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Impact of Age on Patient-Reported Outcomes Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer.

Cureus 2021 Mar 9;13(3):e13780. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Radiation Medicine, Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, USA.

Purpose Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) delivers large radiation doses to the prostate while minimizing exposure to adjacent normal tissues. Large fraction sizes may increase the risks of functional decrements. Elderly men may be at an increased risk of these toxicities due to poor baseline function and hence limited reserve. Read More

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Optomechanical crystals for spatial sensing of submicron sized particles.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 9;11(1):7829. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128, Mainz, Germany.

Optomechanical crystal cavities (OMC) have rich perspectives for detecting and indirectly analysing biological particles, such as proteins, bacteria and viruses. In this work we demonstrate the working principle of OMCs operating under ambient conditions as a sensor of submicrometer particles by optically monitoring the frequency shift of thermally activated mechanical modes. The resonator has been specifically designed so that the cavity region supports a particular family of low modal-volume mechanical modes, commonly known as -pinch modes-. Read More

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Russell Body Typhlitis: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Int J Surg Pathol 2021 Apr 8:10668969211008251. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

3710McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.

Russell bodies are accumulation of immunoglobulin in plasma cells forming intracytoplasmic inclusions. Russell body colitis is rare with only 3 cases described in the English literature up to date. We report a 78-year-old male with cirrhosis showing prominent cecal infiltration of Russell body containing plasma cells. Read More

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Spreading of Beta-Amyloid in Organotypic Mouse Brain Slices and Microglial Elimination and Effects on Cholinergic Neurons.

Biomolecules 2021 Mar 15;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Laboratory of Psychiatry and Experimental Alzheimer's Research, Department Psychiatry I, Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstr 35, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

The extracellular deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) is one of the major characteristics in Alzheimer´s disease (AD). The "spreading hypothesis" suggests that a pathological protein (similar to prions) spreads over the entire brain. The aim of the present study was to use organotypic brain slices of postnatal day 8-10 mice. Read More

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Angle-of-Arrival Estimation Using Difference Beams in Localized Hybrid Arrays.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 9;21(5). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

School of Electronics and Information, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018, China.

Angle-of-arrival (AoA) estimation in localized hybrid arrays suffers from phase ambiguity owing to its localized structure and vulnerability to noise. In this letter, we propose a novel phase shift design, allowing each subarray to exploit difference beam steering in two potential AoA directions. This enables the calibration of cross-correlations and an enhanced phase offset estimation between adjacent subarrays. Read More

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Functional anatomical hepatectomy guided by indocyanine green fluorescence imaging in patients with localized cholestasis: Report of four cases.

World J Gastrointest Surg 2021 Mar;13(3):323-329

The Second School of Clinical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, Guangdong Province, China.

Background: Liver cancer is a malignant tumor with a high incidence. At present, the most effective treatment is laparoscopic hepatectomy (LH). Indocyanine green fluorescence imaging (ICG-FI) has become an important tool in LH, and the most common fluorescent types of tumors are total fluorescence, partial fluorescence, and rim fluorescence. Read More

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Masses of the Lacrimal Gland: Evaluation and Treatment.

J Neurol Surg B Skull Base 2021 Feb 18;82(1):100-106. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States.

Lacrimal gland lesions account for approximately 9 to 10% of all biopsied orbital masses. Potential causes include nongranulomatous and granulomatous inflammation, autoimmune disease, lymphoproliferative disorders, benign epithelial proliferation, malignant neoplasia, and metastatic disease. Inflammatory lesions and lymphoproliferative disorders are the most common and may be unilateral or bilateral; they may also be localized to the orbit or associated with systemic disease. Read More

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February 2021

Spatially localized cluster solutions in inhibitory neural networks.

Math Biosci 2021 Mar 26:108591. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Applied Mathematics and Centre for Theoretical Neuroscience, University of Waterloo, Waterloo ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Neurons in the inhibitory network of the striatum display cell assembly firing patterns which recent results suggest may consist of spatially compact neural clusters. Previous computational modeling of striatal neural networks has indicated that non-monotonic, distance-dependent coupling may promote spatially localized cluster firing. Here, we identify conditions for the existence and stability of cluster firing solutions in which clusters consist of spatially adjacent neurons in inhibitory neural networks. Read More

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Hidradenitis suppurativa lesions are associated with decreased collagen, decreased elastin, and increased neovascularization.

J Histotechnol 2021 Mar 24:1-10. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Diagnostic and Health Science, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA.

Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a dermatological condition characterized by ruptured hair follicles inducing a localized, but massive chronic inflammatory response. Analysis of 104 HS lesions in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues identified the most common histologic features found associated with HS were migrating epithelial sheets, acute and chronic inflammation, perivascular chronic inflammation in regions adjacent to active lesions, and granulation tissue. Additionally, using a modified Masson's trichrome stain principally for collagen, Verhoeff van Gieson elastic stain, and CD34 immunohistochemistry assay for endothelium, lesional areas in the dermis with chronic inflammation exhibited a significant decrease in collagen and elastin, and an increase in neovascularization. Read More

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Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2a Expression Is Positively Correlated With Gleason Score in Prostate Cancer.

Technol Cancer Res Treat 2021 Jan-Dec;20:1533033821990010

1st Urologic Department, Gennimatas General Hospital, 37782Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Background: One of the main factors in response to hypoxia in the tumor microenvironment is the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway. Although its role in other solid tumors, particularly renal cell carcinoma, has been sufficiently elucidated, it remains elusive in prostate cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of main proteins involved in this pathway and determine the correlation of the results with clinicopathological outcomes of patients with prostate cancer. Read More

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Single-cell transcriptomics of the wing disc reveals instructive epithelium-to-myoblast interactions.

Elife 2021 Mar 22;10. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, United States.

In both vertebrates and invertebrates, generating a functional appendage requires interactions between ectoderm-derived epithelia and mesoderm-derived cells. To investigate such interactions, we used single-cell transcriptomics to generate a temporal cell atlas of the wing disc from two developmental time points. Using these data, we visualized gene expression using a multilayered model of the wing disc and cataloged ligand-receptor pairs that could mediate signaling between epithelial cells and adult muscle precursors (AMPs). Read More

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Percutaneous microwave ablation applications for liver tumors: recommendations for COVID-19 patients.

Heliyon 2021 Mar 6;7(3):e06454. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Chemistry, University of Guelph, ON, Canada.

Microwave ablation (MWA) is an alternative locoregional therapy to surgical resection of solid tumors in the treatment of malignancies, and is widely used for hepatic tumors. It has a slightly higher overall survival (OS) rate compared to external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), and proton beam therapy (PBT), and better long-term recurrence-free OS rate compared to radiofrequency ablation (RFA). In this paper, current commercial devices, most recent noncommercial designs, and the principles behind them alongside the recently reported developments and issues of MWA are reviewed. Read More

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Pilot study on long-term simulation of PCB-153 human body burden in the Tibetan Plateau.

Chemosphere 2021 Mar 6;276:130184. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, 550081, China. Electronic address:

The historical body burden of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153) in the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) population was simulated on the basis of localized exposure factors and dietary data, which present a preliminary attempt to quantify the influence of high lipid dietary patterns, grain transported from inland China, and atmospheric transport on human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Herdsman with large animal-based food consumption exhibited the highest body burden that was comparable with that in inland China. The body burden of other residents was within the range of low-to-moderate level. Read More

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Proton MR Spectroscopy Measurements of White and Brown Adipose Tissue in Healthy Humans: Relaxation Parameters and Unsaturated Fatty Acids.

Radiology 2021 Mar 16:202676. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

From the Biomedical and Metabolic Imaging Branch (R.O., A.H., J.M., K.Z.A., A.M.G.) and Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Obesity Branch (Z.A.S., K.Y.C., A.M.C.), National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, 10 Center Dr, Bldg 10-CRC, Room 3-5340, Bethesda, MD 20892-1263; and Cancer Imaging Program, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Md (J.F.E.).

Background Activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in rodents increases lipolysis in white adipose tissue (WAT) and improves glucose tolerance. Adult humans can have metabolically active BAT. Implications for diabetes and obesity in humans require a better characterization of BAT in humans. Read More

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Esophagus-Like Bronchus: A Noncommunicating Bronchopulmonary Foregut Malformation.

Int J Surg Pathol 2021 Mar 12:10668969211002255. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

We describe a previously unreported bronchopulmonary foregut malformation wherein a segment of a bronchus of the lower lobe of the left lung in a 4-year-old girl was entirely esophageal in structure. No communication was identified between the tracheobronchial tree and the esophagus by radiologic examination or at surgery. The esophagus-like bronchus was associated with an adjacent atretic bronchus and a downstream cavity in the lower lobe of the left lung. Read More

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Clustered and dispersed chromosomal distribution of the two classes of Revolver transposon family in rye (Secale cereale).

J Appl Genet 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama Minami, Tottori, 680-8550, Japan.

