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Universal and Selective Interventions to Prevent Poor Mental Health Outcomes in Young People: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Harv Rev Psychiatry 2021 May-Jun 01;29(3):196-215

From the Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-Detection (EPIC) Laboratory, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London (Drs. Salazar de Pablo, De Micheli, Catalan, Verdino, Di Maggio, Radua, Provenzani, Montealegre, Signorini, and Fusar-Poli, and Mr. Oliver); Departments of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (Dr. Salazar de Pablo) and of Psychosis Studies (Drs. Bonoldi and Baccaredda Boy), Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London; Institute of Psychiatry and Mental Health. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón School of Medicine, Universidad Complutense, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón (IiSGM), CIBERSAM, Madrid (Drs. Salazar de Pablo and Arango); National Institute for Health Research, Maudsley Biomedical Research Centre, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London (Drs. De Micheli and Fusar-Poli); Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia (Drs. Di Maggio, Provenzani, Ruzzi, Calorio, Nosari, Di Marco, Famularo, Molteni, Filosi, Mensi, Balottin, Politi, and Fusar-Poli); Neurosciences Department, University of Padova (Dr. Solmi); Mental Health Department, Biocruces Bizkaia Health Research Institute, Basurto University Hospital, Facultad de Medicina y Odontología, Campus de Leioa, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, Barakaldo, Bizkaia, Spain (Dr. Catalan); Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, Division of Psychiatry, University of Siena (Dr. Verdino); Imaging of Mood- and Anxiety-Related Disorders (IMARD) group, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), CIBERSAM, Barcelona (Dr. Radua); Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatric Research and Education, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Dr. Radua); Scientific Institute for Research, Hospitalization and Healthcare (IRCCS) Mondino Foundation, Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatric Unit (Dr. Mensi); Department of Paediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Dr. Shin); Zucker Hillside Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Northwell Health, Glen Oaks, NY (Dr. Correll); Department of Psychiatry and Molecular Medicine, Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Hempstead, NY (Dr. Correll); Center for Psychiatric Neuroscience, Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY (Dr. Correll); Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Dr. Correll); OASIS service, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London (Dr. Fusar-Poli).

Background: Much is not known about the efficacy of interventions to prevent poor mental health outcomes in young people by targeting either the general population (universal prevention) or asymptomatic individuals with high risk of developing a mental disorder (selective prevention).

Methods: We conducted a PRISMA/MOOSE-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis of Web of Science to identify studies comparing post-test efficacy (effect size [ES]; Hedges' g) of universal or selective interventions for poor mental health outcomes versus control groups, in samples with mean age <35 years (PROSPERO: CRD42018102143). Measurements included random-effects models, I2 statistics, publication bias, meta-regression, sensitivity analyses, quality assessments, number needed to treat, and population impact number. Read More

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An evaluation of assumptions underlying respondent-driven sampling and the social contexts of sexual and gender minority youth participating in HIV clinical trials in the United States.

J Int AIDS Soc 2021 May;24(5):e25694

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Introduction: Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) has been an effective sampling strategy for HIV research in many settings, but has had limited success among some youth in the United States. We evaluated a modified RDS approach for sampling Black and Latinx sexual and gender minority youth (BLSGMY) and explored how lived experiences and social contexts of BLSGMY youth may impact traditional RDS assumptions.

Methods: RDS was implemented in three US cities, Baltimore, Philadelphia and Washington DC, to engage BLSGMY aged 15 to 24 years in HIV prevention or care intervention trials. Read More

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Resveratrol improved hippocampal neurogenesis following lead exposure in rats through activation of SIRT1 signaling.

Environ Toxicol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Lead (Pb) poses a potential environmental risk factor for cognitive dysfunction during early life and childhood. Resveratrol is considered a promising antioxidant with respect to the prevention of cognitive deficits and act as a potent SIRT1 agonist. Here in, this study aims to investigate the profile of neurogenesis markers following Pb exposure and to determine the regulatory role of resveratrol in this process. Read More

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HIV and mental health among young people in low-resource contexts in Southeast Asia: A qualitative investigation.

Glob Public Health 2021 May 12:1-15. Epub 2021 May 12.

VOICES-Thailand Foundation, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Young people aged 15-24 years comprise one-fourth of incident HIV infections in Southeast Asia. Given the high prevalence and impact of mental health issues among young people, we explored intersections of HIV and mental health, with a focus on adolescent and young key populations (AYKP) in Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. Sixteen focus group discussions (4/country) with young people ( = 132; 16-24 years) and 41 key informant interviews with multisectoral HIV experts explored young people's lived experiences and unmet needs, existing programmes, and strategic directions for local and regional HIV responses. Read More

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The mediating role of partner communication on contraceptive use among adolescent girls and young women participating in a small-group intervention in Malawi: A longitudinal analysis.

