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Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec)-15 is a rapidly internalised cell-surface antigen expressed by acute myeloid leukaemia cells.

Br J Haematol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology (DMI), The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec)-15 has recently been identified as a critical tumour checkpoint, augmenting the expression and function of programmed death-ligand 1. We raised a monoclonal antibody, A9E8, specific for Siglec-15 using phage display. A9E8 stained myeloid leukaemia cell lines and peripheral cluster of differentiation (CD)33 blasts and CD34 leukaemia stem cells from patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Read More

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A rare case of a necrotized urethral prolapse in a postmenopausal woman with acute urinary retention.

Low Urin Tract Symptoms 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Institute of Clinical Sciences at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Case: Urethral prolapse (UP) is a rare condition with unknown etiology. We reported on an 86-year-old woman with a normal BMI and cystocele, presented with acute urinary retention and perineal pain. A residual urine of 950 mL was measured and released by an indwelling catheter. Read More

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Impact of myocardial infarction symptom presentation on emergency response and survival.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Cardiology, Nordsjællands Hospital, Dyrehavevej 29, Hillerød 2400, Denmark.

Aims: We examined associations between symptom presentation and chance of receiving an emergency dispatch and 30-day mortality among patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI).

Methods And Results: Copenhagen, Denmark has a 24-h non-emergency medical helpline and an emergency number 1-1-2 (equivalent to 9-1-1). Both services register symptoms/purpose of calls. Read More

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Effect of Inhibition of the JAK2/STAT3 Signaling Pathway on the Th17/IL-17 Axis in Acute Cellular Rejection After Heart Transplantation in Mice.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2021 Apr 7;77(5):614-620. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, People's Republic of China.

Abstract: Acute immune rejection is one of the most serious complications of heart transplantation, and its mechanism has always been a hot spot. Th17 cells and cytokine interleukin-17 (IL-17) have been proved to be involved in acute immune rejection, and the signaling pathway mechanism has attracted our interest. It has been confirmed that the Janus kinase 2-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK2/STAT3) signaling pathway is involved in the differentiation of CD4+ T cells, so we focus on whether the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway is involved in the occurrence of acute immune rejection by regulating the Th17/IL-17 axis. Read More

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Mapping Telemedicine in German Private Practice Urological Care: Implications for Transitioning beyond the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Urol Int 2021 May 5:1-7. Epub 2021 May 5.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Urologie, Klinikum der Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Background: There are limited data on the use and concern of telemedicine among German urologists, and thus, there are no established guidelines for telemedical diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of urological indications.

Methods: An anonymized survey was conducted among German private practice urologists during the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. The χ2 test, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for statistical analysis. Read More

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Are Individuals with Substance Use Disorders at Higher Risk of SARS-CoV-2 Infection? Population-Based Registry Study in Northern Italy.

Eur Addict Res 2021 May 5:1-5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Epidemiology Unit, Azienda Unità Sanitaria Locale-IRCCS di Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia, Italy.

Background And Aim: This study assesses whether individuals with substance use disorder are at greater risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection than people in the general population.

Methods: A population-based study was conducted including 3,780 individuals, diagnosed with alcohol or other drug dependence and cared for by the addiction service (AS) in the province of Reggio Emilia. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) and relative 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of being tested and of being SARS-CoV-2 positive in the population of interest compared with those in the general population of Reggio Emilia were calculated. Read More

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Association between Diabetes Mellitus and Contrast-Associated Acute Kidney Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of 1.1 Million Contrast Exposure Patients.

Nephron 2021 May 5:1-11. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Cardiology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coronary Heart Disease Prevention, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Although diabetes mellitus (DM) has been a common risk factor of contrast-associated acute kidney injury (CA-AKI) for a long time, several current studies showed that DM is not an independent risk factor. Due to this diverse finding, we aim to conduct a systematic review assessing the effect of DM on CA-AKI.

Methods: We searched Ovid Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (to June 1, 2020) for studies assessing the association between DM and CA-AKI. Read More

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Efficiency and Clinical Outcomes of Moses Technology with Flexible Ureteroscopic Laser Lithotripsy for Treatment of Renal Calculus.

