40,663 results match your criteria adaptive immune

The heterogeneity of megakaryocytes and platelets and implications for ex vivo platelet generation.

Stem Cells Transl Med 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, National Clinical Research Center for Blood Diseases, Institute of Hematology and Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, People's Republic of China.

Platelets, the chief effector of hemostasis, are small anucleate blood cells generated from megakaryocytes (MKs), and the defects in platelet production or function lead to a variety of bleeding complications. Emerging evidence indicates that MKs and platelets are much more diverse than previously appreciated and involved in many physiological and pathological processes besides hemostasis, such as innate and adaptive immune responses, angiogenesis, and tumor metastasis, while the ontogenic variations in MK and platelet function have also become a focus in the field. However, whether MKs and platelets fulfill these distinct functions by utilizing distinct subpopulations remains poorly understood. Read More

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September 2021

Immunotherapy and Prevention of Cancer by Nanovaccines Loaded with Whole-Cell Components of Tumor Tissues or Cells.

Adv Mater 2021 Sep 18:e2104849. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, P. R. China.

Tumor tissues/cells are the best sources of antigens to prepare cancer vaccines. However, due to the difficulty of solubilization and delivery of water-insoluble antigens in tumor tissues/cells, including water-insoluble antigens into cancer vaccines and delivering such vaccines efficiently to antigen-presenting cells (APCs) remain challenging. To solve these problems, herein, water-insoluble components of tumor tissues/cells are solubilized by 8 m urea and thus whole components of macrometer-sized tumor cells are reasssembled into nanosized nanovaccines. Read More

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September 2021

Peptide Presentations of Marsupial MHC Class I Visualize Immune Features of Lower Mammals Paralleled with Bats.

J Immunol 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

School of Laboratory Medicine and Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China;

Marsupials are one of three major mammalian lineages that include the placental eutherians and the egg-laying monotremes. The marsupial brushtail possum is an important protected species in the Australian forest ecosystem. Molecules encoded by the MHC genes are essential mediators of adaptive immune responses in virus-host interactions. Read More

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September 2021

Immunodominance complexity: lessons yet to be learned from dominant T cell responses to SARS-COV-2.

Curr Opin Virol 2021 Sep 8;50:183-191. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

MRC Human Immunology Unit, MRC Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford, OX3 9DS, UK; Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) Oxford Institute, Nuffield Department of Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford, OX3 7BN, UK. Electronic address:

Immunodominance is a complex and highly debated topic of T cell biology. The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has provided the opportunity to profile adaptive immune responses and determine molecular factors contributing to emerging responses towards immunodominant viral epitopes. Here, we discuss parameters that alter the dynamics of CD8 viral epitope processing, generation and T-cell responses, and how immunodominance counteracts viral immune escape mechanisms that develop in the context of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. Read More

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September 2021

Crosstalk between estrogen, dendritic cells, and SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Rev Med Virol 2021 Sep 17:e2290. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Faculty of Pharmacy-FFUC, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) first appeared in Wuhan and has so far killed more than four million people worldwide. Men are more affected than women by Covid-19, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms behind these differences are largely unknown. One plausible explanation is that differences in sex hormones could partially account for this distinct prevalence in both sexes. Read More

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September 2021

Immune Profiling Demonstrates a Common Immune Signature of Delayed Acquired Immunodeficiency in Patients With Various Etiologies of Severe Injury.

Crit Care Med 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Pathophysiology of Injury-Induced Immunosuppression (Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Hospices Civils de Lyon - bioMérieux), Joint Research Unit HCL-bioMérieux, Immunology Laboratory & Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine Department, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Lyon, France. BIOASTER, Lyon, France. Sanofi Pasteur, Marcy l'Etoile, France. GSK, GSK Medicines Research Centre, Stevenage, United Kingdom. Laboratoire de Biochimie (LBC), ESPCI Paris, PSL Université, CNRS UMR8231, Paris, France.

Objectives: The host response plays a central role in the pathophysiology of sepsis and severe injuries. So far, no study has comprehensively described the overtime changes of the injury-induced immune profile in a large cohort of critically ill patients with different etiologies.

Design: Prospective observational cohort study. Read More

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September 2021

The Detrimental Role of Regulatory T Cells in Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis.

Hepatol Commun 2021 Aug 25. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Endocrinology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is induced by steatosis and metabolic inflammation. While involvement of the innate immune response has been shown, the role of the adaptive immune response in NASH remains controversial. Likewise, the role of regulatory T cells (Treg) in NASH remains unclear although initial clinical trials aim to target these regulatory responses. Read More

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The Immunomodulatory Properties of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Play a Critical Role in Inducing Immune Tolerance after Liver Transplantation.

