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Considerations and Perspectives on Interventions to Improve Social Cognition in Adolescents With ASD Without ID: Involving Parents in Social Skills Groups.

Front Psychiatry 2021 28;12:629761. Epub 2021 May 28.

Division of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Related Conditions, Department of Psychiatry, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Improving social cognition and social skills is a challenge faced by individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder without Intellectual Disability at any age. This process is particularly critical during late adolescence (15-18 years), a developmental phase generally characterized by rich social experiences that usually foster the development of friendships. Nevertheless, for youth with ASD, lingering difficulties in social cognition often hinder their ability to generate responses considered socially appropriated. Read More

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Deficits in Emotion Regulation Partly Mediate the Relation Between Sleep Problems and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescent Inpatients With Depression.

Front Psychiatry 2021 17;12:622833. Epub 2021 May 17.

LWL-University Hospital for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Hamm, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.

Sleep problems are a risk factor for the development of depressive disorders and influence the severity and treatment of depressive symptoms negatively. To enhance treatment for depression in young people, it is important to advance the understanding of the relationship between sleep problems and depressive symptoms. Since deficits in emotion regulation are discussed as possible underlying mechanisms, the present study investigated the mediating effect of maladaptive and adaptive strategies for emotion regulation on the association between sleep problems and depressive symptoms. Read More

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Amygdala reactivity and ventromedial prefrontal cortex coupling in the processing of emotional face stimuli in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2021 Jun 13. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Impaired emotion recognition is common in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and may, via deficient emotion self-regulation, relate to the frequently co-occurring affective and social problems. The present study used an emotional face-matching task and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate neural responses during the processing of angry and fearful faces and visuo-spatial control stimuli. Additionally, measures for emotion dysregulation, ADHD type, and age were investigated in relation to the behavioral and neural fMRI data. Read More

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Recurrent neural network-based acute concussion classifier using raw resting state EEG data.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12353. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Djavad Mowafaghian Centre for Brain Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3, Canada.

Concussion is a global health concern. Despite its high prevalence, a sound understanding of the mechanisms underlying this type of diffuse brain injury remains elusive. It is, however, well established that concussions cause significant functional deficits; that children and youths are disproportionately affected and have longer recovery time than adults; and that individuals suffering from a concussion are more prone to experience additional concussions, with each successive injury increasing the risk of long term neurological and mental health complications. Read More

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40-Hz Auditory Steady-State Responses Characterize Circuit Dysfunctions and Predict Clinical Outcomes in Clinical High-Risk for Psychosis Participants: A Magnetoencephalography Study.

Biol Psychiatry 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: This study aimed to examine whether 40-Hz auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) are impaired in participants at clinical high-risk for psychosis (CHR-P) and predict clinical outcomes.

Methods: Magnetoencephalography data were collected during a 40-Hz ASSR paradigm for a group of 116 CHR-P participants, 33 patients with first-episode psychosis (15 antipsychotic-naïve), a psychosis risk-negative group (n = 38), and 49 healthy control subjects. Analysis of group differences of 40-Hz intertrial phase coherence and 40-Hz amplitude focused on right Heschl's gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, hippocampus, and thalamus after establishing significant activations during 40-Hz ASSR stimulation. Read More

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Case Report: Severe Adolescent Major Depressive Syndrome Turns Out to Be an Unusual Case of Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis.

Front Psychiatry 2021 25;12:679996. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany.

Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a neuroinflammatory condition mediated by autoantibodies against the GluN1 subunit of the receptor. Clinically, it is characterized by a complex neuropsychiatric presentation with rapidly progressive psychiatric symptoms, cognitive deficits, seizures, and abnormal movements. Isolated psychiatric manifestations of anti-NMDAR encephalitis are rare and usually dominated by psychotic symptoms. Read More

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Emotion Recognition Deficits among Children with Conduct Problems and Callous-Unemotional Behaviors.

Early Child Res Q 2017 4th Quarter;41:174-183. Epub 2017 Aug 9.

University of Maryland, 4094 Campus Dr., College Park, MD 20742.

