BMC Womens Health 2021 Apr 27;21(1):181. Epub 2021 Apr 27.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of General Gynecology and Gynecologic Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090, Vienna, Austria.
Background: Due to the scarcity of adequately powered, randomized controlled trials and internationally standardized diagnostic criteria, evidence on the diagnosis and treatment of pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS) is limited. Earlier epidemiologic observations led to the attribution of PCS to the premenopausal state, and a remission of symptoms after menopause is frequently described a hallmark of the pathology. This concept has currently been challenged by radiological studies reporting a notable prevalence of ovarian venous congestion in adult female patients of advanced age. Read More