Stem Cells Int 2021 4;2021:6930263. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Key Laboratory of Minimally Invasive Techniques & Rapid Rehabilitation of Digestive System Tumor of Zhejiang Province, Taizhou Hospital Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical University, Linhai, Zhejiang, China.

Although liver transplantation is considered to be the best choice for patients with end-stage liver diseases, postoperative immune rejection still cannot be overlooked. Patients with liver transplantation have to take immunosuppressive drugs for a long time or even their entire lives, in which heavy economic burden and side effects caused by the drugs have become the major impediment for liver transplantation. There is a growing body of evidences indicating that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation, a promising tool in regenerative medicine, can be used as an effective way to induce immune tolerance after liver transplantation based on their huge expansion potential and unique immunomodulatory properties. Read More

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September 2021

Obesity Enhances Disease Severity in Female Mice Following West Nile Virus Infection.

Front Immunol 2021 31;12:739025. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO, United States.

A rise in adiposity in the United States has resulted in more than 70% of adults being overweight or obese, and global obesity rates have tripled since 1975. Following the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, obesity was characterized as a risk factor that could predict severe infection outcomes to viral infection. Amidst the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, obesity has remained a significant risk factor for severe viral disease as obese patients have a higher likelihood for developing severe symptoms and requiring hospitalization. Read More

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Systemic Inflammation Associates With a Myeloid Inflamed Tumor Microenvironment in Primary Resected Colon Cancer-May Cold Tumors Simply Be Too Hot?

Front Immunol 2021 31;12:716342. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Pathology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Systemic inflammation measured by the acute-phase protein CRP associates with poor outcome across cancer types. In contrast, local tumor-associated inflammation, primarily evaluated by T-lymphocytes, correlates with favorable prognosis. Yet, little is known whether these two responses are related or opposing processes and why elevated CRP in relation to cancer is detrimental for clinical outcome. Read More

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Single-cell approaches to dissect adaptive immune responses involved in autoimmunity: the case of celiac disease.

Mucosal Immunol 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

KG Jebsen Coeliac Disease Research Centre, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Single-cell analysis is a powerful technology that has found widespread use in recent years. For diseases with involvement of adaptive immunity, single-cell analysis of antigen-specific T cells and B cells is particularly informative. In autoimmune diseases, the adaptive immune system is obviously at play, yet the ability to identify the culprit T and B cells recognizing disease-relevant antigen can be difficult. Read More

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September 2021

Association of HLA genotypes, AB0 blood type and chemokine receptor 5 mutant CD195 with the clinical course of COVID-19.

Eur J Med Res 2021 Sep 16;26(1):107. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Medical Faculty, University of Dusseldorf, Dusseldorf, Germany.

Background: COVID-19, the pandemic disease caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2, may take highly variable clinical courses, ranging from symptom-free and pauci-symptomatic to fatal disease. The goal of the current study was to assess the association of COVID-19 clinical courses controlled by patients' adaptive immune responses without progression to severe disease with patients' Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) genetics, AB0 blood group antigens, and the presence or absence of near-loss-of-function delta 32 deletion mutant of the C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5).

Patient And Methods: An exploratory observational study including 157 adult COVID-19 convalescent patients was performed with a median follow-up of 250 days. Read More

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September 2021

Repeated exposure to inactivated Streptococcus pneumoniae induces asthma-like pathological changes in mice in the presence of IL-33.

Cell Immunol 2021 Sep 13;369:104438. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

While environmental aeroallergens and epithelial alarmins such as IL-33 are firmly implicated in asthma, the possible role of Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) antigens is less clear. To explore this, wild-type BALB/c mice were repeatedly challenged per-nasally with IL-33 and inactivated S. Read More

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September 2021

Accelerated immunosenescence, oxidation and inflammation lead to a higher biological age in COPD patients.

Exp Gerontol 2021 Sep 13;154:111551. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Genetics, Physiology and Microbiology (Animal Physiology Unit), Faculty of Biology, Complutense University of Madrid (UCM), Madrid, Spain; Institute of Investigation Hospital 12 Octubre, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by inflammatory and oxidative alterations in the lung and extrapulmonary compartments, through involvement of the immune system. Several leukocyte functions are health markers and good predictors of longevity, and high pro-inflammatory and oxidative states are related to more aged profiles. Here, we aimed to investigate the aging rate in terms of immunosenescence in COPD men with respect to healthy age-matched controls. Read More

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September 2021

Alterations of gut microbiota and metabolome with Parkinson's disease.

