433,957 results match your criteria acute effects

Antiviral zinc oxide nanoparticles mediated by hesperidin and in silico comparison study between antiviral phenolics as anti-SARS-CoV-2.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Mar 26;203:111724. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Phytochemistry and Plant Systematics, Pharmaceutical Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. Electronic address:

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which caused the coronavirus (COVID-19), is the virus responsible for over 69,613,607 million infections and over 1,582,966 deaths worldwide. All treatment measures and protocols were considered to be supportive only and not curative. During this current coronavirus pandemic, searching for pharmaceutical or traditional complementary and integrative medicine to assist with prevention, treatment, and recovery has been advantageous. Read More

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Predictors and moderators of quality of life in patients with major depressive disorder: An AGTs-MDD study report.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Apr 1;138:96-102. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Clinical Research Center & Division of Mood Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200030, China; CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Shanghai, 200031, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai, 201108, China; Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area Center for Brain Science and Brain-Inspired Intelligence, Guangzhou, 510515, China. Electronic address:

Effective and targeted interventions for improving quality of life (QOL) in addition to achieving 'clinical remission' are imperatives for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This study aimed to examine potential predictors and moderators of QOL in depression. Data were obtained from the Algorithm Guided Treatment Strategies for Major Depressive Disorder (AGTs-MDD) study, a multisite, randomized controlled trial composed of 980 depressed patients. Read More

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A systematic review and meta-analysis of propofol versus midazolam sedation in adult intensive care (ICU) patients.

J Crit Care 2021 Apr 6;64:91-99. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

AxiaBio Life Sciences International ltda, São Paulo, Brazil; Health Technologies Assessment Center - Department of Gynecology, Escola Paulista de Medicina - Federal University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Purpose: Compare outcomes of adult patients admitted to ICU- length of ICU stay, length of mechanical ventilation (MV), and time until extubation- according to the use of propofol versus midazolam.

Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and Cochrane databases to retrieve RCTs that compared propofol and midazolam used as sedatives in adult ICU patients. We applied a random-effects, meta-analytic model in all calculations. Read More

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Melatonin administration attenuates acute stress by inducing sleep state in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Apr 7:109044. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Federal University of Lavras, Graduate Program in Veterinary Sciences, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Lavras, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:

Melatonin plays a fundamental homeostatic role in basic biological functions, and an anti-stress role has been also proposed for this hormone. This study aimed to evaluate hormonal, enzymatic and behavioral parameters of zebrafish that received administration of melatonin and were submitted to acute stress. A total of 120 wild-type zebrafish were divided into five groups: naïve control (N), negative control group (Stress/C), positive control treated with diazepam (Stress/Diaz), treatment with melatonin at dose 1 (Stress/Melt. Read More

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A structured methodology review showed analyses of functional outcomes are frequently limited to "survivors only" in trials enrolling patients at high risk of death.

J Clin Epidemiol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Outcomes After Critical Illness and Surgery (OACIS) Group, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland; Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Objective: This structured methodology review evaluated statistical approaches used in RCTs enrolling patients at high risk of death and makes recommendations for reporting future RCTs.

Study Design And Setting: Using PubMed, we searched for RCTs published in five general medicine journals from January 2014 to August 2019 wherein mortality was ≥10% in at least one randomized group. We abstracted primary and secondary outcomes, statistical analysis methods, and patient samples evaluated (all randomized patients vs. Read More

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Isorhynchophylline ameliorates paraquat-induced acute kidney injury by attenuating oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage via regulating toll-interacting expression.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 Apr 7:115521. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004, Liaoning Province, China. Electronic address:

Isorhynchophylline (IRN) is an alkaloid with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities in cardiovascular and brain diseases, but its role in paraquat (PQ)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is yet unknown. The model of PQ-induced AKI in rats was established by intraperitoneal injection of PQ (25 mg/kg). We found that the tail vein injection of IRN (4 mg/kg) significantly increased the survival rate of PQ-intoxicated rats. Read More

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Putative anxiolytic-like behavioral effects of acute paracetamol in adult zebrafish.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Apr 7:113293. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Bioscience Institute, University of Passo Fundo (UPF), Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil; Laboratory of Cell and Molecular Biology and Neurobiology, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow, Russia; The International Zebrafish Neuroscience Research Consortium (ZNRC), Slidell, LA, USA. Electronic address:

Typically triggered by stress, anxiety disorders are most common and widespread mental illnesses. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is rapidly becoming an important aquatic model species in stress research and central nervous system (CNS) drug screening. Paracetamol is currently the most prescribed medication for pain and fever, and is among the most commonly used drugs globally. Read More

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No causal effects of plasma homocysteine levels on the risk of coronary heart disease or acute myocardial infarction: A Mendelian randomization study.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2021 Apr;28(2):227-234

Clinical Laboratory of The Affiliated Cancer Hospital, Guangxi Medical University, China.

