431 results match your criteria adding margin

Dosimetric evaluation of different planning techniques based on flattening filter-free beams for central and peripheral lung stereotactic body radiotherapy.

Biomed Phys Eng Express 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Radiotherapy, Government Medical College Patiala, Sangrur Road, Patiala, Punjab, 147001, INDIA.

This study aimed to dosimetrically compare and evaluate the flattening filter-free (FFF) photon beam-based three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for lungstereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). RANDO phantom computed tomography (CT) images were used for treatment planning. Gross tumor volumes (GTVs) were delineated in the central and peripheral lung locations. Read More

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October 2021

Proton therapy for early breast cancer patients in the DBCG proton trial: planning, adaptation, and clinical experience from the first 43 patients.

Acta Oncol 2021 Oct 10:1-8. Epub 2021 Oct 10.

Danish Centre for Particle Therapy, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Background: The Danish Breast Cancer Group (DBCG) Proton Trial randomizes breast cancer patients selected on high mean heart dose (MHD) or high lung dose (V20Gy/V17Gy) in the photon plan between photon and proton therapy. This study presents the proton plans and adaptation strategy for the first 43 breast cancer patients treated with protons in Denmark.

Material And Methods: Forty-four proton plans (one patient with bilateral cancer) were included; 2 local and 42 loco-regional including internal mammary nodes (IMN). Read More

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October 2021

A Volumetric and Morphological Analysis of Recurrent Odontogenic Keratocysts by Semiautomatic Segmentation.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department for Oral and Craniomaxillofacial and Plastic Surgery, University Hospital Cologne and Faculty of Medicine, University of Cologne, Germany.

Purpose: The authors conducted this study to provide morphological and volumetric data of recurrent odontogenic keratocysts of the upper and lower jaw to emphasize risk factors in accordance with their radiological appearance and guide clinical decisions for jeopardized patients.

Methods: By applying the open-source software "ITK-Snap" on cone-beam computed tomography images, volumetric measurements of histopathologically diagnosed recurrent odontogenic keratocysts could be performed. For statistical investigations, descriptive statistics and independent Student t test were performed. Read More

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September 2021

Effect of abdominal compression on target movement and extension of the external boundary of peripheral lung tumours treated with stereotactic radiotherapy based on four-dimensional computed tomography.

Radiat Oncol 2021 Sep 7;16(1):173. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Shandong First Medical University and Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, 440 Jiyan Road, Jinan, 250117, Shandong Province, China.

Background: This study aimed to investigate the effect of abdominal compression on tumour motion and target volume and to determine suitable planning target volume (PTV) margins for patients treated with lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) based on four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT).

Methods: Twenty-three patients diagnosed to have a peripheral pulmonary tumour were selected and divided into an all lesions group (group A), an upper middle lobe lesions group (group B), and a lower lobe lesions group (group C). Two 4DCT scans were performed in each patient, one with and one without abdominal compression. Read More

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September 2021

Value of precontrast and portal venous phases for evaluating atypical hepatocellular carcinoma mimicking arterioportal shunt.

Eur J Radiol 2021 Oct 26;143:109933. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Radiology, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: To evaluate the value of precontrast phase (PP) and portal venous phase (PVP) for differentiation of small hypervascular hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) without delayed washout from arterioportal (AP) shunts in high-risk patients of HCC.

Methods: A total of 122 lesions (73 AP shunts and 49 HCCs) detected on quadriphasic CT in 101 patients with chronic liver disease were analyzed. All lesions (≤2 cm) showed arterial enhancement and isodensity on delayed phase (DP) with exclusion of typical features of AP shunts. Read More

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October 2021

Intra-arterial chemoembolization with chemotherapy for unresectable locally advanced rectal cancer: a case report and literature review.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Aug;10(8):9281-9287

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Yongchuan Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Preoperative intra-arterial chemoembolization has been successfully applied in many malignant tumors but is rarely reported in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Herein we report a 69-year-old female diagnosed as rectal adenocarcinoma by endoscopic biopsy and the clinical stage was cT4aN2M0, IIIB. After computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations, the neoplasm was considered unresectable. Read More

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Cost-effectiveness of adding a non-invasive acoustic rule-out test in the evaluation of patients with symptoms suggestive of coronary artery disease: rationale and design of the prospective, randomised, controlled, parallel-group multicenter FILTER-SCAD trial.