Microb Pathog 2021 Sep 13:105187. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150080, Heilongjiang Province, China. Electronic address:

Gut microbiota and amino acids that are one of their metabolites play important roles in the mechanism of pathology of Parkinson's disease (PD). It has been reported that the level of amino acids in vivo participate in neurodegeneration by regulating adaptive immune response, while the current researches on alteration of amino acids in gut microbiota are still insufficient. We hypothesized that alterations in gut microbiota might be accompanied by altered concentrations of amino acids, leading to the occurrence of PD. Read More

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September 2021

Decoding the Pro-regenerative Competence of Regulatory T cells (Treg) through Complex Tissue Regeneration in Zebrafish.

Clin Exp Immunol 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

S. N. Pradhan Centre for Neurosciences, University of Calcutta, 35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata, 700019, India.

Regulatory T (Treg) cells are specific subtypes of T cells that play a central role in sustaining self-antigen tolerance and restricting inflammatory tissue damage. More recently, additional direct functions of Tregs in mammalian tissue repair have emerged, but the regenerative potential of Tregs in non-mammalian vertebrates has not been explored despite the latter possessing a highly developed adaptive immune system. Why do complex organs such as the caudal fin, heart, brain, spinal cord, and retina regenerate in certain non-mammalian vertebrates, but not in mammals, is an interesting but unresolved question in the field of regenerative biology. Read More

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September 2021

Increased Blood Monocytic Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells but Low Regulatory T Lymphocytes in Patients with Mild COVID-19.

Viral Immunol 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and Immunology, School of Medicine, Clinical Biochemistry Service, Virgen Macarena University Hospital, University of Seville, Seville, Spain.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may produce a systemic disease, the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), with high morbidity and mortality. Even though we do not fully understand the interaction of innate and adaptive immunity in the control and complications of the viral infection, it is well recognized that SARS-CoV-2 induces an immunodepression that impairs the elimination of the virus and favors its rapid dissemination in the organism. Even less is known about the possible participation of inhibitory cells of the innate immune system, such as the myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), or the adaptive immune system, such as the T regulatory cells (Tregs). Read More

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September 2021

The adaptive immune system is a major driver of selection for tumor suppressor gene inactivation.

Science 2021 09 16;373(6561):1327-1335. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

[Figure: see text]. Read More

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September 2021

Population structure, genetic connectivity, and signatures of local adaptation of the giant black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) throughout the Indo-Pacific Region.

Genome Biol Evol 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Australian Research Council Industrial Transformation Research Hub for Advanced Prawn Breeding, College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville, 4811, Australia.

The giant black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is native to the Indo-Pacific and is the second most farmed penaeid shrimp species globally. Understanding genetic structure, connectivity, and local adaptation among Indo-Pacific black tiger shrimp populations is important for informing sustainable fisheries management and aquaculture breeding programs. Population genetic and outlier detection analyses were undertaken using 10,593 genome-wide SNPs from 16 geographically disparate Indo-Pacific P. Read More

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September 2021

Long non-coding RNAs associated with infection and vaccine-induced immunity.

Essays Biochem 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analyses, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

The immune system responds to infection or vaccination through a dynamic and complex process that involves several molecular and cellular factors. Among these factors, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as significant players in all areas of biology, particularly in immunology. Most of the mammalian genome is transcribed in a highly regulated manner, generating a diversity of lncRNAs that impact the differentiation and activation of immune cells and affect innate and adaptive immunity. Read More

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September 2021

Local adaptation and archaic introgression shape global diversity at human structural variant loci.

Elife 2021 Sep 16;10. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, United States.

Large genomic insertions and deletions are a potent source of functional variation, but are challenging to resolve with short-read sequencing, limiting knowledge of the role of such structural variants (SVs) in human evolution. Here, we used a graph-based method to genotype long-read-discovered SVs in short-read data from diverse human genomes. We then applied an admixture-aware method to identify 220 SVs exhibiting extreme patterns of frequency differentiation-a signature of local adaptation. Read More

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September 2021

Screening and evaluation of the role of immune genes of brain metastasis in lung adenocarcinoma progression based on the TCGA and GEO databases.

J Thorac Dis 2021 Aug;13(8):5016-5034

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, China.

Background: Brain metastasis was one of the factors leading to the poor long-term prognosis of patients with lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD).

Methods: The expression levels of immune genes in LUAD and LUAD brain metastases tissues were analyzed in GSE161116 dataset using the GEO2R, and the levels of differential immune genes in normal lung and LUAD tissues were verified. The biological functions and signaling mechanisms of the differential immune genes were explored via Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis. Read More

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Stem cells part of the innate and adaptive immune systems as a therapeutic for Covid-19.

Greg Maguire

Commun Integr Biol 2021 10;14(1):186-198. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Dept. of Preventative and Medicinal Chemistry, NeoGenesis Inc. And BioRegenerative Sciences Inc, San Diego, CA, USA.

