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Apelin-13 Reverses Bupivacaine-Induced Cardiotoxicity via the Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway.

Anesth Analg 2021 Oct;133(4):1048-1059

From the Department of Anesthesiology.

Background: Cardiotoxicity can be induced by the commonly used amide local anesthetic, bupivacaine. Bupivacaine can inhibit protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation and activated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα). It can decouple mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and enhance reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Read More

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October 2021

Targeting working memory to modify emotional reactivity in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

Brain Imaging Behav 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Understanding the neural mechanisms of emotional reactivity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may help develop more effective treatments that target emotion dysregulation. In adult ADHD, emotion regulation problems cover a range of dimensions, including emotional reactivity (ER). One important process that could underlie an impaired ER in ADHD might be impaired working memory (WM) processing. Read More

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September 2021

Evaluation of Community-Level Vulnerability and Racial Disparities in Living Donor Kidney Transplant.

JAMA Surg 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Comprehensive Transplant Institute, University of Alabama at Birmingham.

Importance: Living donor kidney transplant (LDKT) is the ideal treatment for end-stage kidney disease, but racial disparities in LDKT have increased over the last 2 decades. Recipient clinical and social factors do not account for LDKT racial inequities, although comprehensive measures of community-level vulnerability have not been assessed.

Objective: To determine if racial disparities persist in LDKT independent of community-level vulnerability. Read More

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September 2021

An Enhanced SMS-based Support and Reminder Program for Young Adults with Type 2 Diabetes (TEXT2U): Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Diabetes Centre, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Missenden Road, Camperdown, AU.

Background: Clinic attendance, metabolic control, engagement in self-management and psychological health are suboptimal in young-onset (<40 years) type 2 diabetes.

Objective: We examined the effectiveness of an enhanced SMS-based support and reminder program in improving clinic attendance, metabolic control, engagement in self-management and psychological health in young-onset type 2 diabetes.

Methods: A twelve-month, parallel-arm, randomized controlled trial comparing an enhanced, semi-personalized SMS-based intervention (incorporating one to eight, supportive and/or informative text messages/month) against standard care was conducted in a specialist, young adult type 2 diabetes clinic. Read More

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Social Media Use, Physical Activity, and Internalizing Symptoms in Adolescence: Cross-sectional Analysis.

JMIR Ment Health 2021 Sep 15;8(9):e26134. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, IN, United States.

Background: Most American adolescents have access to smartphones, and recent estimates suggest that they spend considerable time on social media compared with other physical and leisure activities. A large body of literature has established that social media use is related to poor mental health, but the complicated relationship between social media and symptoms of depression and anxiety in adolescents is yet to be fully understood.

Objective: We aim to investigate the relationship between social media use and depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescents by exploring physical activity as a mediator. Read More

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September 2021

Inflammatory markers are associated with quality of life, physical activity, and gait speed but not sarcopenia in aged men (40-79 years).

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Geriatrics and Gerontology, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Age-related chronic low-grade inflammation (inflammaging) is one of the proposed mechanisms behind sarcopenia. However, findings regarding inflammatory markers in sarcopenic older adults are conflicting. This study aimed to determine the association between inflammatory markers, prevalent as well as incident sarcopenia, sarcopenia-defining parameters, quality of life (QoL), and physical activity in middle-aged and older men. Read More

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September 2021

Dopaminergic signaling in prefrontal cortex contributes to the antidepressant effect of electroacupuncture: An iTRAQ-based proteomics analysis in a rat model of CUMS.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.

Electroacupuncture (EA) is used as an adjunctive treatment for depression. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and mechanisms of EA in the depressive rat model induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) in male adult Wistar rats. The underlying mechanisms were explored by using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analysis of the proteins in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and observing the number of the PFC neurons stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and synaptic morphological changes under transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Read More

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September 2021

Sex-specific effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor function in orbitofrontal cortex pyramidal neurons of mice.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Neurosciences, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM, USA.

