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Life Course Stressors and Functional Limitations in Later Life among White, Black, and Hispanic Adults: Deleterious, Hardening, or Benign?

J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Sociology, Purdue University, 700 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2059, USA.

Objectives: Although striking racial and ethnic disparities in health are manifest during later life, they may be rooted in early-life exposures. Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, we investigate whether life course stressors are associated with risk of later life functional limitations and whether this relationship differs by race and ethnicity.

Methods: We utilize longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study to test whether child and adult stressors predict trajectories of the occurrence and severity of functional limitations among a diverse sample of older adults. Read More

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Young adults' coping strategies against loneliness during the COVID-19-related quarantine in Greece.

Health Promot Int 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

1st Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, General Hospital "Papageorgiou", Ring Road Thessaloniki, N. Efkarpia, 54603 Thessaloniki, Greece.

COVID-19 and the related quarantine disrupted young adults' academic and professional life, daily routine and socio-emotional well-being. This cross-sectional study focused on the emotional and behavioural responses of a young adult population during the COVID-19-related quarantine in April 2020, in Greece. The study was conducted through an online survey. Read More

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Smoothing the transition of adolescents with CF from pediatric to adult care: Pre-transfer needs.

Arch Pediatr 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Filière muco CFTR 165, Hospices Civils de Lyon, chemin du Grand-Revoyet, 69310 Pierre-Bénite, France; Unité Transversale en Éducation Thérapeutique du Patient, University Grenoble-Alpes ThEMAS TIMC-IMAG (UMR CNRS 5525), Communaute d'Universités et Établissements Université Grenoble Alpes, 38400 Saint-Martin-d'Hères, France; CRCM pédiatrique UTEP, filière muco CFTR, Communaute d'Universités et Établissements Université Grenoble Alpes, CHU Grenoble Alpes UTEP BP 217, 38043 Grenoble, France.

Introduction: In France, the cystic fibrosis (CF) care pathway is performed in 45 CF centers, the life expectancy of patients has steadily increased, but to date there are no national recommendations for the transition from pediatric to adult care. The transition to an adult CF center still raises questions about the relevance of its organizational arrangements. The "SAFETIM need" study aimed to identify the organizational needs both of patients and of parents before the transfer to an adult CF center. Read More

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Evaluation of the Accuracy of Nursing Diagnoses Determined by Users of a Clinical Decision Support System.

J Nurs Scholarsh 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Full Professor, School of Nursing, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Purpose: To analyze the accuracy of nursing diagnoses determined by users of a clinical decision support system (CDSS) and to identify the predictive factors of high/moderate diagnostic accuracy.

Methods: This is an exploratory-descriptive study carried out from September 2017 to January 2018. Participants were nurses, resident nurses, and senior year undergraduates. Read More

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Rescue of maternal immune activation-induced behavioral abnormalities in adult mouse offspring by pathogen-activated maternal T cells.

Nat Neurosci 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Maternal immune activation (MIA) induced by lipopolysaccharides or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid injections can induce behavioral abnormalities in adult mouse offspring. Here, we used the soluble tachyzoite antigen from Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite that infects approximately two billion people, to induce MIA in mice. The adult male offspring showed autism-relevant behaviors and abnormal brain microstructure, along with a pro-inflammatory T-cell immune profile in the periphery and upregulation of interleukin-6 in brain astrocytes. Read More

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Exploring quality of life perception in people with epilepsy and people imagining life with epilepsy.

Authors:
Patricia Braga

Seizure 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Epilepsy Section, Instituto de Neurología "Américo Ricaldoni", Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Uruguay. Electronic address:

Objective: Epilepsy is a condition associated with high levels of stigma. Quality of life (QoL) is reportedly diminished in people with epilepsy worldwide. The purpose of our study was to describe and compare the self-reported QoL of people with epilepsy and people imagining life with epilepsy. Read More

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Enhancing Human-Centered Design With Youth-Led Participatory Action Research Approaches for Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Programming.

Health Promot Pract 2021 Apr 15:15248399211003544. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

California State University, Sacramento, CA, USA.

Existing participatory research approaches have failed to identify innovative methods that overcome the persistent barriers to adolescent sexual and reproductive health service demand and access. Increasingly, programmers have turned to human-centered design (HCD), a problem-solving process that centers the needs, perspectives, and experiences of people, when developing solutions to complex SRH challenges. This article describes the application of a youth-engaged version of HCD as part of Adolescents 360, a transdisciplinary initiative to increase 15- to 19-year-old girls' use of modern contraception in Nigeria, Ethiopia, and Tanzania. Read More

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Antiretroviral Therapy Management in Adults With HIV During ICU Admission.

J Pharm Pract 2021 Apr 16:8971900211000692. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

8452Southwestern Oklahoma State University College of Pharmacy, Weatherford, OK, USA.

