161 results match your criteria adaptations cave

The skeleton of , a semiarboreal kangaroo from the Pleistocene of southern Australia.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Mar 24;8(3):202216. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

College of Science and Engineering, Flinders University, South Australia 5042, Australia.

The macropodine kangaroo, , was first described in 1989 from a Pleistocene deposit within Mammoth Cave, southwestern Australia, on the basis of a few partial dentaries and maxilla fragments. Here, we recognize within the Pleistocene assemblages of the Thylacoleo Caves, south-central Australia, where it is represented by several cranial specimens and two near-complete skeletons, a probable male and female. We reallocate this species to the hitherto monotypic genus . Read More

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Multidimensional trophic niche revealed by complementary approaches: gut content, digestive enzymes, fatty acids and stable isotopes in Collembola.

J Anim Ecol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Institute of Soil Biology, Na Sádkách 7, 37005, České Budějovice, Czech Republic.

Trophic niche differentiation may explain coexistence and shape functional roles of species. In complex natural food webs, however, trophic niche parameters depicted by single and isolated methods may simplify the multidimensional nature of consumer trophic niches, which includes feeding processes such as food choice, ingestion, digestion, assimilation and retention. Here we explore the correlation and complementarity of trophic niche parameters tackled by four complementary methodological approaches, i. Read More

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In the twilight zone-The head morphology of Bergrothia saulcyi (Pselaphinae, Staphylinidae, Coleoptera), a beetle with adaptations to endogean life but living in leaf litter.

J Morphol 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Institut für Zoologie und Evolutionsforschung, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Jena, Germany.

The pselaphine Bergrothia saulcyi shows features seemingly linked with life in deep soil layers, such as greatly reduced and non-functional compound eyes, a sensorium of long tactile setae, long appendages, and flightlessness. However, the tiny beetles occur in forest leaf litter, together with a community of beetles with wings and well-developed eyes. We hypothesize that B. Read More

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Emerging diversity and ongoing expansion of the genus Brucella.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Apr 17;92:104865. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Pathogen and Microbiome Institute, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, USA.

Remarkable genetic diversity and breadth of host species has been uncovered in the Brucella genus over the past decade, fundamentally changing our concept of what it means to be a Brucella. From ocean fishes and marine mammals, to pond dwelling amphibians, forest foxes, desert rodents, and cave-dwelling bats, Brucella have revealed a variety of previously unknown niches. Classical microbiological techniques have been able to help us classify many of these new strains but at times have limited our ability to see the true relationships among or within species. Read More

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Dietary ecology of the scimitar-toothed cat Homotherium serum.

Curr Biol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Vertebrate Paleontology Laboratory, Jackson Museum of Earth History, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA.

The scimitar-toothed cat Homotherium was one of the most cosmopolitan cats of the Pleistocene, present throughout Eurasia, Africa, and the Americas until at least ~28 thousand years ago. Friesenhahn Cave (Bexar County, Texas) contains some of the best-preserved specimens of Homotherium serum alongside an abundance of juvenile mammoths, leading some to argue that H. serum preferentially hunted juvenile mammoths. Read More

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Effects of stream permanence on stonefly (Insecta, Plecoptera) community structure at Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky, USA.

Biodivers Data J 2021 10;9:e62242. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, United States of America Western Kentucky University Bowling Green United States of America.

Stoneflies (Plecoptera) are often associated with inhabiting cold perennial streams, but many species also inhabit intermittent streams that experience reduced or lack of flow during summer and autumn. In this study, the influence of stream permanence on stonefly assemblage composition and spatial distribution at Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky, USA, was addressed, based on a 14 month sampling regime from the fullest range of stream sizes and habitable flow regions available. Adult stoneflies were collected monthly from 43 sites at the Park plus an additional two sites at the near-adjacent Western Kentucky University Green River Preserve. Read More

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Evolution in Sinocyclocheilus cavefish is marked by rate shifts, reversals, and origin of novel traits.

BMC Ecol Evol 2021 03 17;21(1):45. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR, Brazil.

Background: Natural model systems are indispensable for exploring adaptations in response to environmental pressures. Sinocyclocheilus of China, the most diverse cavefish clade in the world (75 species), provide unique opportunities to understand recurrent evolution of stereotypic traits (such as eye loss and sensory expansion) in the context of a deep and diverse phylogenetic group. However, they remain poorly understood in terms of their morphological evolution. Read More

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Biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles using animal blood, their preventive efficiency of bacterial species, and ecotoxicity in common carp fish.

Microsc Res Tech 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

MOE Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu, 730000, China.

