257 results match your criteria adhd-i adhd-c

Characterizing Underlying Cognitive Components of ADHD Presentations and Co-morbid Diagnoses: A Diffusion Decision Model Analysis.

J Atten Disord 2021 Jun 4:10870547211020087. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

University of North Carolina at Asheville, USA.

Objective: To Explore whether subtypes and comorbidities of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) induce distinct biases in cognitive components involved in information processing.

Method: Performance on the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test (IVA-CPT) was compared between 150 children (aged 7 to 10) with ADHD, grouped by DSM-5 presentation (ADHD-C, ADHD-I) or co-morbid diagnoses (anxiety, oppositional defiant disorder [ODD], both, neither), and 60 children without ADHD. Diffusion decision modeling decomposed performance into cognitive components. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

No support for white matter connectivity differences in the combined and inattentive ADHD presentations.

PLoS One 2021 5;16(5):e0245028. Epub 2021 May 5.

The Brain Dynamics Centre, Westmead Institute for Medical Research, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Evidence from functional neuroimaging studies support neural differences between the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) presentation types. It remains unclear if these neural deficits also manifest at the structural level. We have previously shown that the ADHD combined, and ADHD inattentive types demonstrate differences in graph properties of structural covariance suggesting an underlying difference in neuroanatomical organization. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Clinical presentations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents: comparison of neurocognitive performance.

Child Neuropsychol 2021 Apr 30:1-30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychobiology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

This study aimed to compare performance in working memory (WM), processing speed (PRS), and attention measures in children and adolescents with typical development (TD) and with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (inattentive [ADHD-I] or combined [ADHD-C]) presentations, and to determine the predictive ability of the measures mentioned to discriminate between ADHD presentations and TD. 260 children and adolescents, 138 with ADHD (70 ADHD-I and 68 ADHD-C) and 122 TD in two age cohorts (8-12 years; 13-16 years), were assessed with WM and PRS indexes of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) and the d2 attention test. Significant differences between ADHD and TD groups in the WISC-IV GAI scores were found in children but not in adolescents. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Disentangling ADHD's Presentation-Related Decision-Making-A Meta-Analytic Approach on Predominant Presentations.

Front Psychiatry 2021 18;12:519840. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Deficient decision-making (DM) in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is marked by altered reward sensitivity, higher risk taking, and aberrant reinforcement learning. Previous meta-analysis aggregate findings for the ADHD combined presentation (ADHD-C) mostly, while the ADHD predominantly inattentive presentation (ADHD-I) and the predominantly hyperactive/impulsive presentation (ADHD-H) were not disentangled. The objectives of the current meta-analysis were to aggregate findings from DM for each presentation separately. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Asymmetry in Cortical and Subcortical Structures of the Brain in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2021 12;17:493-502. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

The National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders & Beijing Key Laboratory of Mental Disorders, Beijing Anding Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100088, People's Republic of China.

Background: Human cognitive and emotional functions are asymmetrical between the left and right hemispheres. In neuroimaging studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients, the absence of aberrant asymmetry might serve as a neuroanatomical marker of ADHD. However, few studies have estimated abnormalities in cortical and subcortical asymmetry in children and adolescents of different ADHD subtypes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Effects of the dopamine transporter gene on neuroimaging findings in different attention deficit hyperactivity disorder presentations.

Brain Imaging Behav 2021 Apr 20;15(2):1103-1114. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey.

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a phenotipically and neurobiologically heterogeneous disorder. Deficiencies at different levels in response inhibition, differences in dopamine transporter genotype (DAT1) and various symptomatic presentations contribute to ADHD heterogeneity. Integrating these three aspects into a functional neuroimaging research could help unreval specific neurobiological components of more phenotipically homogeneous groups of patients with ADHD. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Relationship between sluggish cognitive tempo and sleep, psychological, somatic, and cognitive problems and impairment in children with autism and children with ADHD.

Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry 2021 Apr 18;26(2):518-530. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Psychiatry, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA.