The chromosomal locations of a new class of Revolver transposon-like elements were analyzed by using FISH method on the metaphase chromosome in somatic cell division of the rye cultivar Petkus. First, the Revolver standard element probe λ2 was weakly hybridized throughout the rye chromosome, and comparatively large interstitial signals spotted with a dot shape were detected together with several telomeric regions. The dot shape interstitial signal was stably detected at one site on Chromosome (Chr) 1R (middle part of the interstitial region of the short arm), three sites on Chr 2R (distal part of the interstitial region and adjacent to the centromere on the short arm, middle part of the interstitial region of the long arm), and two sites on Chr 5R (middle part of the interstitial region and adjacent to the centromere on the long arm). Read More

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Traveling waves reveal a dynamic seizure source in human focal epilepsy.

Brain 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Surgical Neurology Branch, NINDS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Treatment of patients with drug resistant focal epilepsy relies upon accurate seizure localization. Ictal activity captured in intracranial EEG (iEEG) has traditionally been interpreted to suggest that the underlying cortex is actively involved in seizures. Here, we hypothesize that such activity instead reflects propagated activity from a relatively focal seizure source, even during later time points when ictal activity is more widespread. Read More

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Spontaneous Resolution of Late-Onset, Symptomatic Fluid Collection Localized in the Meningioma Resection Cavity: A Case Report and Suggestion of Possible Pathogenesis.

Brain Sci 2021 Feb 27;11(3). Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Neurosurgery, Chonnam National University Research Institute of Medical Science, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital and Medical School, Hwasun 58128, Korea.

Postoperative complications after brain tumor surgery occur occasionally and it is important for clinicians to know how to properly manage each complication. Here, we described a rare case of late-onset, subdural fluid collection localized at the resection cavity that caused motor weakness after convexity meningioma resection, requiring differentiation from an abscess, to help clinicians determine treatment strategies. A 58-year-old right-handed female was admitted to the hospital with a headache and posterior neck pain. Read More

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February 2021

A Novel Anterior Cervical X-Shape-Corpectomy and Fusion for Cervical Spinal Stenosis at C4-C6 Level: A Technical Note.

World Neurosurg 2021 Mar 2;149:181-189. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Anesthesia and Operation Center/ West China School of Nursing, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Objective: Anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) is employed in patients with localized cervical spinal stenosis (CSS). However, there are some disadvantages such as subsidence of the titanium mesh cage, slow fusion rates, breakage of the plate and screws, and donor-site complications. For patients with small posterior osteophytes, ossified or hypertrophy of the posterior longitudinal ligaments or ligamentum flavum, the range of decompression from the classic anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) cannot meet the clinical requirements. Read More

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Immunohistochemical study of dissociation and association of adherens junctions in splenic sinus endothelial cells.

Cell Tissue Res 2021 Apr 3;384(1):25-33. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Physiology, Fukuoka University School of Medicine, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka, 814-0180, Japan.

It is not yet clear whether cellular junctions between splenic sinus endothelial cells are open or closed. In order to clarify this, immunolocalization of thrombomodulin (TM), endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR), protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P), β-catenin phosphorylated at Try142 (β-catenin Y142) and β-catenin phosphorylated at Try654 (β-catenin Y654), which are related proteins that regulate dissociation and association of the adherens junctions of endothelial cells, are examined in rats using laser microscopy and electron microscopy. TM, EPCR, PAR1 and S1P were colocalized in the entire circumference of the endothelial cells, as well as in the caveolar membranes and junctional membranes of adjacent endothelial cells. Read More

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A Comprehensive Review of Slipping Rib Syndrome: Treatment and Management.

Psychopharmacol Bull 2020 Oct;50(4 Suppl 1):189-196

Gress, BS, Charipova, BS, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC. Kassem, MD, Schwartz, DO, Mount Sinai Medical Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Miami Beach, FL. Berger, MD, PhD, Hasoon, MD, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care, and Pain Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. Urits, MD, Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, Shreveport, LA; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. Cornett, PhD, Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, Shreveport, LA. Kaye, MD, PhD, Departments of Anesthesiology and Pharmacology, Toxicology and Neurosciences, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, Shreveport, LA. Viswanath, MD, Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, Shreveport, LA; Valley Pain Consultants - Envision Physician Services, Phoenix, AZ; University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Department of Anesthesiology, Phoenix, AZ; Creighton University School of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Omaha, NE.

Purpose Of Review: This is a comprehensive review and update on advances in the understanding and treatment of slipping rib syndrome. It covers the physiology and pathophysiology at the basis of the syndrome, epidemiology and clinical presentation as well as diagnosis. It goes on to review the available literature to provide description and comparison of the available methods for alleviation. Read More

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October 2020

Impact-Induced Cortical Strain Concentrations At the Sulcal Base and Its Implications for Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

J Biomech Eng 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, K1S 5B6, Canada.

