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Parental income and mental disorders in children and adolescents: prospective register-based study.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Children with low-income parents have a higher risk of mental disorders, although it is unclear whether other parental characteristics or genetic confounding explain these associations and whether it is true for all mental disorders.

Methods: In this registry-based study of all children in Norway (n = 1 354 393) aged 5-17 years from 2008 to 2016, we examined whether parental income was associated with childhood diagnoses of mental disorders identified through national registries from primary healthcare, hospitalizations and specialist outpatient services.

Results: There were substantial differences in mental disorders by parental income, except for eating disorders in girls. Read More

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Tailor-Made Psychosocial Intervention for the Caregivers in Emergency and Trauma Care Center.

J Neurosci Rural Pract 2021 Apr 24;12(2):290-294. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Psychiatric Social Work, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

 The caregiver's psychosocial problems are unnoticed in the emergency and trauma care center. Therefore, the study objective was to understand the impact of psychoeducation and psychosocial intervention on traumatic brain injury (TBI) caregivers during hospitalization.  The study adopted a descriptive research design. Read More

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One country's journey to interoperability: Tanzania's experience developing and implementing a national health information exchange.

BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2021 Apr 29;21(1):139. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

USAID's Maternal and Child Survival Program/John Snow Inc., Arlington, USA.

Background: Robust, flexible, and integrated health information (HIS) systems are essential to achieving national and international goals in health and development. Such systems are still uncommon in most low and middle income countries. This article describes a first-phase activity in Tanzania to integrate the country's vertical health management information system with the help of an interoperability layer that enables cross-program data exchange. Read More

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Vibration Exposure and Transmissibility on Dentist's Anatomy: A Study of Micro Motors and Air-Turbines.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 13;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ, UK.

The use of dental hand pieces endanger dentists to vibration exposure as they are subjected to very high amplitude and vibration frequency. This paper has envisaged a comparative analysis of vibration amplitudes and transmissibility during idling and drilling with micro motor (MM) and air-turbine (AT) hand pieces. The study aims to identify the mean difference in vibration amplitudes during idling, explore different grasp forces while drilling with irrigant injection by the dentist, and various vibration transmission of these hand pieces. Read More

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Impact of preoperative antibiotics and other variables on integrated microbiome-host transcriptomic data generated from colorectal cancer resections.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr;27(14):1465-1482

Department of Medicine, Renaissance School of Medicine, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, United States.

Background: Integrative multi-omic approaches have been increasingly applied to discovery and functional studies of complex human diseases. Short-term preoperative antibiotics have been adopted to reduce site infections in colorectal cancer (CRC) resections. We hypothesize that the antibiotics will impact analysis of multi-omic datasets generated from resection samples to investigate biological CRC risk factors. Read More

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Association of adverse prenatal exposure burden with child psychopathology in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study.

PLoS One 2021 28;16(4):e0250235. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States of America.

Objective: Numerous adverse prenatal exposures have been individually associated with risk for psychiatric illness in the offspring. However, such exposures frequently co-occur, raising questions about their cumulative impact. We evaluated effects of cumulative adverse prenatal exposure burden on psychopathology risk in school-aged children. Read More

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Electrophoresis of a highly charged dielectric fluid droplet in electrolyte solutions.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Apr 5;598:358-368. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Electrophoresis of a dielectric fluid droplet with arbitrary surface potentials is investigated theoretically in this study. A pseudo-spectral method based on Chebyshev polynomials is adopted to solve the governing electrokinetic equations. Droplet mobilities are expressed as functions of electrolyte strength for fluid droplets with various viscosities and surface potentials. Read More

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Progressive Self-Supervised Clustering With Novel Category Discovery.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2021 Apr 20;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

These days, clustering is one of the most classical themes to analyze data structures in machine learning and pattern recognition. Recently, the anchor-based graph has been widely adopted to promote the clustering accuracy of plentiful graph-based clustering techniques. In order to achieve more satisfying clustering performance, we propose a novel clustering approach referred to as the progressive self-supervised clustering method with novel category discovery (PSSCNCD), which consists of three separate procedures specifically. Read More

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The impact of digitisation of a virtual fracture clinic on referral quality, outcomes and assessment times.

Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Watford General Hospital, West Hertfordshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Watford, WD18 0HB, UK.

Background: Virtual fracture clinics (VFCs) have become widely adopted, aiming to improve efficiency, standardise patient care and reduce clinic appointments for injuries that can be managed conservatively. A variety of means exist to manage VFC referrals and assessment, including paper-based and digital methods. This study assesses VFC referral quality and outcomes before and after implementation of a digital VFC referral and management system. Read More

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Radiation dose and fraction in immunotherapy: one-size regimen does not fit all settings, so how does one choose?

J Immunother Cancer 2021 Apr;9(4)

Radiation Research Program, National Cancer Institute Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Recent evidence indicates that ionizing radiation can enhance immune responses to tumors. Advances in radiation delivery techniques allow hypofractionated delivery of conformal radiotherapy. Hypofractionation or other modifications of standard fractionation may improve radiation's ability to promote immune responses to tumors. Read More

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Are radiomics features universally applicable to different organs?

Cancer Imaging 2021 Apr 7;21(1):31. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Center for Neuroscience Imaging Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Suwon, 16419, South Korea.

Background: Many studies have successfully identified radiomics features reflecting macroscale tumor features and tumor microenvironment for various organs. There is an increased interest in applying these radiomics features found in a given organ to other organs. Here, we explored whether common radiomics features could be identified over target organs in vastly different environments. Read More

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Case Report of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma at the Wrist Joint and the Public Health Crisis of Arsenicosis.

J Health Pollut 2021 Mar 2;11(29):210314. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Pathology; King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Context: Arsenicosis is caused by long term (6 months plus) ingestion of arsenic above a safe dose, characterized by skin lesions and possible involvement of internal organs. Arsenicosis is common in India and Bangladesh where naturally occurring high concentrations of arsenic in the earth's crust contaminate ground water, causing adverse health effects.

Case Presentation: We report a case of a 55-year-old Indian male, resident of a known arsenic endemic region of Uttar Pradesh who suffered from characteristic pulmonary and cutaneous features of chronic arsenic toxicity which included radiological findings of interstitial lung disease, hyperkeratotic lesions over the palms and soles, rain drop like pigmentation over the trunk, and carcinomatous changes at the wrist joint. Read More

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Comparing a deep learning model's diagnostic performance to that of radiologists to detect Covid -19 features on chest radiographs.

Indian J Radiol Imaging 2021 Jan 23;31(Suppl 1):S53-S60. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Osteoporosis and Bone Metabolism Unit, Department of Endocrinology, Division of Internal Medicine, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore.

Background: Whether the sensitivity of Deep Learning (DL) models to screen chest radiographs (CXR) for CoVID-19 can approximate that of radiologists, so that they can be adopted and used if real-time review of CXRs by radiologists is not possible, has not been explored before.

Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of a doctor-trained DL model (Svita_DL8) to screen for COVID-19 on CXR, and to compare the performance of the DL model with that of expert radiologists.

Materials And Methods: We used a pre-trained convolutional neural network to develop a publicly available online DL model to evaluate CXR examinations saved in . Read More

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January 2021

International Pediatric Perfusion Practice: 2016 Survey Results.

J Extra Corpor Technol 2021 Mar;53(1):7-26

The Heart Center Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio; Cincinnati Children's Hospital and Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio; Norton Children's Hospital, University of Louisville Physicians, Louisville, Kentucky; All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India; A. N. Bakulev National Medical Research Center of Cardiovascular Surgery, Moscow, Russia; Heart Institute, University of São Paulo, Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil; and Cardiothoracic Surgery, Tenwek Mission Hospital, Bomet, Kenya.

New cardiopulmonary bypass device techniques emerge and are reported in the scientific literature. The extent to which they are actually adopted into clinical practice is not well known. Since 1989, we have periodically surveyed pediatric cardiac centers to ascertain practice patterns. Read More

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Regulatory Flexibility of Sustaining Daily Routines and Mental Health in Adaptation to Financial Strain: A Vignette Approach.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 17;18(6). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA.

A vignette approach was adopted to investigate flexibility of sustaining daily routines and whether and how this ability was related to mental health at different levels of financial strain. Three separate studies were conducted with community-dwelling adults ( = 1685) in the USA. In Study 1, we drafted, tested, and modified vignettes with reference to pilot data on the relevance of the scenarios and response options. Read More

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Pneumothorax Induced by Computed Tomography Guided Transthoracic Needle Biopsy: A Review for the Clinician.

