86,615 results match your criteria acute behavioral

Effect of cohabiting partners on the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms after emergency department visits for stroke and transient ischemic attack.

Soc Sci Med 2021 May 30;281:114088. Epub 2021 May 30.

Center for Behavioral Cardiovascular Health, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Objective: Partners can be beneficial for patients experiencing stressful health events such as a stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA). During such events, however, partners may exacerbate early distress. The present study tested whether having a cohabiting partner modified the association between patients' early perceptions of threat (e. Read More

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Lesion loci of impaired affective prosody: A systematic review of evidence from stroke.

Brain Cogn 2021 Jun 9;152:105759. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, United States; Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, United States; Department of Cognitive Science, Krieger School of Arts and Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, United States.

Affective prosody, or the changes in rate, rhythm, pitch, and loudness that convey emotion, has long been implicated as a function of the right hemisphere (RH), yet there is a dearth of literature identifying the specific neural regions associated with its processing. The current systematic review aimed to evaluate the evidence on affective prosody localization in the RH. One hundred and ninety articles from 1970 to February 2020 investigating affective prosody comprehension and production in patients with focal brain damage were identified via database searches. Read More

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Acupuncture as an adjunctive treatment for pain in hospitalized children with sickle cell disease.

J Pain Symptom Manage 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Pediatrics, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington DC; Division of Hematology, Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Children's National Hospital, Washington DC. Electronic address:

Context: Acute episodes of pain associated with sickle cell disease (SCD) account for over 100,000 hospitalizations and expenses of nearly 1 billion dollars annually in the United States. New treatment approaches are needed as the current opioid based therapy is often inadequate in controlling pain, resulting in prolonged inpatient stays and high rates of readmission.

Objectives: To evaluate acceptability of acupuncture as an adjunctive therapy and explore the impact of acupuncture on pain related outcomes in a population of youth with SCD hospitalized for management of acute pain. Read More

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Beef cattle feedlot surface water containing multi-class agrochemicals elicits physiological and behavioral responses among Daphnia pulex.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Jun 12;193(7):414. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, 79416, USA.

Despite increasing public concern about air and water pollution risks posed by concentrated animal feeding operation areas (CAFOs), there is little information about bioavailability and ecosystem impacts of agrochemicals used to increase productivity. In this study, we investigated the toxicity of wastewaters originating from beef cattle feeding operation on Daphnia pulex. Specifically, we assessed lethal and chronic sublethal exposure effects using various endpoints including survival, oxygen consumption, morphology, reproduction, and swimming behavior. Read More

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Q134R: Small chemical compound with NFAT inhibitory properties improves behavioral performance and synapse function in mouse models of amyloid pathology.

Aging Cell 2021 Jun 12:e13416. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, USA.

Inhibition of the protein phosphatase calcineurin (CN) ameliorates pathophysiologic and cognitive changes in aging rodents and mice with aging-related Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like pathology. However, concerns over adverse effects have slowed the transition of common CN-inhibiting drugs to the clinic for the treatment of AD and AD-related disorders. Targeting substrates of CN, like the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATs), has been suggested as an alternative, safer approach to CN inhibitors. Read More

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Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Dysfunction by Early Life Stress.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Jun 8:136037. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Centre for Affective Disorders, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience-King's College London, UK.

Evidence indicates that early life stress (ELS) may act as a risk factor for the development and maintenance of adulthood severe mental health disorders due to persistent dysregulation within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. It is now broadly accepted that psychological stress may change the internal homeostatic state of an individual. The dysregulation seems to be a byproduct of changes noted in the HPA axis hormone's ability to bind to the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors, crucial in maintaining homeostasis. Read More

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The influence of extracellular tissue on neutrophil function and its possible linkage to inflammatory diseases.

Immun Inflamm Dis 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Anaesthesiology, University Medical Centre Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

Background: Migration, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), release of myeloperoxidase (MPO), and NETosis are functional immunological reactions of elementary importance for polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). Unregulated inflammatory response of PMN within tissues plays a key role in the pathophysiology of several diseases. However, little is known about the behavior of PMN after migration through blood vessel walls. Read More

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β-cyclodextrin chitosan-based hydrogels with tunable pH-responsive properties for controlled release of acyclovir: design, characterization, safety, and pharmacokinetic evaluation.

Drug Deliv 2021 Dec;28(1):1093-1108

Department of Pharmacy, The Women University, Multan, Pakistan.

