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Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase-II Deficiency: Case Presentation and Review of the Literature.

Rom J Intern Med 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 4500 San Pablo Rd S, Jacksonville, FL 32224.

Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-II deficiency, an autosomal recessive disorder, is the most common cause of recurrent rhabdomyolysis in adults. Recognition and avoidance of triggers, such as heavy exercise and stress, is key in prevention of further episodes; however, even with preventative measures, many patients will continue to experience periodic symptoms, including rhabdomyolysis. Avoidance of renal failure, correction of electrolyte disturbances and halting further muscle breakdown are the goals of treatment. Read More

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Transient neural network dynamics in cognitive ageing.

Neurobiol Aging 2021 May 14;105:217-228. Epub 2021 May 14.

MRC Cognition & Brain Sciences Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

It is important to maintain cognitive function in old age, yet the neural substrates that support successful cognitive ageing remain unclear. One factor that might be crucial, but has been overlooked due to limitations of previous data and methods, is the ability of brain networks to flexibly reorganize and coordinate over a millisecond time-scale. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) provides such temporal resolution, and can be combined with Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) to characterise transient neural states. Read More

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How we treat medulloblastoma in adults.

ESMO Open 2021 Jun 9;6(4):100173. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Wilhelm Sander NeuroOncology Unit & Department of Neurology, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany. Electronic address:

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Postexercise hypotension due to resistance exercise is not mediated by autonomic control: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Auton Neurosci 2021 May 27;234:102825. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA.

Changes in autonomic control have been suggested to mediate postexercise hypotension (PEH). We investigated through meta-analysis the after-effects of acute resistance exercise (RE) on blood pressure (BP) and autonomic activity in individuals with normal and elevated BP. Electronic databases were searched for trials including: adults; exclusive RE interventions; and BP and autonomic outcomes measured pre- and postintervention for at least 30 min. Read More

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Sampling rate influences the regularity analysis of temporal domain measures of walking more than spatial domain measures.

Gait Posture 2021 Jun 4;88:216-220. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Center for Research in Human Movement Variability, Department of Biomechanics, University of Nebraska at Omaha, 6160 University Drive, Omaha, NE, 68182-0860, United States; VA Nebraska-Western Iowa Health Care System, VA Research Service, 4104 Woolworth Avenue (112), Omaha, NE, 68105, United States; Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, 2929 Research Parkway, College Station, TX, 77843, United States. Electronic address:

Background: The spatiotemporal dynamics of stepping can provide useful information about walking performance. Most often, the identification of gait motion is performed using 3-D cinematography. The sampling rate of motion capture systems may influence the accuracy of these measures albeit in varying degrees for measures within the spatial versus temporal domain. Read More

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Collision avoidance behaviours between older adult and young adult walkers.

Gait Posture 2021 Jun 9;88:210-215. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Univ Rennes, Inria, CNRS, IRISA, M2S, France.

Background: Collision avoidance between two walkers requires a mutual adaptation based on visual information in order to be successful. Age-related changes to visuomotor processing, kinesthetic input, and intersegmental dynamics increases the risk of collision and falls in older adults. However, few studies examine behavioural strategies in older adults during collision avoidance tasks with another pedestrian. Read More

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Gait kinematic alterations in subjects with adult spinal deformity and their radiological determinants.

Gait Posture 2021 Jun 4;88:203-209. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Saint-Joseph in Beirut, Lebanon; Institut de Biomécanique Humaine Georges Charpak, Arts et Métiers ParisTech, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Background: Adults with spinal deformity (ASD) are known to have postural malalignment affecting their quality of life. Classical evaluation and follow-up are usually based on full-body static radiographs and health related quality of life questionnaires. Despite being an essential daily life activity, formal gait assessment lacks in clinical practice. Read More

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How lockdown measures, during COVID-19 pandemic, matter on psoriatic patient's perception: Study on 600 patients on biologic therapy.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Apr 1;14(7):878-882. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Dermatology Unit "D. Innocenzi", Polo Pontino, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Background: The outbreak of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a public health crisis of global proportion. In psoriatic patients treated with biologic agents, evidence is not yet available on susceptibility to infection with the novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, and data about the perception of COVID-19 and its impact on these patients are lacking.

Aims: The aim of this observational, spontaneous study was the evaluation of the impact of anti COVID-19 measures in "fragile population" such as patients with a chronic inflammatory disease. Read More

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Epidemiological feature, viral shedding, and antibody seroconversion among asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carriers and symptomatic/presymptomatic COVID-19 patients.