BMJ Open 2021 08 23;11(8):e049380. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Cardiology, Bispebjerg Frederiksberg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Introduction: Most patients with symptoms suggestive of chronic coronary syndrome (CCS) have no obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) and better selection of patients to be referred for diagnostic tests is needed. The CAD-score is a non-invasive acoustic measure that, when added to pretest probability of CAD, has shown good rule-out capabilities. We aimed to test whether implementation of CAD-score in clinical practice reduces the use of diagnostic tests without increasing major adverse cardiac events (MACE) rates in patients with suspected CCS. Read More

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Metformin with neoadjuvant chemoradiation to improve pathologic response in rectal cancer: A pilot phase I/II trial.

Clin Transl Radiat Oncol 2021 Sep 22;30:60-64. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose: Neoadjuvant radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy decreases the risk of local recurrence after surgery for rectal cancer. Emerging data suggest that diabetic patients on metformin may have improved cancer outcome after radiotherapy. A single institutional pilot study was performed to determine if metformin given concurrently with long course chemoradiation (CRT) may improve pathologic complete response (pCR) in non-diabetic rectal cancer patients. Read More

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September 2021

Bending and Shear Behaviour of Waste Rubber Concrete-Filled FRP Tubes with External Flanges.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Jul 29;13(15). Epub 2021 Jul 29.

University of Southern Queensland, Centre for Future Materials (CFM), Toowoomba, QLD 4350, Australia.

An innovative beam concept made from hollow FRP tube with external flanges and filled with crumbed rubber concrete was investigated with respect to bending and shear. The performance of the rubberised-concrete-filled specimens was then compared with hollow and normal-concrete-filled tubes. A comparison between flanged and non-flanged hollow and concrete-filled tubes was also implemented. Read More

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Sedimentary pyrite sulfur isotopes track the local dynamics of the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone.

Nat Commun 2021 07 20;12(1):4403. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

Sulfur cycling is ubiquitous in sedimentary environments, where it mediates organic carbon remineralization, impacting both local and global redox budgets, and leaving an imprint in pyrite sulfur isotope ratios (δS). It is unclear to what extent stratigraphic δS variations reflect local aspects of the depositional environment or microbial activity versus global sulfur-cycle variations. Here, we couple carbon-nitrogen-sulfur concentrations and stable isotopes to identify clear influences on δS of local environmental changes along the Peru margin. Read More

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Primary melanoma of the anorectal region: clinical and histopathological review of 17 cases. A retrospective cohort study.

Colorectal Dis 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Abdominal and General Surgery and Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Vilnius, Lithuania.

Aim: The aim of our study was to scrutinize diagnostic and treatment factors that may contribute to the low survival rate from anorectal melanoma while adding 17 more cases to the global research database.

Method: We carried out a retrospective analysis of 17 cases of anorectal melanoma treated at a single institution from 2000 to 2020. Data on patient age, sex, complaints, treatment and survival as well as tumour size, resection margins, histological and immunohistochemical features were assessed. Read More

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MRI-based radiomics models to assess prostate cancer, extracapsular extension and positive surgical margins.

Cancer Imaging 2021 Jul 5;21(1):46. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of SooChow University, No.188, Shizi St, Canglang District, 215006, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China.

Purpose: To investigate the performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based radiomics models for benign and malignant prostate lesion discrimination and extracapsular extension (ECE) and positive surgical margins (PSM) prediction.

Methods And Materials: In total, 459 patients who underwent multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) before prostate biopsy were included. Radiomic features were extracted from both T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Read More

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NRG-HN003: Phase I and Expansion Cohort Study of Adjuvant Pembrolizumab, Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy in Pathologically High-Risk Head and Neck Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jun 9;13(12). Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

The anti-PD1 monoclonal antibody pembrolizumab improves survival in recurrent/metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Patients with locoregional, pathologically high-risk HNSCC recur frequently despite adjuvant cisplatin-radiation therapy (CRT). Targeting PD1 may reverse immunosuppression induced by HNSCC and CRT. Read More

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Clinical utility of subclassifying positive surgical margins at radical prostatectomy.

BJU Int 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Objective: To determine whether subclassification of positive surgical margins (PSMs) increases predictive ability for biochemical recurrence (BCR) and aids clinical decision-making in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy.

Patients And Methods: We studied 2147 patients with pT2 and pT3a prostate cancer with detailed surgical margin parameters and BCR status. We compared a base model, a linear predictor calculated from the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center postoperative nomogram (prostate-specific antigen, pathological tumour grade and stage), with the addition of surgical margin status to five additional models (base model plus surgical margin subclassifications) to evaluate enhancement in predictive accuracy. Read More

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A Prospective, Phase I/II, Open-Label Pilot Trial to Assess the Safety of Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy After Oncological Resection of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of General, Visceral and Transplant Surgery, University Hospital Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Background: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a common fatal disease with unfavorable prognosis, even after oncological resection. To improve survival, adding hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has been suggested. Whether HIPEC entails disproportional short-term mortality is unknown and a prospectively determined adverse events profile is lacking. Read More

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Neoadjuvant Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin Before Concurrent Capecitabine and Radiation in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancers: Experience of a Cancer Hospital in Pakistan.

