131,033 results match your criteria adult rats


Myristic acid defends against testicular oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis: Restoration of spermatogenesis, steroidogenesis in diabetic rats.

Life Sci 2021 May 11:119605. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Diabetes mellitus (DM) may lead to testicular infertility while Myristic acid (MA) is beneficial to lower hyperglycaemia. Thus, we hypothesized that MA could protect testes against hyperglycaemia-induced damage in DM. DM was induced in adult male rats by high-fat diet consumption for 12 weeks, accompanied by a single dose streptozotocin injection. Read More

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Pathomechanism of Lower-level Discogenic Groin Pain and Clinical Outcomes of Percutaneous Endoscopic Discectomy for the Treatment of Discogenic Groin Pain.

Pain Physician 2021 May;24(3):E289-E297

The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Nangang, Harbin, P.R. China.

Background: Groin pain can be induced by high-level (L1-L2 or L2-L3) lumbar disc herniation. However, 4.1% of patients with lower-level (L4-L5 or L5-S1) lumbar disc herniation also complained of groin pain. Read More

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Vacuolar H(+)-ATPase is not restricted to clear cells of the epididymal epithelium in cattle.

J Anim Sci Technol 2021 Mar 31;63(2):262-271. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Animal Resources Science, Kongju National University, Yesan 32439, Korea.

Communication among epididymal epithelial cells creates the best luminal condition where spermatozoa mature, transport and are stored. Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) and cytokeratin 5 (KRT5) have been used as signal indicators for clear and basal cells of the epididymal epithelium, respectively, in mice, rats, bats, and pigs; however, these two markers have not yet been described in the epididymis of bulls. Here, we examined the presence and distribution of the B1 subunit of V-ATPase (B1-VATPase) and KRT5 in the distinct regions of adult bovine epididymides, specifically, the caput, corpus, and cauda. Read More

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Ocular surface complications result from dysregulation of the OGF-OGFr signaling pathway in female diabetic rats.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jul 28;22(1):687. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Neural and Behavioral Sciences, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, USA.

Approximately 4.5 million women in the United States exhibit diabetes-associated ocular complications. The time course and magnitude of these complications, and their association with the dysregulation of the opioid growth factor (OGF)-OGF receptor (OGFr) signaling pathway are unknown. Read More

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Boldenone Undecylenate-Mediated Hepatorenal Impairment by Oxidative Damage and Dysregulation of Heat Shock Protein 90 and Androgen Receptors Expressions: Vitamin C Preventive Role.

Front Pharmacol 2021 27;12:651497. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

Boldenone Undecylenate (BLD) is a synthetic derivative of testosterone and a widely used anabolic androgenic steroid. The health risk of BLD use as a pharmaceutical or dietary supplement is still underestimated and under-reported. Vitamin C (VC) has been recognized as an antioxidant with prominent hepatorenal protective effects. Read More

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Neuronal and Glial Distribution of Tau Protein in the Adult Rat and Monkey.

Front Mol Neurosci 2021 27;14:607303. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Translational Neuroscience, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI, United States.

Tau is a microtubule-associated protein for which the physiological functions remain a topic of vigorous investigation. Additionally, tau is a central player in the pathogenesis of several diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and several frontotemporal dementias. A critical variable to understanding tau in physiological and disease contexts is its normal localization within cells of the adult CNS. Read More

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MC-100093, a novel β-lactam GLT-1 enhancer devoid of antimicrobial properties attenuates cocaine relapse in rats.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

School of Pharmacy, Temple University, United States.

Cocaine use disorder (CUD) currently lacks FDA-approved treatments. In rodents, the glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) is downregulated in the nucleus accumbens following cocaine self-administration and increasing the expression and function of GLT-1 reduces the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking. The beta-lactam antibiotic ceftriaxone upregulates GLT-1 and attenuates cue- and cocaine-induced cocaine seeking without affecting motivation for natural rewards. Read More

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Nandrolone decanoate causes uterine injury by changing hormone levels and sex steroid receptors in a dose- and time-dependent manner.