Sluggish cognitive tempo SCT) is a topic of renewed interest. Much remains to be learned about its association with symptoms and diagnoses that have received little research attention, particularly sleep disturbance, somatic complaints, and autism. Our study is the first to explore the relationship between SCT and sleep, internalizing, externalizing, somatic, and cognitive problems, impairment, and demographics in large samples of children with autism, ADHD-Combined, and ADHD-Inattentive. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Efficacy and safety of guanfacine extended-release in Japanese adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Exploratory post hoc subgroup analyses of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

Neuropsychopharmacol Rep 2021 03 10;41(1):26-39. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Department of Psychiatry, Showa University, School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Aim: Previously, we reported on the efficacy and safety of guanfacine extended-release (GXR) in Japanese adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from a phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. In this exploratory post hoc analysis, we assessed the efficacy and/or safety of GXR in the following subgroups: ADHD-combined (ADHD-C) and ADHD-predominantly inattentive (ADHD-I) subtypes, age (≥31, <31 years), sex (male, female), and body weight (≥50, <50 kg).

Methods: The primary efficacy endpoint was change from baseline in the Japanese version of the investigator-rated ADHD-Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS-IV) with adult prompts (total scores) at week 10. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

ADHD subtype-specific cognitive correlates and association with self-esteem: a quantitative difference.

BMC Psychiatry 2020 10 12;20(1):502. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Psychology and Neurosciences, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, Dortmund, Germany.

Background: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a major neurodevelopmental disorder with heterogeneous symptoms, subtypes, and cognitive deficits. Cognitive deficits are central to ADHD pathophysiology and one potential source of heterogeneity in ADHD. Subtype-specific cognitive correlates are not, however, well-studied. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2020

Discrimination of ADHD Subtypes Using Decision Tree on Behavioral, Neuropsychological, and Neural Markers.

Basic Clin Neurosci 2020 May-Jun;11(3):359-367. Epub 2020 May 1.

Institute for Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a well-known neurodevelopmental disorder. Diagnosis and treatment of ADHD can often lead to a developmental trajectory toward positive results. The present study aimed at implementing the decision tree method to recognize children with and without ADHD, as well as ADHD subtypes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Aberrant functional connectivity in resting state networks of ADHD patients revealed by independent component analysis.

BMC Neurosci 2020 09 18;21(1):39. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Medical Engineering and Technology Research Center, Shandong First Medical University and Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Taian, 271016, China.

Background: ADHD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. Altered functional connectivity has been associated with ADHD symptoms. This study aimed to investigate abnormal changes in the functional connectivity of resting-state brain networks (RSNs) among adolescent patients with different subtypes of ADHD. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

Chromosome 20p Partial Duplication Identified in a Female Paediatric Patient with Characteristic Facial Dysmorphism and Behavioural Anomalies.

Case Rep Genet 2020 11;2020:7093409. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

The Kids Clinic, 300 Rossland Rd E, Suite 301, Ajax, ON L1Z 0M1, Canada.

Copy number variations (CNVs) involving the gene are rare and infrequently reported in the scientific literature. Recently, a generally healthy young patient presenting with a history of behavioural concerns was referred to us. Herein, we discuss the patient, a 7-year-old female possessing a 0. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A Systematic Review of Imaging Studies in the Combined and Inattentive Subtypes of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

Front Integr Neurosci 2020 24;14:31. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Brain Dynamics Centre, Westmead Institute for Medical Research, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Insights to underlying neural mechanisms in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have emerged from neuroimaging research; however, the neural mechanisms that distinguish ADHD subtypes remain inconclusive. We reviewed 19 studies integrating magnetic resonance imaging [MRI; structural (sMRI), diffusion, functional MRI (fMRI)] findings into a framework exploring pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the combined (ADHD-C) and predominantly inattentive (ADHD-I) ADHD subtypes. Despite equivocal structural MRI results, findings from fMRI and DTI imaging modalities consistently implicate disrupted connectivity in regions and tracts involving frontal striatal thalamic in ADHD-C and frontoparietal neural networks in ADHD-I. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Network Structure of Physical, Cognitive, and Emotional Symptoms at Preseason Baseline in Student Athletes with Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder.

Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Objective: Preexisting attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be a risk factor for worse outcome following sport-related concussion. We used a statistical and psychometric approach known as network analysis to examine the architecture of physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms at preseason baseline among student athletes with ADHD.

Method: A cohort of 44,527 adolescent student athletes completed baseline preseason testing with ImPACT® between 2009 and 2015. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Diagnostic Associations of Processing Speed in a Transdiagnostic, Pediatric Sample.

Sci Rep 2020 06 22;10(1):10114. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Center for the Developing Brain, Child Mind Institute, New York, New York, USA.

Introduction: The present study examines the relationships between processing speed (PS), mental health disorders, and learning disorders. Prior work has tended to explore relationships between PS deficits and specific diagnoses in isolation of one another. Here, we simultaneously investigated PS associations with five diagnoses (i. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Quality of Life in High-Dose Benzodiazepine and Related Z-Drug Users.

Eur Addict Res 2020 22;26(4-5):274-282. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy,

Background: Problematic high-dose benzodiazepine (BZD) and related Z-drug use for a long period is a substance use disorder previously found to be associated with adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and worse quality of life (QoL). Whether adult ADHD impacts QoL in high-dose BZD/Z-drug users has not been explored.

Aim: The aim of the study was to explore the impact of adult ADHD on QoL in high-dose BZD and related Z-drug users. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Spatiotemporal consistency analysis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder children.

Neurosci Lett 2020 08 26;734:135099. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Internal Neurology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, No.136 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400014, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To identify the local spatiotemporal consistency of spontaneous brain activity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) adolescents and its relation with clinical performance.

Materials And Methods: A cohort of 50 adolescents with ADHD-I or ADHD-C and a cohort of age- and gender- matched 46 typical development controls (TDC) were recruited from ADHD-200 dataset. FOur-dimensional (spatiotemporal) Consistency of local neural Activities (FOCA) metric was used to analyze the local spatiotemporal consistency, which integrating local temporal homogeneity and regional stability of brain activity states. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Initial Engagement in Oral Sex and Sexual Intercourse Among Adolescent Girls With and Without Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

Arch Sex Behav 2021 01 26;50(1):181-190. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Psychology, 2121 Berkeley Way West, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, 94704, USA.

We investigated initial engagement in oral sex and sexual intercourse, as well as number of sexual partners, among a prospectively followed sample of adolescent girls with and without a thorough childhood diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were adolescent girls (ages 12-19) followed longitudinally as part of a study of ADHD in females. A diverse sample of 140 girls with clinician-diagnosed ADHD (47 inattentive, 93 combined) and 88 age- and ethnicity-matched comparison girls were initially recruited and invited to partake in research summer programs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Symptom Level Associations Between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and School Performance.

Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2020 09 22;59(9-10):874-884. Epub 2020 May 22.

Vermont Department of Health, Burlington, VT, USA.

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with reduced school performance. To determine which ADHD symptoms and subtypes have the strongest association, we used type and frequency of symptoms on the 2014 National Survey of the Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD and Tourette Syndrome (NS-DATA) to create symptom scores for inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity and define subtypes (ADHD-Inattentive [ADHD-I], ADHD-Hyperactive-Impulsive, ADHD-Combined [ADHD-C]). Regression methods were used to examine associations between symptoms and subtype and a composite measure of school performance. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

Does behavioural inhibition system dysfunction contribute to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?

Personal Neurosci 2019 8;2:e5. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

Department Psychology, University of Otago, POB 56, Dunedin, New Zealand.

The Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of Personality has as its main foundation a Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS), defined by anxiolytic drugs, in which high trait sensitivity should lead to internalising, anxiety, disorders. Conversely, it has been suggested that low BIS sensitivity would be a characteristic of externalising disorders. BIS output should lead to increased arousal and attention as well as behavioural inhibition. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Association of maternal attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and preterm birth: a cohort study.

BJOG 2020 11 21;127(12):1480-1487. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Objective: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 3-7% of women of childbearing age. Whether ADHD is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth is unclear.

