83,255 results match your criteria acute viral


Case Report: Paucisymptomatic College-Age Population as a Reservoir for Potentially Neutralization-Resistant Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Variants.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Global Health Research Complex, Division of Research, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas.

To better understand the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant lineage distribution in a college campus population, we carried out viral genome surveillance over a 7-week period from January to March 2021. Among the sequences were three novel viral variants: BV-1 with a B.1. Read More

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September 2021

Pool water disinfection by ozone-bromine treatment: Assessing the disinfectant efficacy and the occurrence and in vitro toxicity of brominated disinfection by-products.

Water Res 2021 Sep 9;204:117648. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

German Environment Agency (UBA), Section Water Treatment, Schichauweg 58, Berlin 12307, Germany. Electronic address:

Pool water is continuously circulated and reused after an extensive treatment including disinfection by chlorination, ozonation or UV treatment. In Germany, these methods are regulated by DIN standard 19643. Recently, the DIN standard has been extended by a new disinfection method using hypobromous acid as disinfectant formed by introducing ozone into water with naturally or artificially high bromide content during water treatment. Read More

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September 2021

A snapshot of the immunogenicity, efficacy and safety of a full course of BNT162b2 anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in cancer patients treated with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors: a longitudinal cohort study.

ESMO Open 2021 Sep 1;6(5):100272. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Molecular Virology Unit, Department of Microbiology and Virology, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy.

Background: Very few cancer patients were enrolled in coronavirus disease-2019 vaccine studies. In order to address this gap of knowledge, real-world studies are mandatory. The aim of this study was to assess both humoral and cellular response after a messenger RNA vaccination schedule. Read More

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September 2021

Unexpected death in a young child associated with anomalous aortic origin of the left main coronary artery without physical exertion: A case of an anomalous coronary artery with highly abundant elastic fibers.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2021 Sep 15;53:101965. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Tokyo Medical Examiner's Office, Tokyo Metropolitan Government, Tokyo, Japan.

Sudden death due to anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery is far less common among young children in the absence of exercise stress. This report describes the case of a 2-year-old boy with a lower respiratory tract infection who suffered sudden cardiac arrest in his bed at home. The autopsy revealed that the left coronary artery (LCA) originated from the right sinus of Valsalva with an acute angle takeoff and traveled between the aorta and the pulmonary trunk (an interarterial course). Read More

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September 2021

Age-related viral load and severity of systemic pathological lesions in acute naturally occurring African swine fever virus genotype II infections.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Sep 13;79:101709. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

African swine fever (ASF) causes a contagious hemorrhagic disease in all ages of pigs without sex predilections. The objective of this study was to determine the age-related viral loads and severity of systemic pathological lesions among three different swine group ages (weaned pigs, fattening pigs, and sows) during a recent outbreak of acute ASF in Vietnam. Age-related viral loads were determined in 5 major organs (lung, liver, spleen, kidney, and lymph node) by immunohistochemistry as well as in the blood by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Read More

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September 2021

Morbidity of Late-Season Influenza During Pregnancy.

Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2021 Sep 17:100487. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina.

Background: In the northern hemisphere, influenza season typically starts in December and lasts through March. Pregnant people are at increased risk for influenza-related morbidity and mortality. Potentially, new viral strains or reduced provider suspicion leading to delayed diagnosis in late influenza season could result in increased risk for severe infection. Read More

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September 2021

Lymphocyte profile and immune checkpoint expression in drug-induced liver injury: an immunophenotyping study.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Servicio de Farmacología Clínica, UGC Aparato Digestivo, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga-IBIMA, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Victoria, Universidad de Málaga, Málaga, Spain.

The identification of specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) risk alleles in drug-induced liver injury (DILI) points towards an important role of the adaptive immune system in DILI development. In this study we aimed to corroborate the role of an adaptive immune response in DILI through immunophenotyping of leukocyte populations and immune checkpoint expressions. Blood samples were collected from adjudicated DILI (n=12), acute viral hepatitis (VH, 13), acute autoimmune hepatitis (AIH, 9) and acute liver injury of unknown etiology (UKE, 15) at day 1 (recognition), day 7 and day >30. Read More

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September 2021

Biomarkers for the clinical development of antiviral therapies.

Cytometry B Clin Cytom 2021 Jan 8;100(1):19-32. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Virology Drug Discovery, AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, Illinois, USA.