Background: Although many observational studies have shown an association between plasma homocysteine levels and cardiovascular diseases, controversy remains. In this study, we estimated the role of increased plasma homocysteine levels on the etiology of coronary heart disease and acute myocardial infarction.

Methods: A two-sample Mendelian randomization study on disease was conducted, i. Read More

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Coronavirus genomic nsp14-ExoN, structure, role, mechanism, and potential application as a drug target.

Mohammed Tahir

J Med Virol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Biology, University of Sulaimani, Iraq, Kurdistan region, Sulaimanyah city.

The recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), causing a global pandemic with devastating effects on healthcare and social-economic systems, has no special antiviral therapies available for human coronaviruses (CoVs). The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) possesses a non-structural protein (nsp14), with amino terminal domain coding for a proofreading exoribonuclease (ExoN) that is required for high-fidelity replication. The ability of CoVs during genome replication and transcription to proofread and exclude mismatched nucleotides has long hindered the development of anti-CoV drugs. Read More

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Br J Pharmacol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cagliari, Italy.

Background And Purpose: Spice/K2 herbal mixtures, containing synthetic cannabinoids such as JWH-018, have been marketed as marijuana surrogates since 2004. We demonstrated that JWH-018 has cannabinoid CB1 receptor-dependent reinforcing properties and acutely increases dopamine transmission selectively in the NAc shell. Here we tested the hypothesis that repeated administration of JWH-018 (i) modulates behaviour, (ii) affects dopamine transmission and its responsiveness to motivational stimuli, and (iii) is associated with a neuroinflammatory phenotype. Read More

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Copper chloride inhibits brush border membrane enzymes, alters antioxidant and metabolic status and damages DNA in rat intestine: a dose-dependent study.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP, 202002, India.

Copper (Cu) is an extensively used heavy metal and an indispensible micronutrient for living beings. However, Cu is also toxic and exerts multiple adverse health effects when humans are exposed to high levels of this metal. We have examined the effect of single acute oral dose of copper chloride (CuCl) on parameters of oxidative stress, cellular metabolism, membrane and DNA damage in rat intestine. Read More

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Can seafood from marine sites of dumped World War relicts be eaten?

Arch Toxicol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Institute of Toxicology and Pharmacology for Natural Scientists, University Medical School Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Brunswiker Str. 10, 24105, Kiel, Germany.

Since World War I, considerable amounts of warfare materials have been dumped at seas worldwide. After more than 70 years of resting on the seabed, reports suggest that the metal shells of these munitions are corroding, such that explosive chemicals leak out and distribute in the marine environment. Explosives such as TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) and its derivatives are known for their toxicity and carcinogenicity, thereby posing a threat to the marine environment. Read More

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Prevalence, clinical characteristics and outcomes of Guillain-Barré syndrome spectrum associated with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Second Department of Neurology, "Attikon" University Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Background: Mounting evidence supports an association between Guillain-Barré syndrome spectrum (GBSs) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. However, GBSs in the setting of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) remains poorly characterized, while GBSs prevalence among COVID-19 patients has not been previously systematically evaluated using a meta-analytical approach.

Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational cohort and case-series studies reporting on the occurrence, clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19-associated GBSs. Read More

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Capturing Cytokines with Advanced Materials: A Potential Strategy to Tackle COVID-19 Cytokine Storm.

Adv Mater 2021 Apr 10:e2100012. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Institute of Biomedical Health Technology and Engineering, Shenzhen Bay Laboratory, Shenzhen, 518132, China.

The COVID-19 pandemic, induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused great impact on the global economy and people's daily life. In the clinic, most patients with COVID-19 show none or mild symptoms, while approximately 20% of them develop severe pneumonia, multiple organ failure, or septic shock due to infection-induced cytokine release syndrome (the so-called "cytokine storm"). Neutralizing antibodies targeting inflammatory cytokines may potentially curb immunopathology caused by COVID-19; however, the complexity of cytokine interactions and the multiplicity of cytokine targets make attenuating the cytokine storm challenging. Read More

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Treatment for bleeding oesophageal varices in people with decompensated liver cirrhosis: a network meta-analysis.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Apr 10;4:CD013155. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London, UK.