Glob Public Health 2021 May 12:1-14. Epub 2021 May 12.

University of North Carolina Project, Lilongwe, Malawi.

Though effective reproductive health interventions have been developed for adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in sub-Saharan Africa, few have explored whether specific components of the interventions are responsible for observed changes in behaviour. Data for this longitudinal mediation analysis come from a quasi-experimental, sexual and reproductive health study conducted among AGYW (age 15-24) in Malawi. We assessed the extent to which the relationship between attending communication-specific small-group sessions and contraceptive use at one-year was mediated by contraceptive communication with partners at six months, using a bootstrapping procedure to estimate indirect effects. Read More

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Interorganizational Care Coordination of Rural Veterans by Veterans Affairs and Community Care Programs: A Systematic Review.

Med Care 2021 06;59(Suppl 3):S259-S269

United States Department of Veterans Affairs, Center for Healthcare Organization and Implementation Research (CHOIR), VA Boston Healthcare System.

Background: In the unique context of rural Veterans' health care needs, expansion of US Department of Veterans Affairs and Community Care programs under the MISSION Act, and the uncertainties of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it is critical to understand what may support effective interorganizational care coordination for increased access to high-quality care.

Objectives: We conducted a systematic review to examine the interorganizational care coordination initiatives that Veterans Affairs (VA) and community partners have pursued in caring for rural Veterans, including challenges and opportunities, organizational domains shaping care coordination, and among these, initiatives that improve or impede health care outcomes.

Research Design: We followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to search 2 electronic databases (PubMed and Embase) for peer-reviewed articles published between January 2009 and May 2020. Read More

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Quality of Life-CI: Development of an Early Childhood Parent-Proxy and Adolescent Version.

Ear Hear 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

1Department of Otolaryngology, University of Miami Ear Institute, Miami, Florida, USA 2Behavioral Health Systems Research Health Systems Research, Miami, Florida, USA.

Objectives: Severe to profound hearing loss is associated with communication, social, and behavioral difficulties that have been linked to worse health-related quality of life (HRQoL) compared to individuals with normal hearing. HRQoL has been identified as an important health outcome that measures functional ability, particularly for chronic conditions and disabilities. The current study developed the QoL-cochlear implant (CI) for early childhood and adolescents using the recommended Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency guidelines on patient-reported outcomes. Read More

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Is substance use among young cancer survivors the result of emotional and physical pain?

Cancer 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.

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Substance use, substance use disorders, and treatment in adolescent and young adult cancer survivors-Results from a national survey.

Cancer 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: Substance use can exacerbate cancer-related morbidity and mortality in adolescent/young adult (AYA) cancer survivors and place them at increased risk for adverse health outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess substance use, misuse, and substance use disorders [SUDs], as well as receipt of treatment for SUDs, among AYA cancer survivors.

Methods: The authors used data from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (2015-2018) to identify a nationally representative sample of AYAs aged 12 to 34 years. Read More

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Using Machine Learning to Predict Young People's Internet Health and Social Service Information Seeking.

Prev Sci 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

University of California, UCLA Center for Community Health, 10920 Wilshire Blvd Suite 350, Los AngelesLos Angeles, CA, 90024, USA.

Machine learning creates new opportunities to design digital health interventions for youth at risk for acquiring HIV (YARH), capitalizing on YARH's health information seeking on the internet. To date, researchers have focused on descriptive analyses that associate individual factors with health-seeking behaviors, without estimating of the strength of these predictive models. We developed predictive models by applying machine learning methods (i. Read More

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Effect of an Internet-Delivered Stepped-Care Program vs In-Person Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Symptoms in Children and Adolescents: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA 2021 May;325(18):1863-1873

Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.

Importance: In most countries, young people with obsessive-compulsive disorder have limited access to specialist cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), a first-line treatment.

Objective: To investigate whether internet-delivered CBT implemented in a stepped-care model is noninferior to in-person CBT for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Design, Setting And Participants: A randomized clinical noninferiority trial conducted at 2 specialist child and adolescent mental health clinics in Sweden. Read More

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De-identification procedures for magnetic resonance images and the impact on structural brain measures at different ages.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

UMC Utrecht Brain Center, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Surface rendering of MRI brain scans may lead to identification of the participant through facial characteristics. In this study, we evaluate three methods that overwrite voxels containing privacy-sensitive information: Face Masking, FreeSurfer defacing, and FSL defacing. We included structural T1-weighted MRI scans of children, young adults and older adults. Read More

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Best Practices for Modeling Egocentric Social Network Data and Health Outcomes.

HERD 2021 May 11:19375867211013772. Epub 2021 May 11.

Center for Computational Analysis of Social and Organizational Systems, School of Computer Science, 6612Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Objective/aim: We describe best practices for modeling egocentric networks and health outcomes using a five-step guide.