With the morbidity and mortality associated with the COVID-19 pandemic that we are witnessing this year, the risks posed by emerging viral diseases to global health are all too obvious. This pandemic highlights the importance of antiviral drug discovery, which targets emerging viral pathogens, as well as existing pathogenic viruses that undergo continuous evolution. Drug discovery and development is a long and resource intensive process; however, the use of biomarkers can accelerate clinical development of antivirals by providing information regarding diagnosis of specific viral infections, status of infection, potential safety parameters, and antiviral responses. Read More

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January 2021

Reactive infectious mucocutaneous eruption in children diagnosed with COVID-19.

Pediatr Dermatol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Dermatology, South Infirmary Victoria University Hospital, Cork, Ireland.

We describe the cases of two immunocompetent children who developed mucositis with oral, ocular, and genital involvement during acute COVID-19 illness. The pattern of mucosal involvement with no other cutaneous involvement was consistent with reactive infectious mucocutaneous eruption (RIME). No other intercurrent infections or new medications were identified, suggesting that COVID-19 was causative. Read More

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September 2021

The role of Pannexin-1 channels and extracellular ATP in the pathogenesis of the human immunodeficiency virus.

Purinergic Signal 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Neuroscience , Cell Biology, and Anatomy, University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB), Research Building 17, 105 11th Street, Galveston, TX, 77555, USA.

Only recently, the role of large ionic channels such as Pannexin-1 channels and Connexin hemichannels has been implicated in several physiological and pathological conditions, including HIV infection and associated comorbidities. These channels are in a closed stage in healthy conditions, but in pathological conditions including HIV, Pannexin-1 channels and Connexin hemichannels become open. Our data demonstrate that acute and chronic HIV infection induces channel opening (Pannexin and Connexin channels), ATP release into the extracellular space, and subsequent activation of purinergic receptors in immune and non-immune cells. Read More

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September 2021

SARS-CoV-2 S glycoprotein binding to multiple host receptors enables cell entry and infection.

Glycoconj J 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Genos Glycoscience Research Laboratory, Zagreb, Croatia.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection displays a wide array of clinical manifestations. Although some risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity and outcomes have been identified the underlying biologic mechanisms are still not well understood. The surface SARS-CoV-2 proteins are heavily glycosylated enabling host cell interaction and viral entry. Read More

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September 2021

Reactivation of varicella zoster infection presenting as acute retinal necrosis post COVID 19 vaccination in an Asian Indian male.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2021 Sep 18:11206721211046485. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Cornea and Neurophthalmology, Narayana Nethralaya, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Purpose: To present the clinical features of a rare case of varicella zoster infection following one dose of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination in an elderly Asian Indian male.

Methods: Retrospective observational case report.

Results: A 71-year-old gentleman presented to us with complaints of reduced vision associated with redness and pain in his right eye for 1 week. Read More

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September 2021

COVID-19-related headache and sinonasal inflammation: A longitudinal study analysing the role of acute rhinosinusitis and ICHD-3 classification difficulties in SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Cephalalgia 2021 Sep 20:3331024211040753. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Neurology, 49550Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.

Background: The genesis of headache in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently unclear and the multitude of disease symptoms often further hinders locating the source of pain. Interestingly, many subjects with COVID-19 have symptoms of acute rhinosinusitis. The relation between nasal symptoms and headache in SARS-CoV-2 infection remains unknown. Read More

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September 2021

The Importance of miRNA Identification During Respiratory Viral Infections.

J Cell Immunol 2021 ;3(4):207-214

Department of Pathobiological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.

The expression of small non-coding RNA MicroRNAs (miRNAs) during respiratory viral infections is of critical importance as they are implicated in the viral replication, immune responses and severity of disease pathogenesis. Respiratory viral infections have an extensive impact on human health across the globe. For that is essential to understand the factors that regulate the host response against infections. Read More

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January 2021

5-Hydroxymethyltubercidin Exhibits Potent Antiviral Activity against Flaviviruses and Coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2.

iScience 2021 Sep 11:103120. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Laboratory of Biomolecular Science, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

Newly emerging or re-emerging viral infections continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality every year worldwide, resulting in serious effects on both health and the global economy. Despite significant drug discovery research against dengue viruses (DENV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), no fully effective and specific drugs directed against these viruses have been discovered. Here, we examined the anti-DENV activity of tubercidin derivatives from a compound library from Hokkaido University and demonstrated that 5-hydroxymethyltubercidin (HMTU, HUP1108) possessed both potent anti-flavivirus and anti-coronavirus activities at submicromolar levels without significant cytotoxicity. Read More

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September 2021

Accelerated antibody discovery targeting the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein for COVID-19 therapeutic potential.