Possible high biodeterioration of the microorganisms due to their metabolic pathway and activities on stone materials causes solemn problems in cultural heritage. Different kinds of laboratory-scale methods have been used for the reduction of microbial growth, that is, chemical, mechanical, and physical, which are cost-effective and not ecofriendly. In the current study, an ecofriendly approach utilizing silver nanoparticles were synthesized using sheep blood serum. Read More

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Unique behavioural modifications in the web structure of the cave orb spider Meta menardi (Araneae, Tetragnathidae).

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 8;11(1):92. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 2PS, UK.

In the last decade there has been a renewed interest in the study of behavioural adaptations to environmental constraints with a focus on adaptations to challenging habitats due to their reduced ecological complexity. However, behavioural studies on organisms adapted to nutrient poor subterranean habitats are few and far between. Here, we compared both morphological traits, in terms of relative leg lengths, and behavioural traits, captured in the geometry of the spider web, between the cave-dwelling spider, Meta menardi, and two aboveground species from the same family (Tetragnathidae); Metellina mengei and Tetragnatha montana. Read More

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January 2021

The subterranean catfish provides insights into visual adaptations to the phreatic environment.

Int J Dev Biol 2021 ;65(4-5-6):245-250

Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA), Belém, Pará, Brazil.

Vertebrate eyes share the same general organization, though species have evolved morphological and functional adaptations to diverse environments. Cave-adapted animals are characterized by a variety of features including eye reduction, loss of body pigmentation, and enhanced non-visual sensory systems. Species that live in perpetual darkness have also evolved sensory mechanisms that are independent of light stimuli. Read More

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January 2021

Magdalenian and Epimagdalenian chronology and palaeoenvironments at Kůlna Cave, Moravia, Czech Republic.

Archaeol Anthropol Sci 2021 17;13(1). Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Institute of Archaeology, University College London, London, UK.

Kůlna Cave is the only site in Moravia, Czech Republic, from which large assemblages of both Magdalenian and Epimagdalenian archaeological materials have been excavated from relatively secure stratified deposits. The site therefore offers the unrivalled opportunity to explore the relationship between these two archaeological phases. In this study, we undertake radiocarbon, stable isotope (carbon, nitrogen and sulphur), and ZooMS analysis of the archaeological faunal assemblage to explore the chronological and environmental context of the Magdalenian and Epimagdalenian deposits. Read More

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December 2020

New species of bristletails of the family Machilidae (Microcoryphia) from caves in Abkhazia and Ukraine.

Zootaxa 2020 Nov 27;4885(4):zootaxa.4885.4.4. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

All-Russian Institute of Plant Protection, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, 196608 Russia..

Two new species of bristletails of the family Machilidae are described from caves in the Western Caucasus (troglophile Coryphophthalmus troglophilus sp. nov.) and in the Eastern Carpathians (trogloxene Trigoniophthalmus ukrainensis sp. Read More

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November 2020

Systemic paralogy and function of retinal determination network homologs in arachnids.

BMC Genomics 2020 Nov 23;21(1):811. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Integrative Biology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 53706, USA.

Background: Arachnids are important components of cave ecosystems and display many examples of troglomorphisms, such as blindness, depigmentation, and elongate appendages. Little is known about how the eyes of arachnids are specified genetically, let alone the mechanisms for eye reduction and loss in troglomorphic arachnids. Additionally, duplication of Retinal Determination Gene Network (RDGN) homologs in spiders has convoluted functional inferences extrapolated from single-copy homologs in pancrustacean models. Read More

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November 2020

Late Holocene droughts and cave ice harvesting by Ancestral Puebloans.

Sci Rep 2020 11 18;10(1):20131. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, 077125, Măgurele, Romania.

Water availability for Native Americans in the southwestern United States during periods of prolonged droughts is poorly understood as regional hydroclimate records are scant or contradicting. Here, we show that radiocarbon-dated charcoal recovered from an ice deposit accumulated in Cave 29, western New Mexico, provide unambiguous evidence for five drought events that impacted the Ancestral Puebloan society between ~ AD 150 and 950. The presence of abundant charred material in this cave indicates that they periodically obtained drinking water by using fire to melt cave ice, and sheds light on one of many human-environment interactions in the Southwest in a context when climate change forced growing Ancestral Puebloan populations to exploit water resources in unexpected locations. Read More

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November 2020

Spooky Interaction at a Distance in Cave and Surface Dwelling Electric Fishes.

Front Integr Neurosci 2020 22;14:561524. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Biological Sciences, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ, United States.

Glass knifefish () are a group of weakly electric fishes found throughout the Amazon basin. Their electric organ discharges (EODs) are energetically costly adaptations used in social communication and for localizing conspecifics and other objects including prey at night and in turbid water. Interestingly, a troglobitic population of blind cavefish survives in complete darkness in a cave system in central Brazil. Read More

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October 2020

Denisovan DNA in Late Pleistocene sediments from Baishiya Karst Cave on the Tibetan Plateau.

Science 2020 10;370(6516):584-587

Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, CAS, Beijing 100044, China.