Background: Approximately 40% to 95% of people with liver cirrhosis have oesophageal varices. About 15% to 20% of oesophageal varices bleed within about one to three years after diagnosis. Several different treatments are available, including, among others, endoscopic sclerotherapy, variceal band ligation, somatostatin analogues, vasopressin analogues, and balloon tamponade. Read More

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Chronic oral exposure to pesticides and their consequences on metabolic regulation: role of the microbiota.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

PeriTox UMR_I 01 Laboratory, University Center for Health Research, CURS-UPJV, Picardy Jules Verne University, 80054, Amiens cedex 1, France.

Pesticides have long been used in agriculture and household treatments. Pesticide residues can be found in biological samples for both the agriculture workers through direct exposure but also to the general population by indirect exposure. There is also evidence of pesticide contamination in utero and trans-generational impacts. Read More

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Exploiting the reactive oxygen species imbalance in high-risk paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia through auranofin.

Br J Cancer 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Children's Cancer Institute, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: The prognosis for high-risk childhood acute leukaemias remains dismal and established treatment protocols often cause long-term side effects in survivors. This study aims to identify more effective and safer therapeutics for these patients.

Methods: A high-throughput phenotypic screen of a library of 3707 approved drugs and pharmacologically active compounds was performed to identify compounds with selective cytotoxicity against leukaemia cells followed by further preclinical evaluation in patient-derived xenograft models. Read More

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IL-33 expression in response to SARS-CoV-2 correlates with seropositivity in COVID-19 convalescent individuals.

Nat Commun 2021 Apr 9;12(1):2133. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Immunometabolism, Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics, Freiburg, Germany.

Our understanding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still developing. We perform an observational study to investigate seroprevalence and immune responses in subjects professionally exposed to SARS-CoV-2 and their family members (155 individuals; ages 5-79 years). Seropositivity for SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein aligns with PCR results that confirm the previous infection. Read More

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An Examination of Cytomegalovirus, Socioeconomic Status, Race, and Ethnicity on Outcomes after Haploidentical Hematopoietic Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Apr 16;27(4):327.e1-327.e11. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Medical Oncology, The Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

Previous analyses of the effects of race and socioeconomic status (SES) on outcomes after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have suggested that minority populations and those in disadvantaged groups have inferior outcomes. However, the results of these studies have been inconsistent, potentially due to a multitude of factors, both medical and nonmedical, that have confounded results. In haploidentical (HI) HSCT, an expanding approach with the potential to enfranchise more minority patients, data on the effect of race and SES on outcomes are very limited. Read More

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Effects of weather-related social distancing on city-scale transmission of respiratory viruses: a retrospective cohort study.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Apr 9;21(1):335. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Institute for Disease Modeling, Bellevue, WA, USA.

Background: Unusually high snowfall in western Washington State in February 2019 led to widespread school and workplace closures. We assessed the impact of social distancing caused by this extreme weather event on the transmission of respiratory viruses.

Methods: Residual specimens from patients evaluated for acute respiratory illness at hospitals in the Seattle metropolitan area were screened for a panel of respiratory viruses. Read More

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OTULIN is a new target of EA treatment in the alleviation of brain injury and glial cell activation via suppression of the NF-κB signalling pathway in acute ischaemic stroke rats.

Mol Med 2021 Apr 9;27(1):37. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, China.

Objective: Ovarian tumour domain deubiquitinase with linear linkage specificity (OTULIN) is a potent negative regulator of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signalling pathway, and it plays a strong neuroprotective role following acute ischemic stroke. Electroacupuncture (EA) is an effective adjuvant treatment for reducing brain injury and neuroinflammation via the inhibition of NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation, but the underlying mechanism is not clear. The present study investigated whether OTULIN was necessary for EA to mitigate brain injury and glial cell activation in a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model in rats. Read More

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Venetoclax combinations induce high response rates in newly diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia patients ineligible for intensive chemotherapy in routine practice.

Am J Hematol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Hematology, Shamir Medical Center (formerly Assaf Harofe Medical Center), Zerifin, Israel, affiliated to the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Combinations of the BCL-2 inhibitor, venetoclax, with either hypomethylating agents (HMA), or low dose cytarabine (LDAC), have shown promising results in clinical trials of AML patients unfit for intensive therapy. We report on the efficacy and safety of AML patients that were treated with venetoclax combinations outside of clinical trials. Data on 133 patients with a mean age of 77 years is included. Read More

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Comprehensive Review of Cardiovascular Involvement in COVID-19.