JCO Glob Oncol 2021 05;7:790-796

Clinical and Radiation Oncology Department, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, Pakistan.

Purpose: To report the toxicity and pathologic response rates after adding neoadjuvant capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CAPOX) followed by concurrent radiation and capecitabine (CAPRT) and surgery in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively analyzed medical records of 301 patients between January 2007 and December 2014. Patients were treated with four cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy comprising CAPOX, followed by radiotherapy at doses of 45-54 Gy in 25-30 fractions with concurrent capecitabine. Read More

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A Nomogram for Predicting Lymphovascular Invasion in Superficial Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Front Oncol 2021 10;11:663802. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Endoscopy, Cancer Hospital of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Zhejiang Cancer Hospital), Institute of Cancer and Basic Medicine (IBMC), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hangzhou, China.

The lymphovascular invasion (LVI) status facilitates the determination of the optimal therapeutic strategy for superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SESCC), but in clinical practice, LVI must be confirmed by postoperative pathology. However, studies of the risk factors for LVI in SESCC are limited. Consequently, this study aimed to identify the risk factors for LVI and use these factors to establish a prediction model. Read More

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Lesion synthesis to improve intracranial hemorrhage detection and classification for CT images.

Comput Med Imaging Graph 2021 06 6;90:101929. Epub 2021 May 6.

Ping An Technology (Shenzhen) Co., Ltd., Shanghai 200000, China. Electronic address:

Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) for intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is needed due to its high mortality rate and time sensitivity. Training a stable and robust deep learning-based model usually requires enough training examples, which may be impractical in many real-world scenarios. Lesion synthesis offers a possible solution to solve this problem, especially for the issue of the lack of micro bleedings. Read More

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Infant formula containing bovine milk-derived oligosaccharides supports age-appropriate growth and improves stooling pattern.

Pediatr Res 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Nestlé Product Technology Center - Nutrition, Société des Produits Nestlé S.A., Vevey, Switzerland.

Background: Adding bovine milk-derived oligosaccharides (MOS) enhances the oligosaccharide profile of infant formula. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a MOS-supplemented infant formula.

Methods: In this double-blind randomized controlled trial, healthy infants 21-26 days old were either assigned to bovine milk-based, alpha-lactalbumin, and sn-2 palmitate enriched infant formula (control, n = 115) or the same formula with 7. Read More

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Induction versus no induction chemotherapy before neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery in oesophageal adenocarcinoma: a multicentre randomised phase II trial (NCCTG N0849 [Alliance]).

Eur J Cancer 2021 06 29;150:214-223. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Aim: report primary results from the first multicentre randomised trial evaluating induction chemotherapy prior to trimodality therapy in patients with oesophageal or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. Notably, recent data from a single-institution randomised trial reported that induction chemotherapy prolonged overall survival (OS) in patients with well/moderately differentiated tumours.

Methods: In this phase 2 trial (28 centres in the U. Read More

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A Risk Score Model for Locoregional Recurrence Following Upfront Surgery for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Implications for Adjuvant Therapy.

Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2021 08 17;33(8):527-535. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Princess Margaret Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Toronto, Canada. Electronic address:

Aims: The aims of the study were to identify predictors of locoregional failure (LRF) following surgery for pancreatic adenocarcinoma, develop a prediction risk score model of LRF and evaluate the impact of postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) on LRF.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective review was conducted on patients with stages I-III pancreatic adenocarcinoma who underwent surgery at our institution (2005-2016). Univariable and then multivariable analyses were used to evaluate clinicopathological factors associated with LRF for patients who did not receive PORT. Read More

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Taenia-tela choroidea complex and choroid plexus location help distinguish Dandy-Walker malformation and Blake pouch cysts.

Pediatr Radiol 2021 Jul 30;51(8):1457-1470. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Prenatal Pediatrics Institute, Children's National Hospital, Washington, DC, USA.

Background: Dandy-Walker malformation and Blake pouch cysts can have overlapping imaging features. The choroid plexus and associated taenia-tela choroidea complex are displaced inferolaterally in Dandy-Walker malformation and below the vermis in Blake pouch cysts.

Objective: To determine the normal fetal and postnatal MR appearance of the choroid plexus and taenia-tela choroidea complex, and whether their location can help distinguish Dandy-Walker malformation from Blake pouch cysts. Read More

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The Articulated Oral Airway as an aid to mask ventilation: a prospective, randomized, interventional, non-inferiority study.