A late Middle Pleistocene mandible from Baishiya Karst Cave (BKC) on the Tibetan Plateau has been inferred to be from a Denisovan, an Asian hominin related to Neanderthals, on the basis of an amino acid substitution in its collagen. Here we describe the stratigraphy, chronology, and mitochondrial DNA extracted from the sediments in BKC. We recover Denisovan mitochondrial DNA from sediments deposited ~100 thousand and ~60 thousand years ago (ka) and possibly as recently as ~45 ka. Read More

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October 2020

Forty-seven new species of Sinopoda from Asia with a considerable extension of the distribution range to the South and description of a new species group (Sparassidae: Heteropodinae).

Zootaxa 2020 Jun 16;4797(1):zootaxa.4797.1.1. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Arachnology, Senckenberg Research Institute, Senckenberganlage 25, 60325 Frankfurt am Main, Germany,.

Up to current knowledge, the spider genus Sinopoda Jäger, 1999 is distributed in South-, East- and Southeast-Asia. New material treated in this paper include new records from Brunei, India, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam. Forty-seven new Sinopoda species are described: S. Read More

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Tychobythinus inopinatus, a new troglobitic species from Sicily (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae).

Zootaxa 2020 May 19;4779(2):zootaxa.4779.2.8. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, section Animal Biology, University of Catania, Via Androne 81, 95124 Catania, Italy..

A new troglobitic species of the subfamily Pselaphinae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), Tychobythinus inopinatus sp. nov., is described from Monello Cave (Syracuse, Syracuse Province, Sicily). Read More

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The upper limb skeleton and behavioral lateralization of modern humans from Zhaoguo Cave, southwestern China.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 12 23;173(4):671-696. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins, Institute of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Palaeoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100044, China.

Objectives: Aims of the study are to initially describe and comparatively evaluate the morphology of the new Zhaoguo M1 upper limb remains, and contextualize upper limb functional adaptations among those of other worldwide Upper Paleolithic (UP) humans to make inferences about subsistence-related activity patterns in southwestern China at the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary.

Materials And Methods: The preserved Zhaoguo M1 skeletal remains include paired humeri, ulnae, and radii, among others. These specimens were scanned using micro-computed tomography to evaluate internal structural properties, while external osteometric dimensions of the Zhaoguo M1 upper limb elements also were acquired. Read More

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December 2020

Palaeoproteomics gives new insight into early southern African pastoralism.

Sci Rep 2020 09 2;10(1):14427. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

UMR 7209 Archéozoologie, Archéobotanique: Sociétés, Pratiques et Environnements (AASPE), Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, CNRS, 55 rue Buffon, 75005, Paris, France.

The advent of domestication is a major step that transformed the subsistence strategies of past human societies. In Africa, domestic caprines (sheep and goat) were introduced in the north-eastern part of the continent from the Near East more than 9000 years ago. However, their diffusion southwards was slow. Read More

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September 2020

Skeletal and muscular pelvic morphology of hillstream loaches (Cypriniformes: Balitoridae).

J Morphol 2020 10 13;281(10):1280-1295. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Department of Biological Sciences, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey, USA.

The rheophilic hillstream loaches (Balitoridae) of South and Southeast Asia possess a range of pelvic girdle morphologies, which may be attributed to adaptations for locomotion against rapidly flowing water. Specifically, the connectivity of the pelvic plate (basipterygium) to the vertebral column via a sacral rib, and the relative size and shape of the sacral rib, fall within a spectrum of three discrete morphotypes: long, narrow rib that meets the basipterygium; thicker, slightly curved rib meeting the basipterygium; and robust crested rib interlocking with the basipterygium. Species in this third category with more robust sacral rib connections between the basipterygium and vertebral column are capable of walking out of water with a tetrapod-like lateral-sequence, diagonal-couplet gait. Read More

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October 2020

Phylogenetic analysis and expression differences of eye-related genes in cavefish genus Sinocyclocheilus.

Integr Zool 2021 May 4;16(3):354-367. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology, State Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management, Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

The adaptive evolution of visual systems has been observed in many cavefish. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these adaptations, which include regressive changes such as eye degeneration. Here, we analyzed phylogenetic and expression patterns of 6 eye-related genes (crx, foxg1b, opn1sw2, otx2, rho and sox2) in 12 Sinocyclocheilus species from China, including 8 stygobionts and 4 stygophiles, and examined photoreceptor cell morphology of these species. Read More

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First Description of the Fur of Two Cubs of Fossil Cave Lion Panthera spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) Found in Yakutia in 2017 and 2018.

Dokl Biol Sci 2020 May 6;492(1):93-98. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Institute for High-Dimensional Medical Imaging, School of Medicine, Jikei University, Tokyo, Japan.