Background: Social network analysis (SNA) is common in social science fields and has more recently been used to study health-related topics including obesity, violence, substance use, health organizational behavior, and healthcare utilization. SNA, alone or in conjunction with spatial analysis, can be used to uniquely evaluate the impact of the physical or built environment on health. Read More

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Developmental trajectories of sleep during childhood and adolescence are related to health in young adulthood.

Acta Paediatr 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Curtin School of Allied Health, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.

Aim: Sleep behaviour is correlated and causally related to physical and mental health. Limited longitudinal data exist on the associations of poor sleep behaviour in childhood and adolescence with adult health. Parent-reported sleep behaviours from 1993 participants of the Raine Study (at ages 5, 8, 10, 14, 17) were used to determine sleep trajectories (using latent class growth analysis). Read More

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Clinical and molecular characteristics and treatment patterns of adolescent and young adult patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

Br J Haematol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) rarely presents in adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients (patients aged 15-39 years). Disease characteristics and outcomes of AYA patients with CLL are not well understood, particularly in the era of novel oral targeted therapies. We analysed outcomes of 227 AYA patients with CLL diagnosed in the last two decades and evaluated at our institution. Read More

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Depression in children and young people: identification and management NICE guidelines.

Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Bethlem Royal Hospital, SLaM, London, UK.

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Pediatric Refugee Health and Patterns of Health Care Utilization in Durham, North Carolina.

N C Med J 2021 May-Jun;82(3):157-163

Professor, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin.

Background: This study explored the health needs, trends of health care utilization, and barriers to care of a diverse population of refugee children resettled in Durham County, North Carolina.

Methods: Researchers conducted a retrospective chart review of 327 pediatric (aged 0-21 years) refugee patients who received care at Lincoln Community Health Center from 2016 to 2018.

Results: Results describe a low prevalence of infectious diseases, such as human immunodeficiency virus (0%), hepatitis B (2%), and tuberculosis (5%), but a high prevalence of nutritional problems, such as growth stunting (17%), overweight (21%), Vitamin D insufficiency (79% of the 39 tested), and anemia (13%). Read More

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Evidence-based priorities of under-served pregnant and parenting adolescents: addressing inequities through a participatory approach to contextualizing evidence syntheses.

Int J Equity Health 2021 May 10;20(1):118. Epub 2021 May 10.

Participatory Research at McGill (PRAM), Department of Family Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Purpose: This study describes an interdiscursive evidence-based priority setting process with pregnant and parenting adolescents and their services providers.

Methods: A mixed methods literature review identified studies reporting on perinatal outcomes and experiences of adolescents during pregnancy to 12 months post-partum published in Canada after 2000. We also calculated relative risks for common perinatal risk factors and outcomes for adolescents compared to adult populations from 2012 to 2017 based on data from a provincial database of maternal and newborn outcomes. Read More

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Narratives of young black men on barriers to health care and poor health care seeking behaviours at a university setting: a qualitative study.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 May 10;21(1):445. Epub 2021 May 10.

Discipline of Public Health, School of Nursing and Public Health Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Background: Institutions of higher learning provide education, training, independence and life-long skills for young people. However, for students to achieve their optimal growth and intellectual development they need to be healthy psychologically, mentally and physically. This can be achieved through the development of effective health programs for all university students. Read More

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Arthroscopy-controlled medial reefing and lateral release for recurrent patellar dislocation: clinical, radiologic outcomes and complications.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 May 10;22(1):430. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Korea University Ansan Hospital, 123, Jeokgeum-ro, Danwon-Gu, Gyeongki-do, Ansan-si, 15355, Republic of Korea.

Background: Few studies have reported the clinical outcomes of the medial reefing procedure and lateral release with arthroscopic control of medial retinacular tension in patients with recurrent patellar dislocation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical, radiologic outcomes and complications of arthroscopy-controlled medial reefing and lateral release.

Methods: Patients who underwent arthroscopy-controlled medial reefing and lateral release for recurrent patellar dislocation between November 2007 and June 2017 were retrospectively evaluated. Read More

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Perceived need for treatment and non-utilization of outpatient psychotherapy in old age: two cohorts of a nationwide survey.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 May 10;21(1):442. Epub 2021 May 10.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Institute of Medical Sociology and Rehabilitation Science, Charitéplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Germany.

Beackground: Older adults with mental health problems may benefit from psychotherapy; however, their perceived need for treatment in relation to rates of non-utilization of outpatient psychotherapy as well as the predisposing, enabling, and need factors proposed by Andersen's Model of Health Care Utilization that account for these differences warrant further investigation.

Methods: We used two separate cohorts (2014 and 2019) of a weighted nationwide telephone survey in Germany of German-speaking adults with N = 12,197 participants. Across the two cohorts, 12. Read More

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High expression of TARP correlates with inferior FLT3 mutations in non-adolescents and young adults with acute myeloid leukaemia.