Background: Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can produce behavioral and cognitive deficits that persist into adulthood including impairments in executive functions, learning, planning and cognitive flexibility. We have previously shown that moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) significantly impairs reversal learning, a measure of flexibility mediated across species by different brain areas including the orbital frontal cortex (OFC). Reversal learning is likewise impaired by genetic or pharmacological inactivation of GluN2B subunit-containing N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). Read More

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September 2021

Acute Stress Exposure Alters Food-Related Brain Monoaminergic Profiles in a Rat Model of Anorexia.

J Nutr 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Interdepartmental Graduate Program in Nutritional Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA.

Background: Adverse life experiences are a major risk factor for anorexia nervosa (AN). Eating-provoked anxiousness associated with AN is postulated to be due to food-related exaggerated serotonin activity in the brain and imbalances of monoamine neurotransmitters.

Objectives: Using a rodent model of stress-induced hypophagia, we investigated if stress exposure augments food-related serotonin turnover and imbalances in measures of brain serotonin and dopamine activity in manners consistent with anxiousness toward food and restricted eating. Read More

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September 2021

Evaluation of Panfacial Fractures in a German Supraregional Trauma Center between 2015 and 2017 - A Retrospective Study.

Ann Maxillofac Surg 2021 Jan-Jun;11(1):97-102. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dortmund General Hospital, Dortmund, Germany.

Introduction: Panfacial fractures represent the most severe injuries to the face. The combination of these fractures determines the treatment strategy. This study aims to retrospectively review the data of adult patients treated for complex facial skull fractures in a hospital in Dortmund, Germany from 2015-2017. Read More

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Recurrent Pneumothorax in an Adult Male With Bilateral COVID-19 Pneumonia.

Cureus 2021 Aug 9;13(8):e17025. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Internal Medicine, Dhulikhel Hospital, Dhulikhel, NPL.

Pneumothorax is defined as the condition in which air is collected between the visceral and parietal pleura. Pneumothorax as a complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been reported in relatively few cases and recurrent pneumothorax is even rarer. We present a case of a 50-year-old critically ill patient who required mechanical ventilation for 55 days and developed recurrent bilateral pneumothorax. Read More

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J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

University of Toledo, United States.

Ketone bodies are essential energy substrates in the absence of exogenous nutrients, and more recently, they have been suggested to prevent disease and improve longevity. β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) is the most abundant ketone body. The secondary alcohol, 1,3-butanediol (1,3-BD), is commonly administered to raise βHB bioavailability and in the absence of nutrient deprivation. Read More

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September 2021

Poor awareness of stroke educational tools among older adults in China.

Brain Behav 2021 Sep 14:e2357. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Neurology, Minhang hospital, Fudan university, Shanghai, China.

Background: Stroke 1-2-0 and FAST (Face, Arm, Speech, Time) are two popular stroke educational tools that have been used in many stroke promotion campaigns. However, few researchers have investigated awareness of these tools among older adults in communities.

Methods: This study was a cross-sectional survey of community-living older adults. Read More

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September 2021

Visual attention to the source matters: Using eye tracking to understand the FDA's "Every Try Counts" campaign message effectiveness.

Nicotine Tob Res 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Office of Health Communication and Education, Center for Tobacco Products, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD.

Introduction: Visual attention is a crucial mechanism in health messaging and campaign persuasiveness. Little is known about how visual attention may translate into cessation-related outcomes in tobacco public education campaigns.

Methods: Using eye tracking technology, this study investigated the relationships among visual attention, cognitive and affective message responses, and cessation-related outcomes (readiness to quit, intentions to quit, and intentions to seek cessation information). Read More

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September 2021

Development and Initial Validation of the Attitudes Towards Older Adult Sexuality in Long-term Care Scale (AOASLC).

J Sex Res 2021 Sep 14:1-9. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Psychology, West Virginia University.

In long-term care facilities where older adults may reside, negative attitudes about later life sexuality can result in restrictive facility policies and staff behaviors that suppress residents' rights to sexual expression. No assessment instrument specifically focuses on the sexual behaviors of long-term care residents and existing measures of attitudes toward older adult sexuality do not include sexual expression in long term care, nor do they assess a full range of sexual behaviors. We developed the Attitudes toward Older Adult Sexuality in Long-term Care Scale (AOASLC). Read More

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September 2021

Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item (GAD-7) Scores in Medically Authorized Cannabis Patients-Ontario and Alberta, Canada.