Reprod Toxicol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Structural and Functional Biology, Institute of Biosciences of Botucatu, IBB/UNESP, 16618-689, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Different doses of nandrolone decanoate (ND) were used to investigate the expression of uterine sex steroid receptors (AR, ER-α, and ER-β) and the levels of serum sex hormones after treatment and recovery periods in adult rats. ND doses of 1.87, 3. Read More

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High-intensity Intermittent Training Enhances Spatial Memory and Hippocampal Neurogenesis Associated with BDNF Signaling in Rats.

Cereb Cortex 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Laboratory of Exercise Biochemistry and Neuroendocrinology, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8574, Japan.

High-intensity intermittent (or interval) training (HIIT) has started to gain popularity as a time-effective approach to providing beneficial effects to the brain and to peripheral organs. However, it still remains uncertain whether HIIT enhances hippocampal functions in terms of neurogenesis and spatial memory due to unconsidered HIIT protocol for rodents. Here, we established the HIIT regimen for rats with reference to human study. Read More

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The abnormalities of adrenomedullary hormonal system in genetic hypertension: Their contribution to altered regulation of blood pressure.

Physiol Res 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Laboratory of Experimental Hypertension, Institute of Physiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague 4, Czech Republic.

It is widely accepted that sympathetic nervous system plays a crucial role in the development of hypertension. On the other hand, the role of adrenal medulla (the adrenomedullary component of the sympathoadrenal system) in the development and maintenance of high blood pressure in man as well as in experimental models of hypertension is still controversial. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are the most widely used animal model of human essential hypertension characterized by sympathetic hyperactivity. Read More

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Renal Denervation Attenuates Neuroinflammation in the Brain by Regulating Gut-Brain Axis in Rats With Myocardial Infarction.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 26;8:650140. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

The development of neuroinflammation deteriorates the prognosis of myocardial infarction (MI). We aimed to investigate the effect of renal denervation (RDN) on post-MI neuroinflammation in rats and the related mechanisms. Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to sham or ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery to induce MI. Read More

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Tissue-specific splicing and dietary interaction of a mutant allele determine muscle metabolic fitness in rodents.

Diabetes 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

MOE Key Laboratory of Model Animal for Disease Study, Department of Endocrinology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Model Animal Research Center, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210061, China

Ethnic groups are physiologically and genetically adapted to their diets. Inuit bear a frequent AS160 mutation that causes type 2 diabetes. Whether this mutation evolutionarily confers adaptation in Inuit and how it causes metabolic disorders upon dietary changes are unknown due to limitations in human studies. Read More

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[Exploring effects of natural hyperoxic environment on liver lipid metabolism based on the bile acid-farnesoid X receptor pathway in sub-healthy rats].

Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 2021 Apr;29(4):362-368

Department of Infectious Diseases, Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang 550004, China.

To investigate the effect of natural hyperoxic environment on liver lipid metabolism and liver function based on the bile acid-farnesoid X receptor pathway in sub-healthy rats. Forty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group ( = 10) and sub-healthy model group ( = 30). The control group was fed a normal diet, and the model group was fed a high-fat-sugar diet with limited daily activities for 5 weeks. Read More

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Topological Reorganizations in the Rat Brain-Isolated Mitochondria after 72 Hours of Paradoxical Sleep Deprivation Revealed by Electron Cryo-Tomography.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Center for Mitochondrial Biology and Medicine, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, Shaanxi, Chinagrid.43169.39.

Sleep deprivation has profound influence on several aspects of health and disease. Mitochondria dysfunction has been implicated to play an essential role in the neuronal cellular damage induced by sleep deprivation, but little is known about how neuronal mitochondrial ultrastructure is affected under sleep deprivation. In this report, we utilized electron cryo-tomography to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) mitochondrial structure and extracted morphometric parameters to quantitatively characterize its reorganizations. Read More

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Preserved glycemic control and baroreflex efficacy in young adult hypertensive female obese Zucker rats.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Physiology and Anatomy, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, United Statesgrid.266871.c.

Obese Zucker rats (OZRs) develop hypertension and hyperinsulinemia by 3 months of age. Male OZRs also have diminished baroreflex-mediated activation of nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and bradycardia, which are improved by correcting their hyperglycemia. Conversely, 3-month-old female OZRs and lean Zucker rats (LZRs) have equivalent baroreflex-mediated bradycardia that is impaired in 6-month-old OZRs. Read More

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Aquaporin 4 differentially modulates osmotic effects on vasopressin neurons in rat supraoptic nucleus.