Deficits in emotion recognition have been associated with psychopathic and callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors among adults, adolescents, and children. However, few previous studies have examined such associations exclusively during early and middle childhood, or demographic differences in emotion recognition that may result from early emotion socialization experiences. The current study used a large, population-stratified, randomly-selected sample of 2 grade children living in areas of high rural poverty to examine group differences in emotion recognition among children showing no conduct problems or CU behaviors (typical), conduct problems without CU behaviors (CP-only), and both CP and CU behaviors (CP+CU). Read More

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An Event-Related Potential Investigation of Early Visual Processing Deficits During Face Perception in Youth at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis.

Schizophr Bull 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Psychology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA.

Impairments in early visual face perception are well documented in patients with schizophrenia. Specifically, event-related potential (ERP) research in patients with schizophrenia has demonstrated deficits in early sensory processing of stimulus properties (P1 component) and the structural encoding of faces (N170 component). However, it is not well understood if similar impairments are present in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis (ie, those in the putative prodromal stage of the illness). Read More

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Changing Academic Support in the Home for Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Family-Based Clinical Protocol for Improving School Performance.

Cogn Behav Pract 2016 Feb 25;23(1):14-30. Epub 2014 Jul 25.

Ohio University.

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent among adolescent clinical populations and associated with myriad deficits in school functioning. Yet, behavior therapists have few developmentally appropriate tools for addressing school problems in this group. This article introduces a behavioral protocol designed to fill the gap: Changing Academic Support in the Home for Adolescents with ADHD (CASH-AA). Read More

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February 2016

Stents for progressively symptomatic paediatric intracranial arterial dissection.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Neurosurgery, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA

Arterial dissection is an uncommon cause of paediatric stroke. Medical therapy remains first-line for treatment. There are few reports of neurovascular stents for paediatric intracranial arterial dissection. Read More

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Effects of substance misuse on inhibitory control in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Addict Biol 2021 Jun 7:e13063. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Psychiatry, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often diagnosed with comorbid substance misuse (SM), which is associated with poor treatment efficacy. Although literature indicates similar inhibitory control deficits in both conditions, it is unclear whether SM in ADHD exaggerates pre-existing deficits, with additive or distinct impairments in patients. Our aim was to examine SM effects on inhibitory control in ADHD. Read More

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Early-Stage Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Altered Posterior-Anterior Cerebrum Effective Connectivity in Methylazoxymethanol Acetate Rats.

Front Neurosci 2021 21;15:652715. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Psychiatry, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

The aim of the current resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to investigate the potential mechanism of schizophrenia through the posterior-anterior cerebrum imbalance in methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) rats and to evaluate the effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as an early-stage intervention. The rats were divided into four groups: the MAM-sham group, vehicle-sham group, MAM-rTMS group, and vehicle-rTMS group. The rTMS treatment was targeted in the visual cortex (VC) in adolescent rats. Read More

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Chronic unpredictable stress during adolescence protects against adult traumatic brain injury-induced affective and cognitive deficits.

Brain Res 2021 Jun 4;1767:147544. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, United States; Safar Center for Resuscitation Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, United States; Center for Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, United States; Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, United States; Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, United States; Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, United States. Electronic address:

Pre-clinical early-life stress paradigms model early adverse events in humans. However, the long-term behavioral consequences of early-life adversities after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in adults have not been examined. In addition, endocannabinoids may protect against TBI neuropathology. Read More

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Attentional and executive functions in children and adolescents with developmental coordination disorder and the influence of comorbid disorders: A systematic review of the literature.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(6):e0252043. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Psychology, Succursale Centre-Ville, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting primarily motor skills, but attentional and executive impairments are common in affected individuals. Moreover, the presence of neurodevelopmental comorbidities is frequent in this population, which certainly influences the cognitive profile of the children concerned. Previous studies have reported deficits in visuospatial/nonverbal and planning tasks. Read More

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Use of active video games with or without videoconferencing on health outcomes in adolescent and young adult cancer survivors: a systematic review.