Antib Ther 2021 Jul 28;4(3):185-196. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Antibody Discovery, Abveris Inc., 480 Neponset St, Ste 10B, Canton, MA 02021, USA.

Background: Rapid deployment of technologies capable of high-throughput and high-resolution screening is imperative for timely response to viral outbreaks. Risk mitigation in the form of leveraging multiple advanced technologies further increases the likelihood of identifying efficacious treatments in aggressive timelines.

Methods: In this study, we describe two parallel, yet distinct, approaches for accelerated discovery of antibodies targeting the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 spike protein. Read More

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Efficient Generation of Multi-gene Knockout Cell Lines and Patient-derived Xenografts Using Multi-colored Lenti-CRISPR-Cas9.

Bio Protoc 2017 Apr 5;7(7):e2222. Epub 2017 Apr 5.

Department of Oncology and Children's Research Center, University Children's Hospital Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.

CRISPR-Cas9 based knockout strategies are increasingly used to analyze gene function. However, redundancies and overlapping functions in biological signaling pathways can call for generating multi-gene knockout cells, which remains a relatively laborious process. Here we detail the application of multi-color LentiCRISPR vectors to simultaneously generate single and multiple knockouts in human cells. Read More

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The Spectrum of Neurological Manifestations of Human Herpesvirus 6 Infection in Children.

Cureus 2021 Aug 14;13(8):e17183. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Al Jalila Children's Specialty Hospital, Dubai, ARE.

Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is a member of the family. There are two HHV-6 species: HHV-6A and HHV-6B. HHV-6B causes the majority of documented primary infections and reactivation events. Read More

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COVID-19 vaccine candidates and vaccine development platforms available worldwide.

J Pharm Anal 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Medical Genetics, Medical Faculty, Erciyes University, Kayseri, 38280, Turkey.

The pandemic caused by the worldwide spread of the coronavirus, which first appeared in 2019, has been named coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). More than 4.5 million deaths have been recorded due to the pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), according to the World Health Organization (WHO) COVID-19 Dashboard on September 2021. Read More

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September 2021

Prediction of in-hospital recurrence and false-negative results in patients with COVID-19 by red blood cell values on admission.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Nov 2;22(5):1250. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Third Department of Infectious Diseases, Huoshenshan Hospital, Joint Logistics Support Force of The Chinese People's Liberation Army, Wuhan, Hubei 430101, P.R. China.

The clinical characteristics and risk factors of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with re-positive or false-negative test results have so far remained to be determined. The present study provides a cross-sectional observational study on 134 hospitalized patients selected from Huoshenshan Hospital (Wuhan, China) using cluster sampling. A total of 68 patients had reduced red blood cell (RBC) counts, 55 a decrease in the hemoglobin concentration (HBC) and 73 a decline in hematocrit (HCT). Read More

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November 2021

Network-Based Identification and Experimental Validation of Drug Candidates Toward SARS-CoV-2 Targeting Virus-Host Interactome.

Front Genet 2021 1;12:728960. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Despite that several therapeutic agents have exhibited promising prevention or treatment on Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), there is no specific drug discovered for this pandemic. Targeting virus-host interactome provides a more effective strategy for antivirus drug discovery compared with targeting virus proteins. In this study, we developed a network-based infrastructure to prioritize promising drug candidates from natural products and approved drugs targeting host proteins of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Read More

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September 2021

Anti-COVID-19 activity of some benzofused 1,2,3-triazolesulfonamide hybrids using and analyses.

Chemometr Intell Lab Syst 2021 Oct 11;217:104421. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Taibah University, Yanbu, 30799, Saudi Arabia.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a pandemic fatal infection with no known treatment. The severity of the disease and the fast viral mutations forced the scientific community to search for potential solution. Here in the present manuscript, some benzofused1,2,3triazolesulfonamide hybrids were synthesized and evaluated for their anti- SARS-CoV-2 activity using prediction then the most potent compounds were assessed using analysis. Read More

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October 2021

Duration of infectious virus shedding in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 who required mechanical ventilation.

J Infect Chemother 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Hiroshima University Hospital, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minamiku, Hiroshima, 734-8551, Japan.