Acta Physiol (Oxf) 2021 May 12:e13672. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Physiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150086, China.

Aim: Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) has molecular association with aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in astrocytic plasticity. Here, we further examined how AQP4 modulates osmotic effects on vasopressin (VP) neurons in rat supraoptic nucleus (SON) through interactions with GFAP.

Methods: Brain slices from adult male rats were under osmotic stimulation. Read More

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Neurogenesis is Enhanced in Young Rats with Genetic Absence Epilepsy: An Immuno-electron Microscopic Study.

Turk Neurosurg 2020 Dec 22. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Marmara University School of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, IstanbuI, Turkey.

Aim: Neurogenesis is an age-related process that is closely associated with neurological disorders. In the present study, we aimed to investigate neurogenesis in both adult and 3-week-old genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) to determine if newly formed neurons within the dentate gyrus (DG) form synaptic contacts with GABAergic (gamma aminobutyric acid) and glutamatergic nerve terminals and compared to the control (non-GAERS) Wistar rats.

Material And Methods: Brain tissue was processed for electron microscopic assessment. Read More

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December 2020

Vincristine attenuates cardiac fibrosis through inhibiting activation of NLRP3 inflammasome.

Clin Sci (Lond) 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China.

Vincristine (VCR) is widely used in cancer therapies, while its benefits on cardiac fibrosis remain unknown. Here, we investigated VCR's efficacy on cardiac fibrosis and elucidated the underlying mechanism of action. Network pharmacology was employed to predict the mechanism of VCR action on cardiac fibrosis. Read More

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Modulation of Liver P-Glycoprotien Expression May Contribute to Gossypin Protection against Methotrexate-Induced Hepatotoxicity.

Indian J Pharmacol 2021 Jan-Feb;53(1):25-30

Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, Minya, Egypt.

Objectives: Methotrexate (MTX) is a broadly used anticancer. Its major side effect is hepatotoxicity. Gossypin is a flavonoid has a hepatoprotective effect as well as antitumor property. Read More

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Maternal soy protein isolate diet during lactation programs deleterious effects on hepatic lipid metabolism, atherogenic indices, and function of adrenal in adult rat offspring.

J Dev Orig Health Dis 2021 May 12:1-10. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Nutrition, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil.

The benefits of consuming soy and its protein have been reported in many studies. However, its phytoestrogen content raises concerns about consumption during lactation and gestation We therefore examined the effects of soybean or soy protein isolate on the parameters-related cardiovascular pathophysiology in lactating mothers and their offsprings at weaning and adulthood. Lactating rats were divided: casein control (C); soy protein isolate (SPI); and soybean (S). Read More

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Impact of One Versus Two Consecutive Doses of Endothelial Cells (EPCs) and EPCs-Derived Condition Medium on Protecting Myocardium from Acute Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rat.

Cell Transplant 2021 Jan-Dec;30:9636897211007049

Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

This study tested the impact of single dose and two doses of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and EPCs-derived condition medium (CM) on protecting the left-ventricular myocardium (LVM) from acute ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. In vitro study showed EPCs and CM had comparably higher capacity for enhancement of angiogenesis as compared with the controls (all < .001). Read More

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EphA4 is highly expressed in the atria of heart and its deletion leads to atrial hypertrophy and electrocardiographic abnormalities in rats.

Life Sci 2021 May 8;278:119595. Epub 2021 May 8.

Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine, National Health Commission of China (NHC), Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, Peking Union Medicine College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100021, China. Electronic address:

Aims: EphA4 is a member of the Eph receptor family, and expressed mainly in central nervous system (CNS), which is involved in CNS development and multiple diseases. Due to the variability in EphA4 expression, we wondered if EphA4 is expressed in other tissues, and what role does EphA4 play?

Materials And Methods: We generated an EphA4 knockout (KO) rat line with red fluorescent marker protein encoded by the mCherry cassette inserted downstream of the EphA4 promoter as a reporter. Using this system, we observed high expression of EphA4 in the heart atria and in the brain. Read More

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Effects of trans-resveratrol on type 1 diabetes-induced up-regulation of apoptosis and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in retinal pigment epithelium of Dark Agouti rats.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 May 8:174167. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University.