The extended lifespan of people living with human immunodeficiency (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (PLWHA) has increased the potential for ICU admissions unrelated to HIV infection. The objective of this review is to guide continued management of antiretroviral therapy (ART) recommended by the United States Department of Health and Human Services Antiretroviral Guidelines in critically ill adult PLWHA admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Pharmacists are uniquely positioned to mitigate these concerns, including whether to continue ART in the ICU, drug interactions with common ICU drugs, renal and hepatic dosing considerations, and alternative methods of administration. Read More

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Educating caregivers of persons with cerebral palsy in night-time postural care: A randomized trial comparing two online training programs.

Clin Rehabil 2021 Apr 15:2692155211009484. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Division of Rehabilitation Science, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Objective: Compare effectiveness of two differently formatted training programs in educating night-time postural care implementers.

Design: Mixed-methods parallel-group double-blind design with random assignment.

Setting: United States academic institution. Read More

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Responsiveness of Routine Diagnostic Tests for Vertebral Osteomyelitis May be Influenced by the Infecting Organism.

Spine J 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

University of Missouri Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Columbia, MO, USA. Electronic address:

Background Context: Vertebral osteomyelitis (VO) becomes increasingly more prevalent as people age, and it is a condition seen frequently by referral center spine surgeons. It can take as long as six months for a proper diagnosis to be made. Staphylococcus aureus (S. Read More

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Update: COVID-19 Pandemic-Associated Changes in Emergency Department Visits - United States, December 2020-January 2021.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 Apr 16;70(15):552-556. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

During March 29-April 25, 2020, emergency department (ED) visits in the United States declined by 42% after the declaration of a national emergency for COVID-19 on March 13, 2020. Among children aged ≤10 years, ED visits declined by 72% compared with prepandemic levels (1). To assess the continued impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on EDs, CDC examined trends in visits since December 30, 2018, and compared the numbers and types of ED visits by patient demographic and geographic factors during a COVID-19 pandemic period (December 20, 2020-January 16, 2021) with a prepandemic period 1 year earlier (December 15, 2019-January 11, 2020). Read More

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Trends in Racial and Ethnic Disparities in COVID-19 Hospitalizations, by Region - United States, March-December 2020.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 Apr 16;70(15):560-565. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

CDC COVID-19 Response Team.

Persons from racial and ethnic minority groups are disproportionately affected by COVID-19, including experiencing increased risk for infection (1), hospitalization (2,3), and death (4,5). Using administrative discharge data, CDC assessed monthly trends in the proportion of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 among racial and ethnic groups in the United States during March-December 2020 by U.S. Read More

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Emergency Department Visits for COVID-19 by Race and Ethnicity - 13 States, October-December 2020.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 Apr 16;70(15):566-569. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Hispanic or Latino (Hispanic), non-Hispanic Black or African American (Black), and non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons have experienced disproportionately higher rates of hospitalization and death attributable to COVID-19 than have non-Hispanic White (White) persons (1-4). Emergency care data offer insight into COVID-19 incidence; however, differences in use of emergency department (ED) services for COVID-19 by racial and ethnic groups are not well understood. These data, most of which are recorded within 24 hours of the visit, might be an early indicator of changing patterns in disparities. Read More

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E-Cigarette Use Among Youths and Young Adults During the COVID-19 Pandemic: United States, 2020.

Am J Public Health 2021 Apr 15:e1-e9. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

All authors are with the Schroeder Institute at Truth Initiative, Washington, DC.

To determine whether the COVID-19 pandemic affected e-cigarette use among young people in the United States. Data came from a weekly cross-sectional online survey of youths and young adults (aged 15-24 years). Logistic regression analyses measured odds of past-30-day e-cigarette use (n = 5752) following widespread stay-at-home directives (March 14-June 29, 2020), compared with the pre‒COVID-19 period (January 1-March 13, 2020). Read More

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[Retrograde muscle release method in treatment of mild to moderate ischemic muscle contracture of forearm].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Apr;35(4):483-487

Department of Orthopedics, Beijing Tsinghua Changgung Hospital, School of Clinical Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 102218, P.R.China.

Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of retrograde muscle release in treatment of mild to moderate type ischemic muscle contracture of forearm classified by Tsuge.

Methods: Between March 2010 and September 2018, 11 patients with mild to moderate ischemic muscle contracture of forearm were treated with retrograde muscle release. There were 6 males and 5 females with an average age of 24 years (range, 16-29 years). Read More

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[Application of Zunyi's Suture Method for donor site of anterolateral thigh flap].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Apr;35(4):477-482

Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns, the Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi Guizhou, 563003, P.R.China.

Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of multiple tension reduction suture of return needle vertical mattress suture and return needle horizontal mattress suture combination with intradermal intermittent continuous suture (denominated as Zunyi's Suture Method) on suturing the donor site of the anterolateral thigh flap.

