (TBC), fever and inflammation of unknown origin (FUO/IUO), pediatric infections (PI), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), spine infections (SI), vascular graft infections (VGI), large vessel vasculitis (LVV), retroperitoneal fibrosis (RF) and COVID-19 infections. Read More

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Solitary Fibrous Tumors of the Chest: An Analysis of Fifty Patients.

Front Oncol 2021 1;11:697156. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Geriatric Respiratory and Sleep, Henan Institute of Respiratory Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Background: A solitary fibrous tumor of the chest (SFTC) is a subtype of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) with a low incidence rate. The purpose of this study is to analyze the diagnosis and treatment of SFTC and the difference between benign and malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura (SFTP) to improve the understanding of this rare disease.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of fifty patients with SFTC (33 cases in the pleura and 17 in the lung) was performed. Read More

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FDG-PET/CT in the Radiotherapy Treatment Planning of Locally Advanced Anal Cancer: A Monoinstitutional Experience.

Front Oncol 2021 1;11:655322. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Ospedali Riuniti Umberto I°, GM Lancisi, G Salesi, Ancona, Italy.

Aims: Radiotherapy with concurrent 5-fluorouracil/mitomycin-C based chemotherapy has been established as definitive standard therapy approach for anal cancer. Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) leads to a precise treatment of the tumor, allowing dose escalation on Gross Tumor Volume (GTV), with a surrounding healthy tissues sparing. Our study assessed the impact of 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18FDG-PET/CT) on the radiotherapy contouring process and its contribution to lymphatic spread detection, resulting to a personalization of Clinical Target Volume (CTV) and dose prescription. Read More

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Role of Lithium Doping in P2-NaNiMnO for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

Chem Mater 2021 Jun 2;33(12):4445-4455. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Micron School of Materials Science and Engineering, Boise State University, Boise, Idaho 83725, United States.

P2-structured NaNiMnO (PNNMO) is a promising Na-ion battery cathode material, but its rapid capacity decay during cycling remains a hurdle. Li doping in layered transition-metal oxide (TMO) cathode materials is known to enhance their electrochemical properties. Nevertheless, the influence of Li at different locations in the structure has not been investigated. Read More

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[Role and mechanism of low-dose lipopolysaccharide-treated human periodontal ligament stem cells on the expression of macrophage pro-inflammatory factors].

Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Jul;56(7):672-678

Department of Periodontology, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University & State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Dental Materials and Advanced Manufacture, Xi'an 710032, China.

To investigate the effect of low dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated human periodontal ligament stem cells (HPDLSC) on the expression of macrophage pro-inflammatory factors and the mechanism involved. The primary HPDLSCs were obtained from healthy third molar periodontal ligament tissue. Phosphate buffer saline (PBS), 100 μg/L or 10 mg/L of LPS were used to treat HPDLSCs for 48 h, and their conditioned media were respectively co-cultured with THP-1-derived macrophages for 48 h. Read More

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Clinical Deployment of Explainable Artificial Intelligence of SPECT for Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease.

JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Imaging (Division of Nuclear Medicine) Medicine (Division of Artificial Intelligence in Medicine), and Biomedical Sciences, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study sought to develop and evaluate a novel, general purpose, explainable deep learning model (coronary artery disease-deep learning [CAD-DL]) for the detection of obstructive CAD following single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI).

Background: Explainable artificial intelligence (AI) can be integrated within standard clinical software to facilitate the acceptance of the diagnostic findings during clinical interpretation.

Methods: A total of 3,578 patients with suspected CAD undergoing SPECT MPI and invasive coronary angiography within a 6 month interval from 9 centers were studied. Read More

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Development of a real-time neutron beam detector for boron neutron capture therapy using a thin silicon sensor.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Jul 10;176:109856. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Fuji Electric Co. Ltd, 1 Fuji-machi, Hino, Tokyo 191-8502, Japan; Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University, Aoba Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579, Japan.

We have developed a new real-time neutron detector, which is able to measure a direct neutron beam of boron neutron capture therapy. The detector consists of both a 40-μm-thick pn diode and around 0.09-μm-thick LiF neutron converter. Read More

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Reply to Patel et al 'Mucinous differentiation of rectal cancers: does it really impact oncological outcomes?'

Colorectal Dis 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Surgery, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

We would like to thank Patel and colleague for their comments on our recent paper 'Poor response at restaging MRI and high incomplete resection rates of locally advanced mucinous rectal cancer after chemoradiation therapy' (1). In this study, we found that mucinous rectal cancer is associated with a poor clinical response at restaging MRI after CRT, leading to higher rates of involved circumferential resection margins at pathology. Read More

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Radiotherapy role in non-seminomatous germ cell tumors, radiobiological and technical issues of an unexplored scenario.

Int J Clin Oncol 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine and Surgery-University of Milan Bicocca, Milan, Italy.

Historically, non-seminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT) has been considered a radio-resistant disease, excluding radiotherapy (RT) from curative strategies. However, case series exploring the use of radiation treatment in this setting are often outdated, and prospective ongoing studies testing new radiotherapeutic approaches in NSGCT are lacking. Considering that tremendous advances in radiotherapy technology have enabled improved precision in RT delivery as well as dose escalation while decreasing treatment-related morbidity, we overviewed the currently available literature to explore the radiobiological basis, the technical issues, and potential strategies for implementation of RT in the management of this clinical entity. Read More

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