Background: Approximately 5% of patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 develop severe COVID-19. Severe COVID-19 requires respiratory management with mechanical ventilation and an extended period of treatment. Prolonged infectious virus shedding is a concern in severe COVID-19 cases, but few reports have examined the duration of infectious virus shedding. Read More

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September 2021

An ultrafast SARS-CoV-2 virus enrichment and extraction method compatible with multiple modalities for RNA detection.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Oct 13;1180:338846. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Departments of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA; MicroGEM International PLC., Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA; Departments of Pathology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA; Departments of Clinical Microbiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA; Departments of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a zoonotic RNA virus characterized by high transmission rates and pathogenicity worldwide. Continued control of the COVID-19 pandemic requires the diversification of rapid, easy to use, sensitive, and portable methods for SARS-CoV-2 sample preparation and analysis. Here, we propose a method for SARS-CoV-2 viral enrichment and enzymatic extraction of RNA from clinically relevant matrices in under 10 min. Read More

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October 2021

Targeting purinergic receptors to suppress the cytokine storm induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection in pulmonary tissue.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Sep 13;100:108150. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Graduate Program in Medical Sciences, Federal University of Fronteira Sul, Chapecó, SC, Brazil. Electronic address:

The etiological agent of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is the new member of the Coronaviridae family, a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus (SARS-CoV-2), responsible for the pandemic that is plaguing the world. The single-stranded RNA virus is capable of infecting the respiratory tract, by binding the spike (S) protein on its viral surface to receptors for the angiotensin II-converting enzyme (ACE2), highly expressed in the pulmonary tissue, enabling the interaction of the virus with alveolar epithelial cells promoting endocytosis and replication of viral material. The infection triggers the activation of the immune system, increased purinergic signaling, and the release of cytokines as a defense mechanism, but the response can become exaggerated and prompt the so-called "cytokine storm", developing cases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Read More

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September 2021

Diagnosis of Dengue in a returning traveler from Pakistan suspected of COVID-19, California, USA.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Aug 6;101(4):115517. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Department of Pathology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA; Clinical Virology Laboratory, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA, USA; Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Dengue and COVID-19 cocirculation presents a diagnostic conundrum for physicians evaluating patients with acute febrile illnesses, both in endemic regions and among returning travelers. We present a case of a returning traveler from Pakistan who, following repeated negative SARS-CoV-2 tests, was found to have a Dengue virus serotype 2 infection. Read More

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Bone Marrow versus Peripheral Blood Graft for Haploidentical HCT with Post Transplantation Cyclophosphamide.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.

Background: In the COVID-19 pandemic era, the numbers of haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) with peripheral blood (PB) versus bone marrow (BM) grafts increased significantly, which may be associated with adverse outcomes.

Methods: We compared outcomes of BM vs PB grafts in patients ≥18 years with hematological malignancy who underwent T-cell replete haploidentical HCT and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide, tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil.

Findings: Of 264 patients, 180 (68%) received BM and 84 (32%) received PB graft. Read More

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September 2021

The distribution of hepatitis C virus infection in Shanghai, China: a time-spatial study.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Sep 18;21(1):974. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Viral Hepatitis Control and prevention, Division of TB and HIV/AIDS Prevention, Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China.

Background: Shanghai, as a pilot city of China to achieve the goal of eliminating hepatitis C, its strategy of allocating medical resources is a pressing problem to be solved. This study aims to infer the time-spatial clustering patterns of HCV-infected cases, and grasp the dynamic genotype distribution of HCV, thereby inform elimination strategies of HCV with efficacy and efficiency.

Methods: Reported HCV cases including their demographic information in Shanghai city from 2005 to 2018 were released from the National Infectious Disease Reporting Information System, population data at community scale, geographical layers of hospitals, communities and districts were gathered from former research. Read More

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September 2021

Pregnancy and COVID-19: Prevention, Vaccination, Therapy and Beyond.

Turk J Med Sci 2021 Sep 19. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has alarmed the world since its first emergence. As pregnancy is characterized by significant changes in cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine and immunological systems, there are concerns on issues like the course of disease in pregnant women, safety of medications, route of delivery and risk of obstetric complications. The aim of this review is to summarize the current literature in the management of pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. Read More

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September 2021

SARS-CoV-2 variant detection at a university dormitory using wastewater genomic tools.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 7;805:149930. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Precision Medicine, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154, USA; Nevada Institute of Personalized Medicine, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154, USA; Department of Internal Medicine, UNLV School of Medicine, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154, USA. Electronic address:

In the Fall of 2020, university campuses in the United States resumed on-campus instruction and implemented wastewater monitoring for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). While quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) tests were deployed successfully to detect viral RNA in wastewater across campuses, the feasibility of detecting viral variants from a residential building like a dormitory was unclear. Here, we demonstrate that wastewater surveillance from a dormitory with at least three infected students could lead to the identification of viral genomes with more than 95% coverage. Read More

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September 2021