The first description of well-preserved fur of one male and one female cubs of the fossil cave lion Panthera spelaea (finds of 2017-2018, Semyuelyakh River, Yakutia, Russia) is presented in comparison with the fur of two cubs (a male and a female) of the extant African lion P. leo and adult lions of both species: the color, differentiation, configuration, microstructure, and internal design of hair of different categories are considered. The coat of the cave lion is similar but not identical to that of the African lion, because it contains a high thick undercoat of spiral-shaped thick and airy down hair. Read More

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"Entry to the Society from the Schizophrenic Cave"- A Qualitative Meta-Synthesis of Job Experiences for People with Schizophrenia.

Issues Ment Health Nurs 2020 Oct 4;41(10):873-886. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

College of Nursing, the Research Institute of Nursing Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

Reviews of employment among people with schizophrenia have primarily encompassed quantitative research. This study analyzes eight qualitative research studies published from 2000 to 2018 on the job experiences of people with schizophrenia to identify participants' job motivations, negative and positive experiences working with schizophrenia, and adaptations to gain social roles and values. We found that the core theme encompassing participants' experiences was the need for social support to facilitate reentry into society from the schizophrenic cave. Read More

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October 2020

Bat thermoregulation in the heat: Limits to evaporative cooling capacity in three southern African bats.

J Therm Biol 2020 Apr 15;89:102542. Epub 2020 Feb 15.

South African Research Chair in Conservation Physiology, South African National Biodiversity Institute, P.O. Box 754, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa; Mammal Research Institute, Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield, 0028, South Africa. Electronic address:

High environmental temperatures pose significant physiological challenges related to energy and water balance for small endotherms. Although there is a growing literature on the effect of high temperatures on birds, comparable data are scarcer for bats. Those data that do exist suggest that roost microsite may predict tolerance of high air temperatures. Read More

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Subterranean life: Behavior, metabolic, and some other adaptations of Astyanax cavefish.

J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol 2020 11 28;334(7-8):463-473. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Laboratorio de Neurobiología Molecular y Celular, Departamento de Neurobiología Celular y Molecular, Instituto de Neurobiología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Santiago de Querétaro, México.

The ability of fishes to adapt to any aquatic environment seems limitless. It is enthralling how new species keep appearing at the deep sea or in subterranean environments. There are close to 230 known species of cavefishes, still today the best-known cavefish is Astyanax mexicanus, a Characid that has become a model organism, and has been studied and scrutinized since 1936. Read More

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November 2020

Phenotypic plasticity as a mechanism of cave colonization and adaptation.

Elife 2020 04 21;9. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, United States.

A widely accepted model for the evolution of cave animals posits colonization by surface ancestors followed by the acquisition of adaptations over many generations. However, the speed of cave adaptation in some species suggests mechanisms operating over shorter timescales. To address these mechanisms, we used , a teleost with ancestral surface morphs (surface fish, SF) and derived cave morphs (cavefish, CF). Read More

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Differences in behavior between surface and cave Astyanax mexicanus may be mediated by changes in catecholamine signaling.

J Comp Neurol 2020 11 18;528(16):2639-2653. Epub 2020 May 18.

Biological Sciences, New Jersey Institute of Technology, New Jersey, USA.

Astyanax mexicanus is a teleost fish that is in the process of allopatric speciation. Ancestral Astyanax are found in surface rivers and derived blind forms are found in cave systems. Adaptation to life in nutrient poor caves without predation includes the evolution of enhanced food seeking behaviors and loss of defensive responses. Read More

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November 2020

Biomechanical simulations reveal a trade-off between adaptation to glacial climate and dietary niche versatility in European cave bears.

Sci Adv 2020 04 1;6(14):eaay9462. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Departamento de Ecología y Geología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga, Spain.

The cave bear is one of the best known extinct large mammals that inhabited Europe during the "Ice Age," becoming extinct ≈24,000 years ago along with other members of the Pleistocene megafauna. Long-standing hypotheses speculate that many cave bears died during their long hibernation periods, which were necessary to overcome the severe and prolonged winters of the Last Glacial. Here, we investigate how long hibernation periods in cave bears would have directly affected their feeding biomechanics using CT-based biomechanical simulations of skulls of cave and extant bears. Read More

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Evidence for habitual climbing in a Pleistocene hominin in South Africa.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 04 30;117(15):8416-8423. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Skeletal Biology Research Centre, School of Anthropology and Conservation, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7NR, United Kingdom.

Bipedalism is a defining trait of the hominin lineage, associated with a transition from a more arboreal to a more terrestrial environment. While there is debate about when modern human-like bipedalism first appeared in hominins, all known South African hominins show morphological adaptations to bipedalism, suggesting that this was their predominant mode of locomotion. Here we present evidence that hominins preserved in the Sterkfontein Caves practiced two different locomotor repertoires. Read More

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