Microvascular changes and retinal degeneration precede diabetic retinopathy. Oxidative stress alters several intracellular signaling pathways, which form the basis of diabetic retinopathy. Many antioxidants have been investigated as possible preventive and therapeutic remedies for diabetic retinopathy. Read More

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Differential effects of the novel neurosteroid hypnotic (3β,5β,17β)-3-hydroxyandrostane-17-carbonitrile on electroencephalogram activity in male and female rats.

Br J Anaesth 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Colorado Denver, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA; Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of Colorado Denver, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA.

Background: We recently showed that a neurosteroid analogue, (3β,5β,17β)-3-hydroxyandrostane-17-carbonitrile (3β-OH), induced hypnosis in rats. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hypnotic and anaesthetic potential of 3β-OH further using electroencephalography.

Methods: We used behavioural assessment and cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral power analysis to examine hypnotic and anaesthetic effects of 3β-OH (30 and 60 mg kg) administered intraperitoneally or intravenously to young adult male and female rats. Read More

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Characterization of pharmaco-EEG fingerprint and sleep-wake profiles of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. essential oil inhalation and diazepam administration in rats.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 May 7:114193. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90110, Thailand; Biosignal Research Center for Health, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, 90110, Thailand. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Lavandula angustifolia Mill. essential oil (Lavender EO) has a long history of medicinal use and is particularly claimed to possess anxiolytic and sedative properties. Lavender EO aromatherapy has been used to reduce distress and improve insomnia naturally. Read More

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PU.1 Interaction with p50 Promotes Microglial-mediated Inflammation in Secondary Spinal Cord Injury in SCI Rats.

Int J Neurosci 2021 May 10:1-15. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Orthopedics, Changzhou Seventh People's Hospital, Changzhou, Jiangsu Province 213000, China.

Secondary spinal cord injury is the inflammatory damage to surrounding tissues caused by activated microglial-mediated neuroinflammatory responses. The nuclear factor-κB (p65/p50) pathway and PU.1 are closely correlated with inflammatory responses; thus, we examined the relationship and function between PU. Read More

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Postconditioning with Sevoflurane or Propofol Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation but Exerts Dissimilar Effects on the NR2B Subunit and Cognition.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Institute of Life Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, People's Republic of China.

Neuroinflammation can cause cognitive deficits, and preexisting neuroinflammation is observed frequently in the clinic after trauma, surgery, and infection. Patients with preexisting neuroinflammation often need further medical treatment under general anesthesia. However, the effects of postconditioning with general anesthetics on preexisting neuroinflammation have not been determined. Read More

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Withania coagulans extract attenuates oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis of cerebellar purkinje neurons after ischemia/reperfusion injury.

Metab Brain Dis 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR, Iran.

Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is known to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, consequences of oxidative stress (OS), and neuronal death in the susceptible brain areas including the cerebellum. Newly, remarkable attention has been paid to a natural diet with the capability to scavenge ROS. Withania coagulans root extract (WCE) is rich in components with antioxidants properties. Read More

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CNP regulates cardiac contractility and increases cGMP near both SERCA and TnI - difference from BNP visualized by targeted cGMP biosensors.

Cardiovasc Res 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo and Oslo University Hospital, P.O.Box 1057 Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway.

Aims: Guanylyl cyclase-B (GC-B; natriuretic peptide receptor-B, NPR-B) stimulation by C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) increases cGMP and causes a lusitropic and negative inotropic response in adult myocardium. These effects are not mimicked by NPR-A (GC-A) stimulation by brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), despite similar cGMP increase. More refined methods are needed to better understand the mechanisms of the differential cGMP signaling and compartmentation. Read More

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Estrogen normalizes maternal HFD induced cardiac hypertrophy in offspring by regulating AT2R.

J Endocrinol 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Q Xue, Department of Pharmacology, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510182, China.

Our previous study has demonstrated maternal high-fat diet (HFD) caused a sex-dependent cardiac hypertrophy in adult male, but not female offspring. The present study tested the hypothesis that estrogen normalizes maternal HFD-induced cardiac hypertrophy by regulating angiotensin II receptor (ATR) expression in adult female offspring. Pregnant rats were divided into normal diet (ND) and HFD (60% kcal fat) groups. Read More

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