Some stem cell types not only release molecules that reduce viral replication, but also reduce the hypercytokinemia and inflammation induced by the immune system, and have been found to be part of the innate and adaptive immune systems. An important component of the stem cell's ability to ameliorate viral diseases, especially the complications post-clearance of the pathogen, is the ability of adult stem cells to reset the innate and adaptive immune systems from an inflammatory state to a repair state. Thus, the molecules released from certain stem cell types found to be safe and efficacious, may be an important new means for therapeutic development in Covid-19, especially for late-stage inflammation and tissue damage once the virus has cleared, particularly in the aged population. Read More

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September 2021

-Specific T Cell Functional, Memory, and Activation Profiles in QuantiFERON-Reverters Are Consistent With Controlled Infection.

Front Immunol 2021 30;12:712480. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

South African Tuberculosis Vaccine Initiative, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Division of Immunology, Department of Pathology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Reversion of immune sensitization tests for (M.tb) infection, such as interferon-gamma release assays or tuberculin skin test, has been reported in multiple studies. We hypothesized that QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT) reversion is associated with a decline of M. Read More

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Differential Early Dynamics and Functionality of Recruited Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils After Infection by Planktonic or Biofilm .

Front Microbiol 2021 30;12:728429. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Laboratoire Microorganismes: Génome et Environnement, CNRS UMR 6023, Université Clermont Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

is a human pathogen known for its capacity to shift between the planktonic and biofilm lifestyles. , the antimicrobial immune response is characterized by the recruitment of inflammatory phagocytes, namely polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and monocytes/macrophages. Immune responses to planktonic bacteria have been extensively studied, but many questions remain about how biofilms can modulate inflammatory responses and cause recurrent infections in live vertebrates. Read More

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PD-1/PD-L1-associated immunoarchitectural patterns stratify pancreatic cancer patients into prognostic/predictive subgroups.

Cancer Immunol Res 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Institute of Pathology, University of Bern.

Immunotherapy, including PD-1/PD-L1 agonists, has shown limited efficacy in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We examined the PD-1/PD-L1 expression and immunoarchitectural features by automated morphometric analysis using multiplex immunofluorescence and 118 microsatellite-stable, treatment-naïve, surgically resected PDACs (study cohort). Five microsatellite-instable cases were stained in parallel (MSI cohort). Read More

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September 2021

Fibrinogen-like protein 1 (FGL1): the next immune checkpoint target.

J Hematol Oncol 2021 Sep 15;14(1):147. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Medical Oncology, the First Hospital of China Medical University, No.155 Nanjingbei Road, Shenyang, Liaoning, 110001, People's Republic of China.

Immune checkpoint therapy has achieved significant efficacy by blocking inhibitory pathways to release the function of T lymphocytes. In the clinic, anti-programmed cell death protein 1/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have progressed to first-line monotherapies in certain tumor types. However, the efficacy of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 mAbs is still limited due to toxic side effects and de novo or adaptive resistance. Read More

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September 2021

Combine and conquer: manganese synergizing anti-TGF-β/PD-L1 bispecific antibody YM101 to overcome immunotherapy resistance in non-inflamed cancers.

J Hematol Oncol 2021 Sep 15;14(1):146. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1095 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan, 430030, People's Republic of China.

Background: Our previous work showed that the anti-TGF-β/PD-L1 bispecific antibody YM101 effectively overcame anti-PD-L1 resistance in immune-excluded tumor models. However, in immune-desert models, the efficacy of YM101 was limited. Bivalent manganese (Mn) is identified as a natural stimulator of interferon genes (STING) agonist, which might enhance cancer antigen presentation and improve the therapeutic effect of YM101. Read More

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September 2021

Harnessing features of adaptive NK cells to generate iPSC-derived NK cells for enhanced immunotherapy.

Cell Stem Cell 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

University of Minnesota, Department of Medicine, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. Electronic address:

Select subsets of immune effector cells have the greatest propensity to mediate antitumor responses. However, procuring these subsets is challenging, and cell-based immunotherapy is hampered by limited effector-cell persistence and lack of on-demand availability. To address these limitations, we generated a triple-gene-edited induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC). Read More

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September 2021

The neuroimmune response during stress: A physiological perspective.

Immunity 2021 Sep;54(9):1933-1947

Department of immunology, Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 3525422, Israel. Electronic address:

Stress is an essential adaptive response that enables the organism to cope with challenges and restore homeostasis. Different stressors require distinctive corrective responses in which immune cells play a critical role. Hence, effects of stress on immunity may vary accordingly. Read More

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September 2021