BMC Anesthesiol 2021 03 29;21(1):94. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Resident in Anesthesiology, Department of Anesthesia, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Background: Oropharyngeal airways are used both to facilitate airway patency during mask ventilation as well as conduits for flexible scope intubation, though none excel at both. A novel device, the Articulated Oral Airway (AOA), is designed to facilitate flexible scope intubation by active displacement of the tongue. Whether this active tongue displacement also facilitates mask ventilation, thus adding dual functionality, is unknown. Read More

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Survival impact on triple-modal strategy comprising hyperthermia, external radiation, and chemotherapy for unresectable locally advanced (UR-LA) pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Surg Oncol 2021 Jun 13;37:101542. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

Background: Present treatment strategy for unresectable locally advanced (UR-LA) pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients is controversial. Hence, a triple-modal therapy, which is a multidisciplinary strategy, was designed for patients with UR-LA PDAC by adding hyperthermia to conventional chemoradiotherapy at our institution. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of this strategy. Read More

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Lung Lesion Localization of COVID-19 From Chest CT Image: A Novel Weakly Supervised Learning Method.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2021 06 3;25(6):1864-1872. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Chest computed tomography (CT) image data is necessary for early diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Artificial intelligence has been tried to help clinicians in improving the diagnostic accuracy and working efficiency of CT. Whereas, existing supervised approaches on CT image of COVID-19 pneumonia require voxel-based annotations for training, which take a lot of time and effort. Read More

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Observational study of cone beam computed tomography based interfractional urinary bladder filling variation during image guided radiation therapy in pelvic malignancies.

J Cancer Res Ther 2021 Jan-Mar;17(1):152-156

Department of Radiation Oncology, Max Super Specialty Hospital, Vaishali, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Background: Organ motion is an important factor that limits the precision of radiation treatment. Bladder filling variation has significant impact on the position of target volumes in pelvic malignancies.

Aims And Objective: This study was an effort to maintain a consistent urinary bladder volume after following a bladder protocol, which was then analyzed by in-room cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. Read More

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Post-Operative Accelerated-Hypofractionated Chemoradiation With Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy and Simultaneous Integrated Boost in Glioblastoma: A Phase I Study (ISIDE-BT-2).

Front Oncol 2020 22;10:626400. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Radiation Oncology Unit, Gemelli Molise Hospital - Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Campobasso, Italy.

Background: Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain cancer and one of the most lethal tumors. Theoretically, modern radiotherapy (RT) techniques allow dose-escalation due to the reduced irradiation of healthy tissues. This study aimed to define the adjuvant maximum tolerated dose (MTD) using volumetric modulated arc RT with simultaneous integrated boost (VMAT-SIB) plus standard dose temozolomide (TMZ) in GBM. Read More

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February 2021

Use of ultrasound fetal shoulder soft tissue thickness measurement in estimation of fetal weight.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2021 May 1;47(5):1727-1734. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Koc University School of Medicine, Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Istanbul, Turkey.

Aims: Birth weight (BW) estimation with ultrasound is of great importance in delivery decision and management of complications of delivery. The aim was to evaluate the effect of femur, humerus, and clavicular soft tissue thickness on BW and developed a formula for proper estimation of fetal weight.

Methods: This prospective cohort study, included 231singleton pregnancies, with 34 and 42 weeks of gestation, delivered within 48 h after ultrasound examination. Read More

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Improving the Usability of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Fluorescence-Guided Surgery by Adding an Optimized Secondary Light Source.

World Neurosurg 2021 05 13;149:195-203.e4. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Department of Surgery, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon.

Background: Tumors that take up and metabolize 5-aminolevulinic acid emit bright pink fluorescence when illuminated with blue light, aiding surgeons in identifying the margin of resection. The adoption of this method is hindered by the blue light illumination, which is too dim to safely operate under and therefore necessitates switching back and forth from white-light mode. The aim of this study was to examine the addition of an optimized secondary illuminant adapter to improve usability of blue-light mode without degrading tumor contrast. Read More

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Cumulative GRAS Score as a Predictor of Survival After Resection for Adrenocortical Carcinoma: Analysis From the U.S. Adrenocortical Carcinoma Database.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Oct 14;28(11):6551-6561. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Department of Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

Background: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare but aggressive malignancy, and many prognostic factors that influence survival remain undefined. Individually, the GRAS (Grade, Resection status, Age, and Symptoms of hormone hypersecretion) parameters have demonstrated their prognostic value in ACC. This study aimed to assess the value of a cumulative GRAS score as a prognostic indicator after ACC resection. Read More

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October 2021