Methods: Between January 2019 and December 2019, 62 patients were treated with anterolateral thigh flaps to repair wounds. There were 46 males and 16 females, aged 9-67 years (mean, 31 years). Read More

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[Clinical application of an improved classification system of Kümmell's disease].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Apr;35(4):464-470

Department of Orthopedics, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan Shandong, 250001, P.R.China.

Objective: To report an improved classification system of Kümmell's disease and its clinical application.

Methods: Based on CT and MRI, an improved classification system of Kümmell's disease was proposed in terms of the integrity of sagittal endplate, the integrity of posterior wall of vertebral body, and the degree of vertebral compression. Between January 2011 and March 2018, the improved classification system was used to evaluate and guide the treatment of 78 patients with Kümmell's disease. Read More

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[Treatment of unstable fresh thoracolumbar burst fracture by over-bending rod reduction and fixation technique via posterior approach].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Apr;35(4):458-463

Department of Spine Surgery, Luohe Central Hospital, Luohe Henan, 462000, P.R.China.

Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of over-bending rod reduction and fixation technique via posterior approach in the treatment of unstable fresh thoracolumbar burst fracture.

Methods: A clinical data of 27 patients with unstable fresh thoracolumbar burst fracture, who were met the inclusive criteria and admitted between January 2018 and October 2019, was retrospectively analyzed. There were 15 males and 12 females with an average age of 41. Read More

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[Relationship between O-EA angle and lower cervical curvature in patients with anterior atlantoaxial dislocation before and after occipitocervical fusion].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Apr;35(4):453-457

Department of Orthopedics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu Sichuan, 610041, P.R.China.

Objective: To investigate the relationship between O-EA angle and lower cervical curvature in patients with anterior atlantoaxial dislocation undergoing occipitocervical fusion, and to analyze the effect of O-EA angle on lower cervical curvature.

Methods: The clinical data of 61 patients with anterior atlantoaxial dislocation undergoing occipitocervical fusion who were admitted between April 2010 and July 2018 and met the selection criteria were retrospectively analyzed. There were 32 males and 29 females, with an age of 14-76 years (mean, 50. Read More

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[Effectiveness of extended Carlson approach in treatment of lateral femoral condylar Hoffa fractures].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Apr;35(4):439-444

Department of Orthopedic Trauma & Ankle Surgery, Fujian Trauma Medical Center, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou Fujian, 350004, P.R.China.

Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of the extended Carlson approach in the treatment of lateral femoral condylar Hoffa fractures.

Methods: The clinical data of 17 patients with lateral femoral condyle Hoffa fractures between September 2012 and January 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 10 males and 7 females, with a mean age of 43 years (range, 32-68 years). Read More

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[Indirect fixation of the third tarsometatarsal joint for high-energy Lisfranc injury].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Apr;35(4):426-430

Department of Orthopedics, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200065, P.R.China.

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of indirect fixation of the 3rd tarsometatarsal joint in the treatment of high-energy Lisfranc injury.

Methods: Between February 2015 and February 2019, 15 patients with high-energy Lisfranc injury were treated. There were 12 males and 3 females with an average age of 44. Read More

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[Extensor digitorum communis split approach combined with loop-plate technique for treatment of ulnar coronoid fracture in terrible triad of elbow].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Apr;35(4):420-425

Department of Orthopaedic Trauma, Honghui Hospital Affiliated to Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an Shaanxi, 710054, P.R.China.

Objective: To explore the effectivenesss of simple lateral extensor digitorum communis (EDC) split approach combined with loop-plate fixation in the treatment of ulnar coronoid fracture in terrible triad of elbow (TTE).

Methods: The clinical data of 60 patients with TTE who met the selection criteria between January 2015 and May 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 48 males and 12 females, aged from 18 to 60 years (mean, 37. Read More

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[Radiographic study of effect of lateral placement of bone graft on shoulder joint degeneration after modified arthroscopic Latarjet surgery with elastic fixation].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Apr;35(4):414-419

Department of Sports Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University (Shenzhen Second People's Hospital), Shenzhen Guangdong, 518000, P.R.China.

Objective: To investigate the mid-term effect of lateral placement of bone graft on shoulder joint degeneration after modified arthroscopic Latarjet surgery with elastic fixation for recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation with an anterior glenoid bone defect.

Methods: According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 18 patients with recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation and anterior glenoid bone defect who received the modified arthroscopic Latarjet surgery with elastic fixation between January 2015 and November 2016 were enrolled in this study. There were 12 males and 6 females with an average age of 26. Read More

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[A cadaveric experimental study on domestic robot-assisted total knee arthroplasty].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Apr;35(4):409-413

Department of Orthopedics, the First Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100853, P.R.China.

