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Effects of Mediterranean Diet on plasma metabolites and their relationship with insulin resistance and gut microbiota composition in a crossover randomized clinical trial.

Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 27;40(6):3798-3806. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Rovira i Virgili (URV), Reus, Spain; Institute of Health Pere Virgili, IISPV, University Hospital Sant Joan, Reus, Spain; Consorcio CIBER, M.P. Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: The Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) may decrease the cardiometabolic risk through modulation of metabolic pathways. Furthermore, the interplay between MedDiet, metabolites and microbial metabolism may improve our understanding on the metabolic effects of this diet. We aimed to evaluate the effect of the MedDiet compared to nuts supplementation on circulating metabolites and their relationship with cardiometabolic health. Read More

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Inhaled bronchodilators use and clinical course of adult inpatients with Covid-19 pneumonia in Spain: A retrospective cohort study.

Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2021 Jun 12:102007. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Pneumology Department, La Paz University Hospital, IdiPAZ, Madrid.

Background: In the current coronavirus health crisis, inhaled bronchodilators(IB) have been suggested as a possible treatment for patients hospitalized. Patients with evidence of Covid-19 pneumonia worldwide have been prescribed these medications as part of therapy for the disease, an indication for which this medications could be ineffective taken on account the pathophysiology and mechanisms of disease progression.

Objective: The main objective was to evaluate whether there is an association between IB use and length of stay. Read More

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The use of cleaning products and its relationship with the increasing health risks during the Covid-19 pandemic.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Jun 15:e14534. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Mersin University, Nursing Faculty, Department of Public Helath Nursing.

Objective: The present study aimed to determine the factors affecting the use of cleaning products at the home environment and the frequency of problems during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Materials And Methods: This cross-sectional research was performed online between 30.08. Read More

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Regularity detection under stress: Faster extraction of probability-based regularities.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(6):e0253123. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary.

Acute stress can crucially influence learning and memory processes. One of the key processes underlying human learning and memory is the ability of our brain to rapidly detect and extract regularities from sensory input across time and space leading to effective predictive processing. Here, we aimed to get an in-depth look into the effect of stress on the acquisition of two aspects of regularity extraction. Read More

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Development of the Accessory Nidamental Gland and Associated Bacterial Community in the Hawaiian Bobtail Squid, .

Biol Bull 2021 Jun 22;240(3):205-218. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

AbstractThe Hawaiian bobtail squid, , has a female reproductive organ called the accessory nidamental gland that contains a symbiotic bacterial consortium. These bacteria are deposited from the accessory nidamental gland into the squid's egg cases, where the consortium prevents microbial fouling. The symbiont community is environmentally transmitted and conserved across host populations, yet little is known about how the organ develops and is colonized by bacteria. Read More

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Assessment of the hydrochemistry, water quality, and human health risk of groundwater in the northwest of Nansi Lake Catchment, north China.

Environ Geochem Health 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

801 Institute of Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology, Shandong Provincial Bureau of Geology & Mineral Resources, Jinan, 250014, China.

In this study, the formation mechanism and water quality of groundwater in the northwest of Nansi Lake Catchment (NNLC) were analyzed through mathematical statistics, hydrochemical analysis and entropy weighted water quality index (EWQI), and the human health risk of nitrate was also evaluated. To this end, 89 wells in the NNLC were sampled, and the groundwater samples were divided into three groups (I, II, and III) according to cluster analysis results and spatial distribution. The main results are as follows: Topographically, Groups I, II, and III correspond to the alluvial plains, apron plain, and low hills and its front margin, respectively. Read More

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Reliability and validity of Six-Spot Step Test (SSST) in stroke survivors.

Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.

Background: The Six-Spot Step Test (SSST) was originally developed to assess walking ability while challenging balance during walking in patients with multiple sclerosis. It provides more comprehensive information on ambulatory abilities than several existing measures such as the Timed Up & Go test (TUG test), the Functional Gait Assessment, and the Dynamic Gait Index. To assess the advanced balance control ability of stroke survivors, we modified the SSST to serve this purpose. Read More

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The cryptic gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal system of human basal ganglia.

Elife 2021 Jun 15;10. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Laboratory of Reproductive Neurobiology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Budapest, Hungary.