Design: National register-based cohort study. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

Epidemiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Ann Gen Psychiatry 2020 13;19:21. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Department of Psychiatry, Paulo's Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopmental disorders in childhood and adolescence, affecting 2.2 to 17.8% of all school-aged children and adolescents. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Do motor coordination and sleep difficulties predict peer functioning in children and adolescents with attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder after accounting for existing ADHD symptomology?

Br J Dev Psychol 2020 09 13;38(3):442-457. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service, Department of Health, Complex Attention and Hyperactivity Disorders (CAHDS), Perth, Western Australia, USA.

Children with attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are more likely to experience peer problems compared to their non-ADHD peers, though ADHD-specific symptoms only partially explain this association. This study examined whether sleep difficulties and motor coordination problems are additional predictors of peer problems in an ADHD population. An ADHD sample of 72 participants aged 6-14 years (M = 9. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

Sleep among presentations of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Analysis of objective and subjective measures.

Int J Clin Health Psychol 2020 Jan-Apr;20(1):54-61. Epub 2019 Oct 18.

Laboratorio del Sueño y Promoción de la Salud; Centro de Investigación, Mente, Cerebro y Comportamiento (CIMCYC), Universidad de Granada, España.

To examine subjective and objective sleep patterns in children with different Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) presentations.

Method: We assessed 92 children diagnosed with ADHD (29 ADHD-Inattentive [ADHD-I], 31 ADHD-Hyperactive/Impulsive [ADHD-H/I], and 32 ADHD-Combined [ADHD-C)]) aged 7-11 years. The Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ), Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS), and a sleep diary were used as subjective sleep measures, and polysomnography was used to objectively assess sleep quantity, quality, and fragmentation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2019

Multi-Source Interference Task paradigm to enhance automatic and controlled processes in ADHD.

Res Dev Disabil 2020 Feb 5;97:103542. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, Via Bivona, 98100, Messina, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: The role of automatic and controlled processes in children with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has recently been debated. Most theories on ADHD assume that core deficits are related to controlled processes and executive function.

Aims: The main aim of the present study is to examine automatic and controlled attention in children with ADHD, compared to TD subjects. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2020

Early life predictors of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptomatology profiles from early through middle childhood.

Dev Psychopathol 2020 08;32(3):791-802

Department of Applied Psychology, New York University, New York, NY, USA.

This study used repeated measures data to identify developmental profiles of elevated risk for ADHD (i.e., six or more inattentive and/or hyperactive-impulsive symptoms), with an interest in the age at which ADHD risk first emerged. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Learning Disorder Confers Setting-Specific Treatment Resistance for Children with ADHD, Predominantly Inattentive Presentation.

J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 2020 Nov-Dec;49(6):854-867. Epub 2019 Aug 21.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California , San Francisco.

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder-predominantly inattentive presentation (ADHD-I) and specific learning disorder (SLD) are commonly co-occurring conditions. Despite the considerable diagnostic overlap, the effect of SLD comorbidity on outcomes of behavioral interventions for ADHD-I remains critically understudied. The current study examines the effect of reading or math SLD comorbidity in 35 children with comorbid ADHD-I+SLD and 39 children with ADHD-I only following a behavioral treatment integrated across home and school (Child Life and Attention Skills [CLAS]). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with epilepsy.

Ir J Med Sci 2020 Feb 11;189(1):305-313. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Department of Neurology, Tongji Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1095 Jie Fang Avenue, Wuhan, 430030, China.

Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common comorbidity of childhood epilepsy. ADHD symptoms in children with epilepsy have been studied since 1970s in western countries. However, relative studies are still rather limited in China. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2020

Differential Efficacy of Neurofeedback in Children with ADHD Presentations.

J Clin Med 2019 Feb 7;8(2). Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Psychology, University of Oviedo, Plaza Feijoo s/n, 33003 Oviedo (Asturias), Spain.

Training in neurofeedback (NF) reduces the symptomatology associated with attention deficit with hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, ADHD differs in terms of the type of presentation, i.e. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2019