Can J Psychiatry 2021 Sep 14:7067437211043393. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

70411School of Public Health, 12357University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Objectives: Despite increasing rates of legalization of medical cannabis worldwide, the current evidence available on its effect on mental health outcomes including anxiety is of mixed results. This study assesses the effect of medical cannabis on generalized anxiety disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scores in adult patients between 2014 and 2019 in Ontario and Alberta, Canada.

Methods: An observational cohort study of adults authorized to use medical cannabis. Read More

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September 2021

Protective effects of Lepidium draba L. leaves extract on testis histopathology, oxidative stress indicators, serum reproductive hormones and inflammatory signalling in oxymetholone-treated rat.

Andrologia 2021 Sep 14:e14239. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

College of Life Sciences and Food Engineering, Inner Mongolia Minzu University, Tongliao, Inner Mongolia, China.

This study was aimed to investigate the protective effects of Lepidium draba L. (L. draba) extract on oxymetholone (OM)-induced testicular injury in rat. Read More

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September 2021

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Towards COVID-19 Among People in Bangladesh: A Telephonic Cross-sectional Survey.

JMIR Form Res 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Public Health Foundation, Bangladesh, 54, Inner Circular Road, Scaut Market, Naya Paltan, Dhaka, BD.

Background: The world has been grappling with COVID-19 since December 2019, a dire public health crisis. Preventive and control measures have been adopted to reduce the spread of COVID-19. To date, the public's knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding COVID-19 across Bangladesh are poorly understood. Read More

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Alobar holoprosencephaly in mining-related areas of the Eastern region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo: A case series.

Birth Defects Res 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Surgery, Provincial General Hospital of Bukavu, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Background: Recent case reports described three cases of holoprosencephaly (HPE) in the area with high mining-related pollution of the southern region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). We reported two male neonates with clinically diagnosed HPE in the localities of Fizi and Kitutu, two mineral areas in the Eastern region of the same country (DRC), where artisanal surface mining is predominant with high exposure to radiation and heavy metals from mining.

Cases' Presentations: Two newborns from adult and multigravida mothers without pregnancy complication. Read More

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September 2021

Left anterior descending artery myocardial bridge manifesting as episodic, symptomatic exertional non-sustained ventricular tachycardia.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Sep 13;14(9). Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Cardiologist, Carle Foundation Hospital, Urbana, Illinois, USA.

A 48-year-old man presented to the emergency department (ED) with exertional chest pressure associated with palpitations and lightheadedness. He was found to have non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) in the ED, which resolved spontaneously. Given his history of hyperlipidaemia, unknown family history due to being adopted and episode of NSVT in the ED, he underwent cardiac catheterisation, which showed non-obstructive coronary artery disease and distal left anterior descending artery myocardial bridge (MB). Read More

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September 2021

Cardiac tamponade and massive pleural effusion in a young COVID-19-positive adult.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Sep 13;14(9). Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Pulmonary Medicine, KS Hegde Medical Academy, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.

COVID-19 has a broad spectrum of cardiac manifestations, and cardiac tamponade leading to cardiogenic shock is a rare presentation. A 30-year-old man with a history of COVID-19-positive, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) done 1 week ago and who was home-quarantined, came to the emergency department with palpitations, breathlessness and orthopnoea. His ECG showed sinus tachycardia with low-voltage complexes, chest X-ray showed cardiomegaly and left pleural effusion and two-dimensional echocardiography showed large pericardial effusion with features suggestive of cardiac tamponade. Read More

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September 2021

Late-onset radiation-induced brachial plexopathy.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Sep 13;14(9). Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Neurology, Mater Dei Hospital, Msida, Malta.