In this work, series of pH-responsive hydrogels (FMA1-FMA9) were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated as potential carrier for oral delivery of an antiviral drug, acyclovir (ACV). Different proportions of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), chitosan (CS), methacrylic acid (MAA) and N' N'-methylenebis-acrylamide (MBA) were used to fabricate hydrogels free radical polymerization technique. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed fabrication of new polymeric network, with successful incorporation of ACV. Read More

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December 2021

The effect of acute aerobic exercise on the consolidation of motor memories.

Exp Brain Res 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada.

Acute aerobic exercise performed prior to training may assist with motor skill acquisition through enhancement of motor cortical plasticity. In addition, high-intensity exercise performed after training improves retention, although the mechanisms of this are unclear. We hypothesized that acute continuous moderate-intensity exercise performed post-motor training would also assist with motor skill retention and that this behavioral change would be positively correlated with neural markers of training-related cortical adaptation. Read More

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Screening for Sarcopenia (Physical Frailty) in the COVID-19 Era.

Int J Endocrinol 2021 21;2021:5563960. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Psychiatry, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Although the numbers of aged populations have risen considerably in the last few decades, the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has revealed an extensive vulnerability among these populations. Sarcopenia is an age-related disorder that increases hospitalization, dependencies, and mortality in older adults. It starts to develop in midlife or even earlier as a result of unbalanced diet/poor nutrition and low levels of physical activity, in addition to chronic disorders such as obesity and diabetes mellitus. Read More

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Optogenetic Manipulations of Amygdala Neurons Modulate Spinal Nociceptive Processing and Behavior Under Normal Conditions and in an Arthritis Pain Model.

Front Pharmacol 2021 25;12:668337. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Pharmacology and Neuroscience, School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX, United States.

The amygdala is an important neural substrate for the emotional-affective dimension of pain and modulation of pain. The central nucleus (CeA) serves major amygdala output functions and receives nociceptive and affected-related information from the spino-parabrachial and lateral-basolateral amygdala (LA-BLA) networks. The CeA is a major site of extra-hypothalamic expression of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF, also known as corticotropin releasing hormone, CRH), and amygdala CRF neurons form widespread projections to target regions involved in behavioral and descending pain modulation. Read More

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Improving NKCC1 Function Increases the Excitability of DRG Neurons Exacerbating Pain Induced After TRPV1 Activation of Primary Sensory Neurons.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 25;15:665596. Epub 2021 May 25.

The Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Endemic and Ethnic Diseases, Department of Physiology, Shihezi University Medical College, Shihezi, China.

Our aim was to investigate the effects of the protein expression and the function of sodium, potassium, and chloride co-transporter (NKCC1) in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) after activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor (TRPV1) in capsaicin-induced acute inflammatory pain and the possible mechanism of action. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, capsaicin, and inhibitor groups. The expression and distribution of TRPV1 and NKCC1 in rat DRG were observed by immunofluorescence. Read More

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A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Demographic and Behavioral Risk Factors of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Seropositivity Among a Sample of U.S. College Students.

J Adolesc Health 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Indiana University School of Public Health-Bloomington, Bloomington, Indiana.

Purpose: Colleges and universities across the United States are developing and implementing data-driven prevention and containment measures against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Identifying risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity could help to direct these efforts. This study aimed to estimate the associations between demographic factors and social behaviors and SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity and self-reported positive SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic test. Read More

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Relevant essential oil components: a minireview on increasing applications and potential toxicity.

Toxicol Mech Methods 2021 Jun 10:1-27. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitat de València. Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain.

Phenolic compounds carvacrol, thymol, eugenol and vanillin are four of the most thoroughly investigated essential oil components given their relevant biological properties. These compounds are generally considered safe for consumption and have been used in a wide range of food and non-food applications. Significant biological properties, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic or anti-carcinogenic activity, have been described for these components. Read More

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Exercisers' Affective and Enjoyment Responses: A Meta-Analytic and Meta-Regression Review.

Percept Mot Skills 2021 Jun 10:315125211024212. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Discipline of Exercise and Sports Science, Sydney School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia.