This study investigated impact-induced strain fields within brain tissue surrogates having different cortical gyrification. Two elastomeric surrogates, one representative of a lissencephalic brain and the other of a gyrencephalic brain, were drop impacted in unison at four different heights and in two different orientations at drop height. Each surrogate contained a radiopaque speckle pattern that was used to calculate strain fields. Read More

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February 2021

Voxel-based morphometric MRI post-processing and PET/MRI co-registration reveal subtle abnormalities in cingulate epilepsy.

Epilepsy Res 2021 Mar 8;171:106568. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Beijing Institute of Functional Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Diagnostic challenges exist in the presurgical evaluation of patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) negative cingulate epilepsy (CE) because of the heterogeneity in clinical semiology and lack of localizing findings on scalp electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. We aimed to examine the neuroimaging characteristics in a consecutive cohort of patients with MRI-negative CE with a focus on two image post-processing methods, including the MRI post-processing morphometric analysis program (MAP) and F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography-MRI (PET/MRI) co-registration.

Methods: Included in this retrospective study were patients with MRI-negative CE who met the following criteria: negative on preoperative MRI, invasive EEG (iEEG) confirmed cingulate gyrus-onset seizures, surgical resection of the cingulate gyrus with/without adjacent cortex, and seizure-free for more than 12 months. Read More

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Rab5b-Associated Arf1 GTPase Regulates Export of N-Myristoylated Adenylate Kinase 2 From the Endoplasmic Reticulum in .

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 2;10:610200. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Parasitology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan.

extensively remodels human erythrocytes by exporting hundreds of parasite proteins. This remodeling is closely linked to the virulence-related functions and immune evasion. The N-terminal export signal named PEXEL ( export element) was identified to be important for the export of proteins beyond the PVM, however, the issue of how these PEXEL-positive proteins are transported and regulated by Rab GTPases from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the cell surface has remained poorly understood. Read More

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February 2021

A distinct repertoire of cancer-associated fibroblasts is enriched in cribriform prostate cancer.

J Pathol Clin Res 2021 Feb 18. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

Outcomes for men with localized prostate cancer vary widely, with some men effectively managed without treatment on active surveillance, while other men rapidly progress to metastatic disease despite curative-intent therapies. One of the strongest prognostic indicators of outcome is grade groups based on the Gleason grading system. Gleason grade 4 prostate cancer with cribriform morphology is associated with adverse outcomes and can be utilized clinically to improve risk stratification. Read More

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February 2021

Compliant Compression Reconstruction of the Proximal Femur Is Durable Despite Minimal Bone Formation in the Compression Segment.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 Feb 17. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

A. B. Christ, T. Fujiwara, N. Fabbri, J. H. Healey, Department of Surgery, Orthopaedic Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, affiliated with Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Compliant compression fixation was developed to promote permanent bone-prosthesis osteointegration while preserving bone stock in patients needing endoprosthetic reconstructions. This has demonstrated durability in the distal femur, with reliable cortical hypertrophy adjacent to the implant. However, the extent of bone formation and prosthetic survivorship of proximal femoral replacements with compliant compression fixation has not been established. Read More

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February 2021

Fabrication of Au Nanoparticle Arrays on Flexible Substrate for Tunable Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Feb 15;13(7):9281-9288. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, P. R. China.

In this work, Au nanoparticle (AuNP) arrays on shape memory polyurethane (SMPU) substrates serve as flexible materials for tunable localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). AuNP arrays prepared by diblock copolymer self-assembly are transferred from rigid silicon wafers onto flexible SMPU substrates with ultrasonic treatment rather than peeling off directly. The resultant AuNP array SMPU films have excellent mechanical properties and stable thermodynamic properties. Read More

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February 2021

Strong Reduction of the Chain Rigidity of Hyaluronan by Selective Binding of Ca Ions.

Macromolecules 2021 Feb 19;54(3):1137-1146. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

AMOLF, Science Park 104, 1098 XG Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

The biological functions of natural polyelectrolytes are strongly influenced by the presence of ions, which bind to the polymer chains and thereby modify their properties. Although the biological impact of such modifications is well recognized, a detailed molecular picture of the binding process and of the mechanisms that drive the subsequent structural changes in the polymer is lacking. Here, we study the molecular mechanism of the condensation of calcium, a divalent cation, on hyaluronan, a ubiquitous polymer in human tissues. Read More

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February 2021

Endogenous nutrients are concentrated in specific tissues in the Zea mays seedling.

Protoplasma 2021 Feb 13. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Biology Department, University of Louisiana Lafayette, PO Box 43602-3602, Lafayette, LA, 70504, USA.

K, P, Cl, and Ca are distributed in tissue-specific patterns in Zea mays seedlings. These elements were mapped and analyzed using a relatively simple semi-quantitative technique, i.e. Read More

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February 2021