Int J Gen Med 2021 23;14:1013-1022. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Radiology, Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China.

Percutaneous computed tomography (CT)-guided transthoracic needle biopsy (TTNB) is a valuable procedure for obtaining tissue or cells for diagnosis, which is especially indispensable in thoracic oncology. Pneumothorax and hemoptysis are the most common complications of percutaneous needle biopsy of the lung. According to reports published over the past decades, pneumothorax incidence in patients who underwent TTNB greatly varies. Read More

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Nonsubsampled contourlet transform based tone-mapping operator to optimize the dynamic range of diatom shells.

Microsc Res Tech 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Imaging and Vision Department, Instituto de Optica (CSIC), Madrid, Spain.

The diatoms have intricate silica-based cell walls with multi-scale patterns. High dynamic range (HDR) imaging is widely used to examine the three-dimensional structure of diatoms for recovering the wide range of contrast and brightness. In order to construct a HDR image of a diatom, multiple images of the specimen are taken at different exposure settings with bright or dark field microscopy. Read More

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Revised Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytology: Lessons learned from an appraisal of 5 years of experience in a central hospital.

Cytopathology 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Radiology, Security Force Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytology (BSFRTC) is widely adopted in the management of thyroid nodules. The system was updated in 2017, and its impact is the subject of this paper.

Methods: All thyroid fine needle aspirations from 2016-2020 using the BSFRTC, with follow-up surgical pathology, were reviewed. Read More

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Simultaneous determination of dorzolamide and timolol by first-order derivative UV spectroscopy in simulated biological fluid for in vitro drug release testing.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Jul 13;255:119682. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Institute of Chemical Technology, Department of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Mumbai 400019, India. Electronic address:

Dorzolamide hydrochloride and timolol maleate is a well-established fixed-dose combination for the treatment of glaucoma worldwide. The utilization of simulated biological fluids can give a superior understanding of the release mechanisms and practicable in vivo nature of a dosage form that can improve the predictive potential of in vitro drug release testing. No method has been reported so far for the simultaneous estimation of dorzolamide and timolol in simulated tear fluid. Read More

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Isolation of Outer Membrane Vesicles from Helicobacter pylori.

Authors:
Henry J Windle

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2283:123-130

Trinity Translational Medicine Institute, Trinity Centre for Health Sciences, St James's Hospital, Dublin 8, Ireland.

Outer membrane vesicles (OMV) shed by pathogenic bacteria have multifunctional roles in disease initiation and progression. Further, their efficacy as novel vaccines has underscored their importance as potential therapeutics. Consequently, to advance allied research related to their immunogenicity and pathogenicity it is important to separate these vesicular structures from parental cells and demonstrate them to be free from cellular debris and other non-vesicle-related constituents such as protein aggregates. Read More

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January 2021

Development and Validation of Nomogram-based Prediction of Chronic Subdural Hematoma Recurrence after Initial Burr-hole Surgery.

Turk Neurosurg 2020 Jul 27. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

People\'s Liberation Army Joint Logistic Support Force 904th Hospital.

Aim: Currently, Many factors influence postoperative recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH). This investigation aimed to establish and validate a practical nomogram to predict recurrence of CSDH in patients after initial burr-hole surgery.

Material And Methods: The prediction model was developed from a training set of 272 patients with CSDH who had undergone standard burr hole with irrigation surgery. Read More

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Long-term effects of pre-adoptive risk on emotional and behavioral functioning in children adopted from foster care.

Child Abuse Negl 2021 Mar 20:105031. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

University of California, Los Angeles, United States.

Background: Children adopted from foster care are at heightened risk for emotional and behavioral challenges, potentially due to early trauma exposure and related risk factors. Research has demonstrated that adoptees with greater pre-adoptive risk exhibit higher rates of internalizing and externalizing problems across childhood and into adulthood. However, these studies have been limited by their use of individual risk factors or sum scores of cumulative risk and their measurement of internalizing and externalizing behaviors separately. Read More

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Reared-apart/reared-together Chinese twins and virtual twins: Evolving research program and general intelligence findings.