J Cancer Surviv 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Pediatrics Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Purpose: Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors experience greater functional deficits compared to non-cancer peers or older survivors with a similar diagnosis. Physical activity (PA) is a key strategy for mitigating functional decline, and motivation and peer support are critical PA facilitators in AYA cancer survivors. Active video games (AVGs) may be a "gateway" method to promote PA. Read More

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Microsurgical treatment for cerebellomesencephalic fissure arteriovenous malformations after multiple sessions of endovascular treatment.

Surg Neurol Int 2021 10;12:214. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are relatively uncommon congenital vascular anomalies, and only 7-15% of AVMs occur in the posterior fossa. Most posterior fossa AVMs clinically present with hemorrhage and are associated with a high risk of neurological deficits and mortality. These malformations are associated with a high incidence of flow-related aneurysms. Read More

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Determinants of social functioning among adolescents and young adults with cancer: A systematic review.

Psychooncology 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

School of Women's and Children's Health, Faculty of Medicine, UNSW Sydney, Kensington, Australia.

Objectives: Survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer report deficits in social functioning relative to healthy peers. Identifying factors related to their social functioning is critical to improve their long-term social outcomes. This review addressed: (1) How is social functioning defined and measured among studies of AYAs who have had cancer? (2) What factors have quantitatively/qualitatively are associated with/predictors of social functioning? and (3) What associated factors/predictors of social functioning are modifiable and amenable to intervention?

Methods: A systematic review was conducted to identify publications from 2000 to 2021, meeting these criteria: (1) mean/median age at diagnosis/treatment 13-40, (2) assessed social functioning with a validated measure and included factors associated with/predictive of social functioning and/or qualitatively assessed young people's perceptions of factors related to their social functioning and (3) was peer-reviewed/published in English. Read More

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The Association between Sleep Problems and Neuropsychological Deficits in Medication-naïve Children with ADHD.

Behav Sleep Med 2021 Jun 3:1-13. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Research Unit, Psychiatry, Aarhus University Hospital ,Aarhus, Denmark.

: Children with ADHD are reported to have sleep problems and neuropsychological deficits, but studies examining a potential association between the two are scarce and the use of varying methodology can complicate conclusions. A clinical sample of 59 medication-naïve children with ADHD between the ages of 6 and 14 years (71% male). Children underwent polysomnography and multiple sleep latency test, and parent rated sleep habits on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Read More

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Empathic Accuracy in Adolescent Girls with Turner Syndrome.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Center for Interdisciplinary Brain Sciences, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

To examine the potential mechanisms underlying social deficits in Turner Syndrome, we administered the empathic accuracy task (EAT) -a naturalistic social cognition task- and a (control) visual-motor line-tracking task to 14 girls with TS was compared to 12 age-matched typically developing girls (TD; ages 12 to 17). Empathic accuracy was compared across positive and negative emotionally valanced videos. We found that TS differs from TD on empathic accuracy ratings for negative videos; no differences were detected for the positive videos or for the control line tracking task. Read More

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Is the Age of Developmental Milestones a Predictor for Future Development in Down Syndrome?

Brain Sci 2021 May 18;11(5). Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Developmental Psychology and Socialization, University of Padova, via Venezia 8, 35131 Padova, Italy.

Down Syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic alteration responsible for intellectual disability, which refers to deficits in both intellectual and adaptive functioning. According to this, individuals with Down Syndrome (DS) reach developmental milestones (e.g. Read More

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Stents for progressively symptomatic paediatric intracranial arterial dissection.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 May 31;14(5). Epub 2021 May 31.

Neurosurgery, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA

Arterial dissection is an uncommon cause of paediatric stroke. Medical therapy remains first-line for treatment. There are few reports of neurovascular stents for paediatric intracranial arterial dissection. Read More

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The surgical treatment of spinal deformity in children with non-ambulatory myelomeningocele.

Bone Joint J 2021 Jun;103-B(6):1133-1141

Scottish National Spine Deformity Centre, Royal Hospital for Children and Young People, Edinburgh, UK.

Aims: To report the outcome of spinal deformity correction through anterior spinal fusion in wheelchair-bound patients with myelomeningocele.