Human reproduction is controlled by ~2,000 hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. Here we report the discovery and characterization of additional ~150,000-200,000 GnRH-synthesizing cells in the human basal ganglia and basal forebrain. Nearly all extrahypothalamic GnRH neurons expressed the cholinergic marker enzyme choline acetyltransferase. Read More

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The PALliative MUlticenter Study in Intensive Care (PalMuSIC). Results From a Multicenter Study Addressing Frailty and Palliative Care Interventions in Intensive Care Units in Portugal.

J Palliat Care 2021 Jun 15:8258597211020964. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Vila Franca Xira, NOVA Medical School, Portugal.

Introduction: Frailty is a clinically recognizable state of increased vulnerability common in critical medicine. When underrecognized, it may lead to invasive treatments that do not serve the patients' best interest. Our aim was to evaluate the use of both palliative care consultation and invasive interventions in frail patients admitted to Intensive Care Units in Portugal. Read More

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Morphometric Variations and Growth Analysis of the Side Face Profiles of Chinese Children.

Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2021 Jun 15:10556656211022919. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

School of Ethnology and Sociology, Minzu University of China, Beijing, China.

Objective: We aim to use geometric morphometric methods to analyze the contours of the side face profile and its variations in 116 children in Hunan province, China, in order to reveal common morphological features and growth of the side face profiles of Chinese children.

Design: We photographed the side faces with consistent standardized procedures. Thirty-seven landmarks were recorded, which comprehensively reflected the facial sagittal plane. Read More

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Toxic element profile of ice cream in Bangladesh: a health risk assessment study.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Jun 14;193(7):421. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Chemistry Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna 9208, Bangladesh.

Ice cream is a popular frozen dairy product and a possible source of dietary minerals. However, ice cream may also contain toxic metals, which may cause several health implications. The current study aimed to determine the content of toxic elements in ice cream samples using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and to assess the health risks of consumers based on target cancer risk (TCR), target hazard quotient (THQ), and hazardous index (HI). Read More

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Validation of a rapid antigen test as a screening tool for SARS-CoV-2 infection in asymptomatic populations. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Jun 9:100954. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

IdiSNA (Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Navarra), Pamplona, Spain.

Background: Early diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection is essential to reduce disease spread. Rapid antigen tests have not been sufficiently evaluated in asymptomatic patients to be used as massive population screening tools.

Methods: Head-to-head evaluation of Roche SARS-CoV-2 Rapid Antigen Test and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) as SARS-CoV-2 screening tools performed in asymptomatic adults from a semi-closed community in University of Navarra (Spain) from November 2020 to January 2021. Read More

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Inter-individual body mass variations relate to fractionated functional brain hierarchies.

Commun Biol 2021 Jun 14;4(1):735. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Variations in body mass index (BMI) have been suggested to relate to atypical brain organization, yet connectome-level substrates of BMI and their neurobiological underpinnings remain unclear. Studying 325 healthy young adults, we examined associations between functional connectivity and inter-individual BMI variations. We utilized non-linear connectome manifold learning techniques to represent macroscale functional organization along continuous hierarchical axes that dissociate low level and higher order brain systems. Read More

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Potential benefits of phytochemicals for abdominal aortic aneurysm.

Curr Med Chem 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) is an important cause of death in older adults due to aortic rupture. There are currently no effective medical therapies for AAA, with surgery being the only acceptable treatment. There is frequently an extended period between AAA diagnosis and treatment by corrective surgery, during which an effective drug therapy could prevent or delay the need for AAA repair. Read More

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Palliative Care for Extracorporeal Life Support: Insights From the National Inpatient Sample.

Am Surg 2021 Jun 14:31348211024232. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Division of Cardiac Surgery, Cardiovascular Outcomes Research Laboratories (CORELAB), David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Providing temporary cardiopulmonary support, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) carries a high risk of mortality. Palliative care (PC) may facilitate a patient-centered approach to end-of-life care in order to aid symptom management and provide psychosocial support to families. The present study aimed to identify factors associated with PC consultation and its impact on resource utilization in ECMO. Read More

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Gut microbiome composition and serum metabolome profile among individuals with spinal cord injury and normal glucose tolerance or prediabetes/type 2 diabetes.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Departments of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama. Electronic address:

Objective: To compare the gut microbiome composition and serum metabolome profile among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or prediabetes/type 2 diabetes (P/DM).