Hematology 2021 Dec;26(1):380-387

Department of Hematology, The Affiliated Huai'an No.1 People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Huai'an, People's Republic of China.

Objectives: Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a haematopoietic malignancy with a dismal outcome. Consequently, risk stratification based on more effective prognostic biomarkers is crucial to make accurate therapy decisions. T cell receptor gamma alternative reading frame protein (TARP) has been reported in prostate and breast cancers, but its correlation with AML remains unclear. Read More

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December 2021

Non-parameningeal head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma in children, adolescents, and young adults: Experience of the European paediatric Soft tissue sarcoma Study Group (EpSSG) - RMS2005 study.

Eur J Cancer 2021 May 7;151:84-93. Epub 2021 May 7.

SIREDO Oncology Center, Institute Curie, PSL University, Paris, France.

Background/objectives: The primary aim of this study was to analyse and evaluate the impact of different local treatments on the pattern of relapse in children with primary head and neck non-parameningeal (HNnPM) rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), treated in the European paediatric Soft tissue sarcoma Study Group (EpSSG) RMS2005 study. The secondary aim was to assess whether current risk stratification is valid for this specific site.

Design/methods: This study includes all patients with localised HNnPM RMS enrolled in the RMS2005 study between 2005 and 2016. Read More

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Associations between brain structure and sleep patterns across adolescent development.

Sleep 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Study Objectives: Structural brain maturation and sleep are complex processes that exhibit significant changes over adolescence and are linked to many physical and mental health outcomes. We investigated whether sleep-gray matter relationships are developmentally-invariant (i.e. Read More

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Safety and Efficacy of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Children and Young Adults with Haematological Malignancies: Review and Future Perspectives.

Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

2nd Department of Paediatrics, Childhood and Adolescent Hematology Oncology Unit, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, AHEPA Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Despite the marked improvement in overall survival rates of paediatric patients with haematological malignancies that has been achieved during the last decades, there is still a pressing need for novel therapeutic approaches for the subset of patients with relapsed or refractory disease. Immune checkpoint inhibitors aim to induce potent anti-tumour immune responses by targeted blockade of inhibitory receptors and have shown great promise in preclinical models and studies in the adult population. However, paediatric malignancies present unique features and so far, experience with these agents remains limited. Read More

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Late Effects of Clubfoot Deformity in Adolescent and Young Adult Patients Whose Initial Treatment Was an Extensive Soft-tissue Release: Topic Review and Clinical Case Series.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg Glob Res Rev 2020 May;4(5):e1900126

From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (Dr. Johnson, Dr. Klein, Dr. McCormick, Dr. Dobbs, Dr. Gordon, Dr. Schoenecker); the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Dartmouth-Hitchcock School of Medicine, New Hampshire, NH (Dr. Fortney); and the Congress Orthopaedic Associates, Arcadia, CA (Dr. Luk).

Children with congenital clubfoot often have residual deformity, pain, and limited function in adolescence and young adulthood. These patients represent a heterogeneous group that often requires an individualized management strategy. This article reviews the available literature on this topic while proposing a descriptive classification system based on a review of patients at our institution who underwent surgery for problems related to previous clubfoot deformity during the period between January 1999 and January 2012. Read More

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Weight teasing experienced during adolescence and young adulthood: Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with disordered eating behaviors in an ethnically/racially and socioeconomically diverse sample.

Int J Eat Disord 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

Objective: This study assessed cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between weight teasing and disordered eating in an ethnically/racially and socioeconomically diverse sample of young people and examined these relationships across sociodemographic characteristics.

Method: The EAT 2010-2018 study surveyed adolescents (n = 1,534) in the Minneapolis/St. Paul public schools (mean age = 14. Read More

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Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Messaging on TikTok: Social Media Content Analysis.

Health Promot Pract 2021 May 10:15248399211013002. Epub 2021 May 10.

West Virginia University Cancer Institute, Morgantown, WV, USA.

Background: The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is viewed as a critical tool to protect against six HPV-related cancers. Vaccination is recommended from early adolescence through age 26 years. As young people have become increasingly involved in personal health-related decisions, there is a need to tailor HPV vaccine messaging and reach this priority population on social media and digital outlets. Read More

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Context, Development, and Digital Media: Implications for Very Young Adolescents in LMICs.

Front Psychol 2021 21;12:632713. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Institute of Human Development, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, United States.

The rapidly expanding universe of information, media, and learning experiences available through digital technology is creating unique opportunities and vulnerabilities for children and adolescents. These issues are particularly salient during the developmental window at the transition from childhood into adolescence. This period of early adolescence is a time of formative social and emotional learning experiences that can shape identity development in both healthy and unhealthy ways. Read More

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