The late-onset variant of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy is most often seen after treatment for breast or lung cancers. It has an insidious onset, with symptoms noted years after receiving radiotherapy, and the condition gradually continues to deteriorate with time. We present the case of an elderly man who we saw in view of worsening paraesthesias and weakness of his left arm with associated prominent muscle wasting along the left shoulder girdle. Read More

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September 2021

Giant ulcerative benign osteochondroma of shoulder.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Sep 13;14(9). Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Consultant, Orthopaedic Oncosurgery, Paras Hospitals, Panchkula, Haryana, India

Osteochondromas in hereditary multiple exostosis have increased risk of malignant transformation as compared with solitary osteochondromas. We present a case of a 54-year-old man who presented to us with complaints of swollen mass of the left shoulder with an ulcerative lesion. Radiograph showed a sessile growth from the proximal humerus and scapula. Read More

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September 2021

Secondary cluster headache and numb chin syndrome as initial manifestation of high-grade B-lymphoma: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2021 Sep 14;15(1):468. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia - Compensar, Bogotá, Colombia.

Background: Cluster headache is a primary condition characterized by severe headache accompanied by trigeminal autonomic signs. By definition, it is not attributed to underlying etiologies; however, under certain clinical characteristics, secondary etiologies must be ruled out.

Case Presentation: We present the case of a 48-year-old Hispanic man with a history of episodic right orbital pain, lasting 30 minutes, associated with ipsilateral tearing, who prior to the onset of his symptoms reported loss of appetite, weight loss, and paresthesias in the right chin region. Read More

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September 2021

Prevalence of and risk factors for hallux rigidus: a cross-sectional study in Japan.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Sep 13;22(1):786. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-174 Edobashi, Tsu city, Mie, 514-8507, Japan.

Background: Hallux rigidus (HR) is a common osteoarthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. However, the epidemiology and risk factors of this pathology have yet to be clarified.

Methods: We have been conducting cohort studies among individuals over 50 years old every 2 years since 1997. Read More

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September 2021

Safety evaluation of the atmospheric low-temperature plasma (ALTP) on the conjunctiva: an animal study and histopathological findings; 6-month follow-up.

BMC Ophthalmol 2021 Sep 13;21(1):333. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Vision Health Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Science, Semnan, Iran.

Background: Plasma medicine is an innovative research field focused on the application of atmospheric-pressure low-temperature plasmas (ALTP) for therapeutic purposes. Considering the potentials of plasma in ophthalmology, in this study, we evaluated the safety of plasma on the conjunctival tissue in animal models for 6 months.

Methods: Twelve adult male New Zealand albino rabbits were divided into four groups. Read More

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September 2021

[Long-term therapeutic effects and liver fibrosis changes with direct-antiviral therapy in HIV/HCV co-infected patients].

Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 2021 Aug;29(8):776-780

Infectious Disease Center, Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510060, China.

To investigate the long-term characteristic changes of virus, immune status, and liver fibrosis markers in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected patients after receiving direct-antiviral agents (DAAs). HIV/HCV co-infected patients who visited the Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University from May 2014 to December 2019 were selected as the research subjects. The changes of virological response rate, peripheral blood CD4(+)T lymphocyte level and serological markers of liver fibrosis (APRI score and FIB-4 index) were observed during 144 weeks of follow-up course after the end of DAAs treatment. Read More

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Results of the patient report of intermittent catheterization experience (price) study.

Neurourol Urodyn 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Aims: Patient satisfaction is paramount to health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) outcomes. High quality, quantitative data from the US describing patients' actual experiences, difficulties, and HR-QoL while on an intermittent self-catheterization (ISC) regimen is very scarce. Our objective was to better understand patient practices with and attitudes towards ISC. Read More

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September 2021

Intradural Extramedullary Lesions in the Cervical Spine in Neurofibromatosis.

Am J Case Rep 2021 Sep 13;22:e933090. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Pediatrics, East Jeddah General Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

BACKGROUND Neurofibromatosis (NF) is categorized into 3 diseases: neurofibromatosis type 1, type 2, and schwannoma. NF2 is associated with a mutation in gene 22q11.2. Read More

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September 2021

A qualitative examination of familial racial-ethnic socialization experiences among multiracial American emerging adults.

J Fam Psychol 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

College of Integrative Sciences and Arts.

This qualitative interview study investigated the types of parental racial-ethnic socialization messages received by Multiracial American youth over the course of their development. The Multiracial population in America is the largest demographic group among individuals under the age of 18 (Saulny, 2011), but there is a dearth of research about the development of this rapidly growing population. Multiracial youth are members of multiple racial-ethnic groups. Read More

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September 2021