Design: Cross-sectional design.

Setting: Research university. Read More

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Giant parathyroid adenoma diagnosed by brown tumour, a clinical manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism: A case report.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Apr;71(4):1266-1269

Department of General Surgery, Sisli Hamidiye Etfal Medical Practice and Research Center, University of Health Sciences, Istanbul, Turkey.

Brown tumour (BT) is the pathological expression of osteitis fibrosa cystica which is caused due to primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT). It is a rare benign lesion of skeletal system that usually affects the facial bones, clavicles, ribs, pelvis and extremities. The purpose of this case report is to present the clinical, pathological and radiological findings of BT - rarely seen in adults - originating from the giant parathyroid adenoma and emerging as the first clinical sign of HPT. Read More

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An examination into the effect of genetic taste status and intensity of carbonation on swallowing and palatability in healthy young adults.

Int J Lang Commun Disord 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Clinical Speech and Language Studies, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.

Background: Dysphagia is a highly prevalent condition and affects a wide range of cohorts. A common compensatory strategy to manage dysphagia is diet modification. However, this technique is often associated with poor patient quality of life and adverse long-term effects. Read More

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Molecular and Mechanical Mechanisms of Calcification Pathology Induced by Bicuspid Aortic Valve Abnormalities.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 26;8:677977. Epub 2021 May 26.

Section of Pediatric Cardiology, The Herma Heart Institute, Children's Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States.

Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a congenital defect affecting 1-2% of the general population that is distinguished from the normal tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) by the existence of two, rather than three, functional leaflets (or cusps). BAV presents in different morphologic phenotypes based on the configuration of cusp fusion. The most common phenotypes are Type 1 (containing one raphe), where fusion between right coronary and left coronary cusps (BAV R/L) is the most common configuration followed by fusion between right coronary and non-coronary cusps (BAV R/NC). Read More

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Impact of asthma on endoscopic sinus surgery outcomes for chronic rhinosinusitis with polyposis - A cohort study.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2021 Jun 14;66:102386. Epub 2021 May 14.

ENT Department, Face and Neck Surgery, Hospital August, 20'1953, University Hospital Center IBN ROCHD, Casablanca, Morocco.

Introduction: Chronic rhinosinusitis with polyposis (CRSwNP) is a multifactorial naso-sinusal inflammatory disease that affects 2-4% of the adult population. It highly affects the patient quality of life (QoL) in many levels making it a public health issue. The management of CRSwNP is based on a detailed clinical history, a complete endoscopic examination and a precise computed tomographic (CT) analysis. Read More

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Temporal-Spatial Feature Extraction of DSA Video and Its Application in AVM Diagnosis.

Front Neurol 2021 28;12:655523. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is one of the most common causes of intracranial hemorrhage in young adults, and its expeditious diagnosis on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is essential for clinical decision-making. This paper firstly proposed a deep learning network to extract vascular time-domain features from DSA videos. Then, the temporal features were combined with spatial radiomics features to build an AVM-assisted diagnosis model. Read More

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A Critical Review of Spatial Abilities in Down and Williams Syndromes: Not All Space Is Created Equal.

Front Psychiatry 2021 28;12:669320. Epub 2021 May 28.

Institute of Psychology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Down syndrome (DS, Trisomy 21) and Williams syndrome (WS) are two neurodevelopmental disorders of genetic origin that are accompanied by mild to moderate intellectual disability but exhibit distinct cognitive profiles. In this review we discuss our recent work characterizing the real-world spatial learning and memory abilities of adult individuals with DS and WS. We used several different paradigms in which participants locomote freely and have access to coherent input from all sensory modalities to investigate their fundamental egocentric (body-centered or viewpoint-dependent) and allocentric (world-centered or viewpoint-independent) spatial abilities. Read More

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Plasticity in life features, parasitism and super-parasitism behavior of , an important natural enemy of and other lepidopteran host species.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jun 10;28(6):3351-3361. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture (Saba Basha), Alexandria University, Alexandria 21531, Egypt.