Affective responses and enjoyment of exercise mediate exercise adherence, but previous research findings have failed to examine nuances that may moderate this relationship. We examined the effects of exercise on affective and enjoyment responses during and post exercise through a systematic literature review and meta-regression analysis. We searched major databases up to July 9, 2020 for studies evaluating healthy adults' acute and chronic responses to exercise, using either of The Feeling Scale or Physical Activity Enjoyment Scales. Read More

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Transdiagnostic versus Diagnosis-Specific Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disorders and Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Psychother Psychosom 2021 Jun 10:1-14. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Research Unit for Psychotherapy and Psychopathology, Mental Health Service West, Copenhagen University Hospital, Psychiatry Region Zealand, Slagelse, Denmark.

Introduction: The Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders (UP) delivered in a group format could facilitate the implementation of evidence-based psychological treatments.

Objective: This study compared the efficacy of group UP and diagnosis-specific cognitive behavioral therapy (dCBT) for anxiety and depression in outpatient mental health services.

Methods: In this pragmatic, multi-center, single-blinded, non-inferiority, randomized controlled trial (RCT), we assigned 291 patients with major depressive disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, or agoraphobia to 14 weekly sessions in mixed-diagnosis UP or single-diagnosis dCBT groups. Read More

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Orexin 2 receptor in the nucleus accumbens is critical for the modulation of acute stress-induced anxiety.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 Jun 7;131:105317. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Orexin is a neuropeptide mainly synthesized in the lateral hypothalamus/perifornical area and has been traditionally implicated in feeding, sleep-wake cycles, and reward. Intriguingly, patients with anxiety have increased levels of orexin in the cerebrospinal fluid. Pharmacological or genetic manipulation of orexin receptors affects anxiety-like behaviors in rodents, suggesting an involvement of the orexin signaling in the regulation of anxiety. Read More

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Anhedonia in tobacco withdrawal among African-American smokers.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Preventive Medicine.

Anhedonia-diminished interest and pleasure in response to rewards-may be a symptom of tobacco withdrawal that is understudied in priority populations. This experiment investigated the magnitude and correlates of various dimensions of anhedonia during tobacco withdrawal among African-American (AA) smokers-a population subject to health disparities. AA smokers ( = 607; ≥ 10 cigarettes/day, 37. Read More

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Evidence from an fMRI study that dessert-flavored e-cigarettes engage taste-related, but not smoking-related, brain circuitry for female daily smokers.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Neurosurgery.

Regulations limiting the sale of flavored e-cigarette products are controversial for their potential to interfere with e-cigarette use as a cessation aid in addition to curbing youth use. Limited research suggests that flavor might enhance the addictive potential of e-cigarettes; however, the acute effects of flavored aerosols on brain function among humans have not been assessed. The present study aimed to isolate and compare the neural substrates of flavored and unflavored e-cigarette aerosols on brain function among nine female daily smokers. Read More

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Communities of Practice in Acute and Forensic Psychiatry: Lessons Learned and Perceived Effects.

Psychiatr Q 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Ethics, Law and Humanities, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, VU University F-Wing, De Boelelaan 1089a, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

In the Netherlands, two new approaches have been developed for acute and forensic psychiatry, called High and Intensive Care (HIC) and Forensic High and Intensive Care (FHIC). The models provide standards for temporary high-quality clinical care for patients in crisis and combine practices to reduce seclusion. To support the implementation of these approaches, Communities of Practice (CoPs) were created, including peer providers, mental health nurses, psychiatrists and managers. Read More

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Course, Moderators, and Predictors of Acute Coronary Syndrome-Induced Post-traumatic Stress: A Secondary Analysis From the Myocardial Infarction-Stress Prevention Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial.

Front Psychiatry 2021 14;12:621284. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry and Psychosomatic Medicine, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) induce post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in one out of eight patients. Effects of preventive interventions, the course and potential moderators of ACS-induced PTSS are vastly understudied. This study explored whether a preventive behavioral intervention leads to a decrease in myocardial infarction (MI)-induced PTSS between two follow-up assessments. Read More

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Associative learning in larval and adult Drosophila is impaired by the dopamine-synthesis inhibitor 3-Iodo-L-tyrosine.

Biol Open 2021 Jun 9;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology, Department of Genetics, 39118 Magdeburg, Germany.

Across the animal kingdom, dopamine plays a crucial role in conferring reinforcement signals that teach animals about the causal structure of the world. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, dopaminergic reinforcement has largely been studied using genetics, whereas pharmacological approaches have received less attention. Here, we apply the dopamine-synthesis inhibitor 3-Iodo-L-tyrosine (3IY), which causes acute systemic inhibition of dopamine signaling, and investigate its effects on Pavlovian conditioning. Read More

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An Intervention to Improve Medication Adherence in People With Heart Disease (Text4HeartII): Randomized Controlled Trial.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2021 Jun 9;9(6):e24952. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

National Institute for Health Innovation, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Background: Mobile health technologies have the potential to improve the reach and delivery of interventions for promoting long-term secondary prevention of coronary heart disease.