Methods: We reviewed 12 consecutive patients (7M:5F; mean age 12.4 years (9. Read More

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Evidence-based interventions for children and adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders - A systematic review.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2021 Feb 8;33:50-60. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Pediatric Neurology and Developmental Medicine, LMU Center for Development and Children with Medical Complexity, German FASD Competence Center Bavaria, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, LMU University Hospital Munich, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Introduction: Brain function deficits cause strong negative impacts for the everyday lives of children and adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Therefore, evidence-based intervention programs that are specifically designed for patients with FASD are needed but still scarce. The aim of the presented article is a systematic literature review of evidence-based intervention strategies for children and adolescents with FASD. Read More

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February 2021

An Adolescent Sensitive Period for Social Dominance Hierarchy Plasticity Is Regulated by Cortical Plasticity Modulators in Mice.

Front Neural Circuits 2021 12;15:676308. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States.

Social dominance hierarchies are a common adaptation to group living and exist across a broad range of the animal kingdom. Social dominance is known to rely on the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a brain region that shows a protracted developmental trajectory in mice. However, it is unknown to what extent the social dominance hierarchy is plastic across postnatal development and how it is regulated. Read More

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Long-term effects of early treatment with SSRIs on cognition and brain development in individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 May 29;11(1):336. Epub 2021 May 29.

Developmental Imaging and Psychopathology Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, University of Geneva School of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland.

Cognitive deficits in individuals at risk of psychosis represent a significant challenge for research, as current strategies for symptomatic treatment are often ineffective. Recent studies showed that atypical cognitive development predicts the occurrence of psychotic symptoms. Additionally, abnormal brain development is known to predate clinical manifestations of psychosis. Read More

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Neurocognitive abilities associated with antisocial behavior with and without callous-unemotional traits in a community sample.

Neuropsychology 2021 May;35(4):374-387

Department of Psychology, University of Michigan.

Objective: Antisocial behavior (aggression, rule breaking) is associated with lower intelligence and executive function deficits. Research has not clarified whether these associations differ with the presence of callous-unemotional (CU) traits, particularly within levels of antisocial behavior observed in the community.

Method: We examined whether antisocial behavior and CU traits were differentially associated with intelligence and executive function metrics in 474 adolescent twins (Mean age = 14. Read More

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Unmet health care needs and health care quality in youth with autism spectrum disorder with and without intellectual disability.

Autism 2021 May 24:13623613211014721. Epub 2021 May 24.

University of Virginia, USA.

Lay Abstract: The increase in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder has placed greater demands on the health care system. Children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder often experience challenges accessing high-quality physical and mental health care due to characteristic social-communication deficits and behavioral difficulties, as well as high rates of complex medical and psychiatric comorbidities. Intellectual disability commonly co-occurs with autism spectrum disorder and individuals affected by this co-occurrence may have additional impairments that compound challenges accessing health care. Read More

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A randomised controlled trial (MindChamp) of a mindfulness-based intervention for children with ADHD and their parents.

J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Background: Family mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) for child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) targets child self-control, parenting and parental mental health, but its effectiveness is still unclear.

Methods: MindChamp is a pre-registered randomised controlled trial comparing an 8-week family MBI (called 'MYmind') in addition to care-as-usual (CAU) (n = 55) with CAU-only (n = 48). Children aged 8-16 years with remaining ADHD symptoms after CAU were enrolled together with a parent. Read More

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Déficits précoces de l'empathie et psychopathologie Early empathy deficits and psychopathology.

Neuropsychiatr Enfance Adolesc 2021 May 2;69(3):147-152. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Centre de recherche sur les fonctionnements et dysfonctionnements psychologiques, EA7475, Université de Rouen Normandie, Rouen, France.

Empathy is a complex social-cognitive ability that is best understood by distinguishing its emotional, cognitive and motivational dimensions, which from early childhood interact between the child and her/his social environment. To date, among the many factors that are acknowledged to influence the development of empathy, children's temperament and parenting behaviors have been identified as interacting in predicting the extent to which children demonstrate empathic responses. Recent studies in developmental social neuroscience cast light on the neural networks engaged in the development of each of the dimensions that constitute empathy, which are needed to navigate social interaction and establishing positive social relationships. Read More

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