J Infect Public Health 2021 May 27;14(7):845-851. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Epidemiology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China. Electronic address:

Background: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is pandemic. However, data concerning the epidemiological features, viral shedding, and antibody dynamics between asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carriers and COVID-19 patients remain controversial.

Methods: We enrolled 193 SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects in Ningbo and Zhoushan, Zhejiang, China, from January 21 to March 6, 2020. Read More

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Reductions in tobacco use in naltrexone, relative to buprenorphine-maintained individuals with opioid use disorder: Secondary analysis from the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 May 21;130:108489. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Psychiatry, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, One Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA.

Background: Smoking prevalence in individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) is over 80%. Research suggests that opioid use significantly increases smoking, which could account for the strikingly low smoking-cessation rates observed in both methadone- and buprenorphine-maintained patients, even with the use of first-line smoking-cessation interventions. If opioids present a barrier to smoking-cessation, then better smoking outcomes should be observed in OUD patients treated with extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX, an opioid antagonist) compared to those receiving buprenorphine (BUP-NX, a partial opioid agonist). Read More

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Drug and sexual HIV-risk behaviors among adolescents and young adults with opioid use disorder.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 May 19;130:108477. Epub 2021 May 19.

Friends Research Institute, Inc., 1040 Park Avenue, Suite 103, Baltimore, MD 21201, United States of America.

Opioid use disorder (OUD) among adolescents and young adults (youth) is associated with drug use and sexual HIV-related risk behaviors and opioid overdose. This mixed methods analysis assesses risk behaviors among a sample of 15-21-year-olds (N = 288) who were being treated for OUD in a residential drug treatment program in Baltimore, Maryland. Participants were enrolled in a parent study in which they received either extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) or Treatment as Usual (TAU), consisting of outpatient counseling with or without buprenorphine, prior to discharge. Read More

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Feasibility and acceptability of mindful recovery opioid use care continuum (M-ROCC): A concurrent mixed methods study.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 Apr 15;130:108415. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States of America; Cambridge Health Alliance, Cambridge, MA, United States of America; Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, United States of America. Electronic address:

As opioid overdose deaths increase, buprenorphine/naloxone (B/N) treatment is expanding, yet almost half of patients are not retained in B/N treatment. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) designed to promote non-judgmental awareness of present moment experience may be complementary to B/N treatment and offer the potential to enhance retention by reducing substance use and addressing comorbid symptoms. In this pilot study, we examined the feasibility and acceptability of the Mindful Recovery OUD Care Continuum (M-ROCC), a trauma-informed, motivationally sensitive, 24-week MBI. Read More

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Extended-release naltrexone for youth with opioid use disorder.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 Apr 15;130:108407. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Friends Research Institute, 1040 Park Avenue, Suite, 103 Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Few published research studies have examined the effectiveness of extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) for the treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD) among adolescents and young adults.

Methods: This two-group randomized controlled trial recruited 288 youth, ages 15-21, with moderate/severe OUD from a residential addiction treatment program in Baltimore, Maryland. The study randomized the youth within the first week of treatment entry to receive either XR-NTX or treatment-as-usual (TAU; either buprenorphine maintenance treatment or treatment without OUD medication following medically managed withdrawal) prior to discharge, with continued treatment in the community for 6 months. Read More

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The cascade of care for opioid use disorder among youth in British Columbia, 2018.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 Apr 18;130:108404. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada; BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD) is associated with substantial reductions in the risk of mortality, and American and Canadian guidelines recommend it as part of the full range of available treatments for youth with opioid use disorder (OUD). We estimated the OUD cascade of care for all adolescents (ages 12-18) and young adults (19-24) with OUD in British Columbia, Canada (BC) in 2018.

Methods: Using a provincial-level linkage of six health administrative databases, we classified youth with OUD as adolescents (ages 12-18) or young adults (19-24) to compare with older adults (≥25) and described key factors known to influence engagement in health care. Read More

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Eating-related pathology at the intersection of gender identity and expression, sexual orientation, and weight status: An intersectional Multilevel Analysis of Individual Heterogeneity and Discriminatory Accuracy (MAIHDA) of the Growing Up Today Study cohorts.