AACN Adv Crit Care 2021 Apr 15:e1-e19. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Ruff Joseph Macale Cajanding is Charge Nurse, Adult Critical Care Unit, 6th Floor, King George V Building, St. Bartholomew's Hospital, Barts Health NHS Trust, 2 King Edward Street, London EC1A 1HQ, United Kingdom

COVID-19 has emerged as one of the most devastating and clinically significant infectious diseases of the last decade. It has reached global pandemic status at an unprecedented pace and has placed significant demands on health care systems worldwide. Although COVID-19 primarily affects the lungs, epidemiologic reports have shown that the disease affects other vital organs of the body, including the heart, vasculature, kidneys, brain, and the hematopoietic system. Read More

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Renal replacement therapy modality in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury - A network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

J Crit Care 2021 Mar 25;64:82-90. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, HwaMei Hospital, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315000, China; Ningbo Institute of Life and Health Industry, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315000, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: This network meta-analysis aims to compare the efficacy and safety of various renal replacement therapy (RRT) modalities in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI).

Materials And Methods: We searched the electronic databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing different RRT modalities, including continuous RRT, intermittent RRT, hybrid RRT, and peritoneal dialysis (PD), in critically ill patients with AKI through July 26, 2020. The primary outcomes were renal recovery and short-term mortality. Read More

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Topical ketamine as a local anesthetic agent in reducing venipuncture pain: A randomized controlled trial.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 Apr 3;48:48-53. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of General Surgery, Ealing Hospital, London North West University Healthcare NHS Trust, London, Uxbridge Road, Southall UB1 3HW, UK.

Aim: Pain control is an important aspect of ED patient management, and there are many different protocols used around the world influenced by both availability of local resources as well as staff competency and experience. This study aims to evaluate the use of topical ketamine in acute pain reduction by directly comparing it to lidocaine-prilocaine (EMLA) cream.

Materials And Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 300 adult patients classified as level 4 or 5 by ESI triage system were enrolled. Read More

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Ceftriaxone reduces waterpipe tobacco smoke withdrawal-induced anxiety in rats via modulating the expression of TNF-α/NFĸB, Nrf2, and GLT-1.

Neuroscience 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Yarmouk University, Irbid 21110, Jordan.

Tobacco exposure has been linked to neuroinflammation and adaptive/maladaptive changes in neurotransmitter systems, including in glutamatergic systems. We examined the effects of waterpipe tobacco smoke (WTS) on inflammatory mediators and astroglial glutamate transporters in mesocorticolimbic brain regions including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). The behavioral consequences of WTS exposure on withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behavior were assessed using elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field (OF) tests. Read More

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Progression of changes in vascular surgery practices during the novel corona virus SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

Ann Vasc Surg 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Division of Vascular and Endovscular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Saint Louis University. Electronic address:

Introduction: The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly since it was identified. We sought to understand its effects on vascular surgery practices stratified by VASCON surgical readiness level and determine how these effects have changed during the course of the pandemic.

Methods: All members of the Vascular and Endovascular Surgery Society were sent electronic surveys questioning the effects of COVID-19 on their practices in the early pandemic in April (EP) and four months later in the pandemic in August (LP) 2020. Read More

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Inhibition of Autophagy Does Not Affect Innate Cytokine Production in Human Lung Epithelial Cells During Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection.

Viral Immunol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.

Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the major causes of childhood acute lower respiratory tract infection worldwide. Autophagy is an intracellular pathway involved in nutrient recycling. Recently, autophagy has been reported to play a role in regulating host cytokine response to several viruses, including vesicular stomatitis virus and human immunodeficiency virus. Read More

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Effects of angiotensin II receptor blocker usage on viral load, antibody dynamics, and transcriptional characteristics among COVID-19 patients with hypertension.

J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2021 Apr;22(4):330-340

Department of Laboratory Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310003, China.

Epidemiological evidence suggests that patients with hypertension infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are at increased risk of acute lung injury. However, it is still not clear whether this increased risk is related to the usage of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers. We collected medical records of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients from the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine (Hangzhou, China), and evaluated the potential impact of an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) on the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients with hypertension. Read More

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