J Exp Child Psychol 2021 Jul 17;207:105106. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Psychology, California State University, Fullerton, Fullerton, CA 92834, USA.

China's One-Child Policy (1979-2015) limited rural families to two children and urban families to one child. This practice, which led to the abandonment of hundreds of thousands of female infants, is indirectly responsible for the separate placement of infant twins. The availability of this sample launched the first prospective study of these pairs. Read More

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Temporal relationship between Women's empowerment and utilization of antenatal care services: lessons from four National Surveys in sub-Saharan Africa.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 Mar 10;21(1):198. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

School of International Development and Global Studies, University of Ottawa, 120 University Private, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5, Canada.

Background: In November 2016, the WHO four-visit focused antenatal care (FANC) model adopted in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) was reverted to eight contacts or more as a response to reducing the global perinatal and maternal deaths and in achieving the sustainable development goal (SDG) 3. Women's empowerment, which connote the social standing, position and the ability of women to make life decisions and choices has been associated with the maternal health seeking behaviour and outcomes. This study examined the association between women's empowerment and the WHO ANC model of eight visits or more, and early first antenatal visit among pregnant women. Read More

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Using Narrative Evidence to Convey Health Information on Social Media: The Case of COVID-19.

J Med Internet Res 2021 03 15;23(3):e24948. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

School of Public Health, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.

During disease outbreaks or pandemics, policy makers must convey information to the public for informative purposes (eg, morbidity or mortality rates). They must also motivate members of the public to cooperate with the guidelines, specifically by changing their usual behavior. Policy makers have traditionally adopted a didactic and formalistic stance by conveying dry, statistics-based health information to the public. Read More

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Anodal tDCS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex reduces Stroop errors. A comparison of different tasks and designs.

Behav Brain Res 2021 May 1;405:113215. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

University "Niccolò Cusano", Italy; Dept. of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, University of Rome "Foro Italico", Rome, Italy.

In the present work, we evaluated the possibility to induce changes in the inhibitory control through non-invasive excitatory stimulation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). To this aim, different montages of the transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) were adopted in three separate experiments, wherein different cognitive tasks were performed before and after the stimulation. In the first experiment, participants performed a visual Go/no-go task, and a bilateral anodic or sham stimulation was provided over the scalp area corresponding to the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Read More

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One-Step Multiview Subspace Segmentation via Joint Skinny Tensor Learning and Latent Clustering.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2021 Mar 4;PP. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Multiview subspace clustering (MSC) has attracted growing attention due to the extensive value in various applications, such as natural language processing, face recognition, and time-series analysis. In this article, we are devoted to address two crucial issues in MSC: 1) high computational cost and 2) cumbersome multistage clustering. Existing MSC approaches, including tensor singular value decomposition (t-SVD)-MSC that has achieved promising performance, generally utilize the dataset itself as the dictionary and regard representation learning and clustering process as two separate parts, thus leading to the high computational overhead and unsatisfactory clustering performance. Read More

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Developing mental health awareness and help seeking in prison: a feasibility study of the State of Mind Sport programme.

Int J Prison Health 2020 08;16(4):403-416

School of Psychology, Bamford Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing, Ulster University, Coleraine, UK.

Purpose: The high prevalence of mental illness within the prison population necessitates innovative mental health awareness provision. This purpose of this feasibility study with 75 males (47 intervention; 28 control) was to evaluate State of Mind Sport (SOMS), originally developed as a community based mental health and well-being initiative, in a notoriously challenging prison setting.

Design/methodology/approach: A mixed 2 (group) × 2 (time) factorial design was adopted. Read More

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Current provision of general practitioner services in or alongside emergency departments in England.

Emerg Med J 2021 Feb 22. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Faculty of Health and Applied Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK.

Background: In 2017, general practitioners in or alongside the emergency department (GPED), an approach that employs GPs in or alongside the ED to address increasing ED demand, was advocated by the National Health Service in England and supported by capital funding. However, little is known about the models of GPED that have been implemented.

Methods: Data were collected at two time points: September 2017 and December 2019, on the GPED model in use (if any) at 163/177 (92%) type 1 EDs in England. Read More

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February 2021