Objective: This study aims to determine the effectiveness of an SMS text messaging intervention (Text4HeartII) for improving adherence to medication and lifestyle changes over and above usual care in people with coronary heart disease at 24 and 52 weeks.

Methods: A two-arm, parallel, randomized controlled trial was conducted in New Zealand. Read More

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Effects of acute mental stress on conditioned pain modulation in temporomandibular disorders patients and healthy individuals.

J Appl Oral Sci 2021 4;29:e20200952. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Odontologia de Bauru, Departamento de Prótese e Periodontia, Bauru, Brasil.

Background: Stress is a contributing factor to painful temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Nevertheless, the underpinnings of this relationship are not fully understood.

Objective: To investigate the effects of acute mental stress on conditioned pain modulation (CPM) in TMD patients compared with healthy individuals. Read More

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PEARL study protocol: a real-world study of fremanezumab effectiveness in patients with chronic or episodic migraine.

Pain Manag 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of First Neurology, Aeginition Hospital, Medical School, National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, 11528, Greece.

Fremanezumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody (IgG2Δa) that selectively targets calcitonin gene-related peptide and is approved in Europe for migraine prevention in adults with ≥4 migraine days/month. The Pan-European Real Life (PEARL) study is a 24-month, prospective, observational study of fremanezumab in chronic or episodic migraine. End points include proportion of patients with ≥50% reduction in monthly migraine days during 6 months of treatment (primary); changes in monthly migraine days, disability scores and acute headache medication use; adherence and persistence; and effectiveness in patients switching from another calcitonin gene-related peptide pathway-targeting monoclonal antibody. Read More

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Natural Killer Cells Are Present in Rag1 Mice and Promote Tissue Damage During the Acute Phase of Ischemic Stroke.

Transl Stroke Res 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Neurology With Institute of Translational Neurology, University of Muenster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, 48149, Muenster, Germany.

Rag1 mice, lacking functional B and T cells, have been extensively used as an adoptive transfer model to evaluate neuroinflammation in stroke research. However, it remains unknown whether natural killer (NK) cell development and functions are altered in Rag1 mice as well. This connection has been rarely discussed in previous studies but might have important implications for data interpretation. Read More

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Gastrointestinal Ultrasound in Functional Disorders of the Gastrointestinal Tract - EFSUMB Consensus Statement.

Ultrasound Int Open 2021 Apr 28;7(1):E14-E24. Epub 2021 May 28.

Haukeland University Hospital, Haukeland University Hospital, and Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Abdominal ultrasonography and intestinal ultrasonography are widely used as first diagnostic tools for investigating patients with abdominal symptoms, mainly for excluding organic diseases. However, gastrointestinal ultrasound (GIUS), as a real-time diagnostic imaging method, can also provide information on motility, flow, perfusion, peristalsis, and organ filling and emptying, with high temporal and spatial resolution. Thanks to its noninvasiveness and high repeatability, GIUS can investigate functional gastrointestinal processes and functional gastrointestinal diseases (FGID) by studying their behavior over time and their response to therapy and providing insight into their pathophysiologic mechanisms. Read More

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Defensive freezing and its relation to approach-avoidance decision-making under threat.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 8;11(1):12030. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Radboud University, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Successful responding to acutely threatening situations requires adequate approach-avoidance decisions. However, it is unclear how threat-induced states-like freezing-related bradycardia-impact the weighing of the potential outcomes of such value-based decisions. Insight into the underlying computations is essential, not only to improve our models of decision-making but also to improve interventions for maladaptive decisions, for instance in anxiety patients and first-responders who frequently have to make decisions under acute threat. Read More

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Temperature and population density influence SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the absence of nonpharmaceutical interventions.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 06;118(25)

Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Ascot SL5 7PY, United Kingdom;

As COVID-19 continues to spread across the world, it is increasingly important to understand the factors that influence its transmission. Seasonal variation driven by responses to changing environment has been shown to affect the transmission intensity of several coronaviruses. However, the impact of the environment on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains largely unknown, and thus seasonal variation remains a source of uncertainty in forecasts of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Read More

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