Objective: To simulate and validate the performance, accuracy, and safety of the Yuanhua robotic-assisted total knee arthroplasty system (YUANHUA-TKA) through cadaver-based experiment, thus optimizing the robotic system for the future human clinical application.

Methods: Six unilateral adult cadaver specimens of the lower limbs were scanned by three-dimensional CT before the experiment, and then the three-dimensional models of femur and tibia were obtained by using the preoperative software of YUANHUA-TKA system, so as to plan the type of prosthesis implant, the osteotomy volume and osteotomy angles [hip-knee-ankle angle (HKA), coronal frontal femoral component (FFC) and frontal tibial component (FTC)], the ideal value of HKA was set to 180°, and of FFC and FTC were set to 90°, respectively. The operator could further confirm the osteotomy plan according to the intraoperative situation before osteotomy, and then install the prosthesis after completing the osteotomy in each plane with the assistance of YUANHUA-TKA system. Read More

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Comparing Contributions of Passive and Active Tick Collection Methods to Determine Establishment of Ticks of Public Health Concern Within Illinois.

J Med Entomol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois, 2001 S. Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61802, USA.

In Illinois, between 1990 and 2017, tick-borne diseases in humans increased 10-fold, yet we have insufficient information on when and where people are exposed to vector ticks (Ixodida: Ixodidae). The aims of our research were to compare contributions of passive and active tick collection methods in determining establishment of ticks of public health concern and obtain information on tick distributions within Illinois. We used three surveillance strategies within the Illinois Tick Inventory Collaboration Network to gather information about the ticks of public health concern: 1) passive collection (voluntary submission by the public); 2) systematic collection (biweekly active surveillance); and 3) special collections (active collections in locations of special interest). Read More

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Renal Squamous Cell Carcinoma-related Polymyositis in a Patient with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease.

Intern Med 2021 15;60(8):1237-1242. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Nephrology Center and Department of Rheumatology, Toranomon Hospital, Japan.

A 74-year-old Japanese woman diagnosed with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) was admitted to our institute for the further examination of right-side groin pain developing in the past week. The patient was diagnosed with polymyositis (PM). Diagnostic imaging showed a mass lesion measuring 8 cm and a renal stone in the right kidney. Read More

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Use of the supraclavicular artery island flap for reconstruction of maxillofacial defects: a case report and literature review.

BMC Surg 2021 Apr 14;21(1):193. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

The Third Hospital of Mianyang & Sichuan Mental Health Center, Head, Neck and Maxillofacial Surgery & Thyroid Department, Mianyang, 621000, Sichuan, China.

Background: Free flaps are widely used in maxillofacial reconstruction; however, this approach was not feasible in the current case. It was not possible because the free flap method requires microvascular anastomosis expertise, which is difficult, time-consuming and costly.

Case Presentation: An 86-year-old woman suffered squamous cell carcinoma on the right side of her face, which resulted in a large soft-tissue defect. Read More

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Mental ill-health during COVID-19 confinement.

BMC Psychiatry 2021 Apr 14;21(1):194. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Public Health Agency of Catalonia, Department of Health, Government of Catalonia, Programme on Substance Abuse, Roc Boronat 81-95, 08005, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Confinement due to COVID-19 has increased mental ill-health. Few studies unpack the risk and protective factors associated with mental ill-health and addictions that might inform future preparedness.

Methods: Cross-sectional on-line survey with 37,810 Catalan residents aged 16+ years from 21 April to 20 May 2020 reporting prevalence of mental ill-health and substance use and associated coping strategies and behaviours. Read More

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Urban Neighborhood Characteristics and the Spatial Distribution of Home and Community-Based Service Organizations in Michigan Metropolitan Statistical Areas.

Res Aging 2021 Apr 15:1640275211005079. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

School of Social Work, 1259University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Living in a neighborhood with dense HCBS organizations can promote older adults' health and well-being and may mitigate health disparities generated by living in materially deprived urban neighborhoods. Using 2016 US County Business Patterns and the American Community Survey (2013-2017), focused on 516 ZIP Codes in Michigan Metropolitan Statistical Areas, this study examines the association between neighborhood characteristics and the relative density of businesses offering services for older adults and persons with disabilities (e.g. Read More

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The first laboratory confirmed invasive meningococcal disease of serogroup C with abdominal clinical presentation in Slovakia, 2019.

Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol 2021 ;70(1):72-75

Acute abdominal clinical presentations as initial manifestation of meningococcal infection are uncommon and frequently provoked by hyperinvasive isolates of meningococci. 10% of patients infected by the meningococcal strain, that is on the rise in Europe, suffer from abdominal pain. We hereby report the first laboratory confirmed fatal case of an otherwise healthy adult male presented with acute abdominal pain during first 24-48 hours, masking Neisseria meningitidis (N. Read More

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