Soc Sci Med 2021 May 31;281:114092. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Ave North, Worcester, MA, 01655, USA. Electronic address:

The objective of this study was to investigate how gender identity, the overwhelmingly prioritized dimension of social identity/position in eating-related pathology research, intersects with gender expression, sexual orientation, and weight status to structure the social patterning of eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors among young people in the U.S. Data were drawn from the 2010/2011 Growing Up Today Study (GUTS; N = 11,090-13,307). Read More

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Development and validation of the Soweto Stress Scale: Mixed-methods, population-based study of adults living in Soweto, South Africa.

Soc Sci Med 2021 May 12;281:114023. Epub 2021 May 12.

SAMRC Developmental Pathways for Health Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA. Electronic address:

This article moves from ethnography to epidemiology to generate a locally specific assessment of stress and evaluates it correlates with general psychiatric morbidity. We conducted two related ethnographic studies of stress and distress in Soweto, South Africa (N=107). We then used these studies to develop the Soweto Stress Scale, piloted the scale, and then evaluated its use in an epidemiological surveillance study of stress and health (N=933). Read More

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Orally administered nano-polystyrene caused vitellogenin alteration and oxidative stress in the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii).

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 29;791:147984. Epub 2021 May 29.

Dept. Life Sciences, University of Trieste, via L. Giorgieri 5, 34127 Trieste, Italy. Electronic address:

Nanoplastics (≤100 nm) represent the smallest fraction of plastic litter and may result in the aquatic environment as degradation products of larger plastic material. To date, few studies focused on the interactions of micro- and nanoplastics with freshwater Decapoda. The red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii, Girard, 1852) is an invasive species able to tolerate highly perturbed environments. Read More

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Cross-sectional associations of leisure and transport related physical activity with depression and anxiety.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Jun 4;140:228-234. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Departmento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina da USP & Hospital Universitário, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Laboratory of Neurosciences (LIM-27), Institute of Psychiatry, Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da USP, Brazil.

Background: Previous evidence supports the notion that the physical activity (PA) domain (leisure-time or transport), and the amount of time spent in PA, influence the association of PA with depressive and anxiety symptoms. However, no study evaluated the associations of different volumes of leisure-time PA (LTPA) and transport PA (TPA) with prevalent depression, anxiety, and co-occurring depression and anxiety (D&A) disorders.

Aim: To investigate the associations between different volumes of LTPA and TPA with prevalent depression, anxiety, and D&A. Read More

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When a house is never a home: Housing instability among youth affected by parental drug abuse.

Child Abuse Negl 2021 Jun 9;118:105131. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21215, USA.

Background: The negative consequences of parental substance abuse are significant and longstanding for children. Among other risks, these youth are more likely to experience housing instability. The most common predictor of a child not living with their biological parent is parental substance use. Read More

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Robotic-assisted total knee arthroplasty improves the outlier of rotational alignment of the tibial prosthesis using 3DCT measurements.

Knee 2021 Jun 9;31:64-76. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Toho University School of Medicine, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: The aim of the present study was to compare the accuracy of prosthetic alignment with three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) measurements following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) performed using a robotic-assisted surgical technique versus a conventional TKA.

Methods: 41 TKAs were performed with a handheld robotic-assisted surgical procedure (Robot group) between 2019 and 2020. Another 41 patients underwent TKA with a conventional manual surgical procedure (Manual group) using the same prosthesis. Read More

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The influence of age and gender on the quality of raw and roasted wild boars (Sus scrofa) meat.

Meat Sci 2021 Jun 6;181:108600. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Meat Technology and Chemistry, Faculty of Food Sciences, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Plac Cieszyński 1, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland.

The aim of this study was to determine the influence of age and gender on the chemical composition, colour, texture and sensory attributes of wild boars meat (Sus scrofa, n = 48). The animals were analysed in 6 groups (n = 8), differed in age (piglets below 1 year, yearlings 1-2 years, and adults over 2 years) and gender (male and female). Protein content in raw meat was affected by age, whereas in roasted meat by animals gender. Read More

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Metabolic maturation of differentiating cardiosphere-derived cells.

Stem Cell Res 2021 Jun 5;54:102422. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Physiology, Anatomy & Genetics, University of Oxford, UK. Electronic address:

Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) can be expanded in vitro and induced to differentiate along the cardiac lineage. To recapitulate the phenotype of an adult cardiomyocyte, differentiating progenitors need to upregulate mitochondrial glucose and fatty acid oxidation. Here we cultured and differentiated CDCs using protocols aimed to maintain stemness or to promote differentiation, including triggering fatty acid oxidation using an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Read More

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Deepening of sedation with propofol has limited effect on intra-abdominal pressure - An interventional study in mechanically ventilated adult patients with intra-abdominal hypertension.