The wasp, Say, is an important potential biocontrol agent of a wide range of lepidopteran insect species. The current study was subjected to compare these ectoparasitoid fitness traits on different host species belonging to the order Lepidoptera. Moreover, we determine the population dynamic with different host densities, sex ratio patterns, super-parasitism, longevity, paralysis success, and reproductive potential under laboratory conditions. Read More

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Evaluating The Effect of Establishing Protocol for Self- Care Practice of Diabetic Foot Patients Regarding Their Needs, Concerns and Medication Use: A quasi-experimental study.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jun 14;28(6):3343-3350. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Departement of Medical surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Port Said University, Egypt.

The practice of diabetic self-care plays a significant role in maintaining and preventing diabetic foot complications, but low commitment to self-care practices is common. This study evaluates the effect of establishing protocol for self-care practice of diabetic foot patients according to their needs, concerns, and medication use. A quasi-experimental research (pre-test and post-test) design was used in outpatient clinics at Benha University Hospital, Egypt. Read More

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"The Stay at Home Order is Causing Things to Get Heated Up": Family Conflict Dynamics During COVID-19 From The Perspectives of Youth Calling a National Child Abuse Hotline.

J Fam Violence 2021 Jun 8:1-10. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

National Child Abuse Hotline, Scottsdale, AZ USA.

The purpose of this study was to identify changes in family conflict and abuse dynamics during COVID-19 stay-at-home orders from the perspectives of youth calling a national child abuse hotline. We analyzed text and chat transcripts from Childhelp's National Child Abuse Hotline from May-June 2020 that were flagged as coming from a child with a COVID-19-related concern (N = 105). Thematic analysis was used to identify COVID-19 related influences of family conflict as well as how COVID-19 constraints influenced coping and survival for youth reporting distress or maltreatment to the hotline. Read More

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Cortical signatures of precision grip force control in children, adolescents and adults.

Elife 2021 Jun 14;10. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen N, Denmark.

Human dexterous motor control improves from childhood to adulthood, but little is known about the changes in cortico-cortical communication that support such ontogenetic refinement of motor skills. To investigate age-related differences in connectivity between cortical regions involved in dexterous control we analyzed electroencephalographic data from 88 individuals (range 8-30y) performing a visually-guided precision grip task using Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM) and Parametric Empirical Bayes (PEB). Our results demonstrate that bidirectional coupling in a canonical 'grasping network' is associated with precision grip performance across age groups. Read More

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Recognition and management of rapid-onset gluten ataxias: case series.

Cerebellum Ataxias 2021 Jun 13;8(1):16. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Academic department of neurosciences, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, UK.

Background: Most immune-mediated cerebellar ataxias, including those associated with gluten sensitivity (Gluten Ataxia), tend to present subacutely and usually progress gradually. Acute presentations with rapid progression outside the context of paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration require prompt diagnosis and early access to disease-modifying immunotherapy in order to avert severe and permanent neurological disability.

Case Presentations: We describe three cases of rapid-onset Gluten Ataxia, an immune-mediated cerebellar ataxia due to gluten sensitivity. Read More

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More than off-task: Increased freely-moving thought in ADHD.

Conscious Cogn 2021 Jun 10;93:103156. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Psychological Sciences, Purdue, United States.

Off-task thought has been found to occur at high rates and is related to impairment in ADHD. However, off-task thought is heterogenous and it remains unclear which specific dimensions of off-task thought are more prevalent in this disorder. It is therefore important to dissociate different aspects of off-task thought in order to better understand the mechanisms underlying impairment. Read More

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Cognitive and affective responses to marijuana prevention and educational messaging.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 May 28;225:108788. Epub 2021 May 28.

Vermont Center on Behavior and Health, Department of Psychiatry, Larner College of Medicine, University of Vermont, United States.

Background: Perceptions of risk of using marijuana have decreased significantly in the US over the last decade, while marijuana use has increased. In order to educate people on the risks associated with marijuana use, large-scale health messaging campaigns have been deployed to educate the public about the risks associated with marijuana use, particularly in states where medical or recreational marijuana is legal. Few studies have examined how messages about marijuana affect the audiences' cognitive and emotional responsivity to these messages. Read More

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