J Crit Care 2021 May 28;65:98-103. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, University of Tartu, L. Puusepa 8, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Lucerne Cantonal Hospital, 6000 Lucerne, Switzerland.

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of deepening of sedation on intra-abdominal pressure (IAP).

Methods: 37 adult mechanically ventilated ICU patients with intra-abdominal hypertension received a bolus dose and subsequent infusion of propofol (bolus: 1 mg/kg, infusion: 3 mg/kg/h). IAP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), abdominal perfusion pressure (APP), depth of sedation according to Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS), respiratory parameters, and vasopressor dose were assessed after bolus and at 15, 30 and 60 min of infusion of propofol. Read More

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Comparison of fixed dose versus train-of-four titration of cisatracurium in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

J Crit Care 2021 May 25;65:86-90. Epub 2021 May 25.

University of Kentucky HealthCare, Department of Pharmacy Services, United States of America; University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, United States of America. Electronic address:

Purpose: To compare the ventilatory and clinical outcomes associated with a fixed-dose cisatracurium infusion versus a titrated infusion strategy in patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS).

Materials And Methods: Single-center, retrospective, cohort study in a medical ICU of a tertiary care academic medical center. Adult patients ≥18 years old with a continuous infusion of cisatracurium for ≥12 h for treatment of ARDS were included. Read More

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Sex differences in illness severity and mortality among adult intensive care patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Crit Care 2021 Jun 4;65:116-123. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Intensive Care, Austin Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Centre for Integrated Critical Care, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Australia and New Zealand Intensive Care Research Centre, School of Public Health and Preventative Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Department of Intensive Care, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Purpose: To investigate the association between sex and illness severity and mortality of ICU patients.

Methods: We performed systematic searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE for observational studies of adult ICU patients that explicitly examined the association between sex and illness severity or mortality. We used a random effects model to calculate standardised mean differences in illness severity scores and pooled odds ratios for mortality of women compared to men. Read More

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Lesion loci of impaired affective prosody: A systematic review of evidence from stroke.

Brain Cogn 2021 Jun 9;152:105759. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, United States; Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, United States; Department of Cognitive Science, Krieger School of Arts and Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, United States.

Affective prosody, or the changes in rate, rhythm, pitch, and loudness that convey emotion, has long been implicated as a function of the right hemisphere (RH), yet there is a dearth of literature identifying the specific neural regions associated with its processing. The current systematic review aimed to evaluate the evidence on affective prosody localization in the RH. One hundred and ninety articles from 1970 to February 2020 investigating affective prosody comprehension and production in patients with focal brain damage were identified via database searches. Read More

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Personalised Accelerometer Cut-point Prediction for Older Adults' Movement Behaviours using a Machine Learning approach.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 May 18;208:106165. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Computer Science, Edge Hill University, Ormskirk, L39 4QP, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background And Objectives: Body-worn accelerometers are the most popular method for objectively assessing physical activity in older adults. Many studies have developed generic accelerometer cut-points for defining activity intensity in metabolic equivalents for older adults. However, methodological diversity in current studies has led to a great deal of variation in the resulting cut-points, even when using data from the same accelerometer. Read More

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Individuals with recurrent low back pain exhibit further altered frontal plane trunk control in remission than when in pain.

Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2021 May 28;87:105391. Epub 2021 May 28.

Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Movement alterations due to low back pain (LBP) could lead to long-term adverse consequences if they do not resolve after symptoms subside. This study aims to determine if altered trunk control associated with recurrent low back pain persists beyond symptom duration.

Methods: Twenty young adults with recurrent LBP were tested once during an LBP episode and once in symptom remission, and twenty matched back-healthy participants served as controls. Read More

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Impact of inappropriate empirical antibiotic treatment on clinical outcomes of urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli: a retrospective cohort study.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Medicine, Clinical Laboratory of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Objective: We aimed to determine the clinical impact of inappropriate empirical antibiotic treatment (IEAT) compared with appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment (AEAT) in hospitalised patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli).

Methods: This retrospective cohort study included adult patients with a primary diagnosis of UTI who were treated with empirical antibiotics at a tertiary hospital in southern China over a 2-year period. Read More

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