Urol Int 2021 May 5:1-7. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Urology, Beijing Electric Power Hospital, SGCC (State Gird Corporation of China), Beijing, China.

Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the efficiency and clinical outcomes of Moses contact mode (MCM) and regular dusting mode (RDM) during flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy (FURL) for treatment of renal calculus.

Methods: This retrospective analysis examined 216 patients with renal calculus who underwent FURL with MCM or RDM between March 2015 and January 2020. Stone characteristics, including size, volume, and density, were collected. Read More

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Rural Stroke Surveillance and Establishment of Acute Stroke Care Pathway Using Frontline Health Workers in Rural Northwest India: The Ludhiana Experience.

Neuroepidemiology 2021 May 5:1-9. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Neurology, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, India.

Background And Purpose: The role of community health workers (CHWs) in stroke surveillance and in establishing the stroke care pathway has not been studied. The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of using CHWs in the public health system to identify stroke patients for population-based stroke registration and to study the establishment of acute stroke care pathway in rural areas of Ludhiana, Punjab, Northwest India.

Methods: Two rural blocks in Ludhiana district, comprising 164 villages and a population of 259,778, were selected. Read More

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The Immune Responses against Coronavirus Infections: Friend or Foe?

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2021 May 5:1-14. Epub 2021 May 5.

Cancer Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran.

Coronaviruses (CoVs) were first discovered in the 1960s. Severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been identified as the cause of COVID-19, which spread throughout China and subsequently, across the world. As COVID-19 causes serious public health concerns across the world, investigating the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and its interaction with the host immune responses may provide a clearer picture of how the pathogen causes disease in some individuals. Read More

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Renal Impairment and Risk of Acute Stroke: The INTERSTROKE Study.

Neuroepidemiology 2021 May 5:1-10. Epub 2021 May 5.

Estudios Clinicos Latinoamerica, Rosario, Argentina.

Background: Previous studies reported an association of renal impairment with stroke, but there are uncertainties underpinning this association.

Aims: We explored if the association is explained by shared risk factors or is independent and whether there are regional or stroke subtype variations.

Methods: INTERSTROKE is a case-control study and the largest international study of risk factors for first acute stroke, completed in 27 countries. Read More

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Immunological and inflammatory profiles during acute and convalescent phases of severe/ critically ill COVID-19 patients.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Apr 17;97:107685. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China; KingMed School of Laboratory Medicine, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Background: The 2019 Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic poses a huge threat internationally; however, the role of the host immune system in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is not well understood.

Methods: Cytokine and chemokine levels and characterisation of immune cell subsets from 20 COVID-19 cases after hospital admission (17 critically ill and 3 severe patients) and 16 convalescent patients were determined using a multiplex immunoassay and flow cytometry, respectively.

Results: IP-10, MCP-1, MIG, IL-6, and IL-10 levels were significantly higher in acute severe/critically ill patients with COVID-19, whereas were normal in patients who had reached convalescence. Read More

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Vitamin D deficiency exacerbates hepatic oxidative stress and inflammation during acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury in mice.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 May 2;97:107716. Epub 2021 May 2.

First Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, China. Electronic address:

Several experiments confirmed that vitamin D3 protected against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver injury (ALI). This research aimed to evaluate the influence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) on APAP-induced ALI. In VDD and VDD + APAP groups, mice were fed with VDD diet. Read More

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Liver transplantation for patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) in Europe: results of the ELITA/EF-CLIF collaborative study (ECLIS).

J Hepatol 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of hepatogastroenterology, Hepatology and Liver Transplantation Unit, HCL Hopital de la Croix-Rousse, Lyon, France.

Background And Aims: Liver transplantation (LT) has been proposed to be an effective salvage therapy even for the sickest patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). This large collaborative study was designed to address the current clinical practice and outcomes of ACLF patients wait listed (WL) for LT in Europe.

Methods: Retrospective study including 308 consecutive ACLF patients, listed in 20 centres across 8 European countries, from January 2018 to June 2019. Read More

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Aspiration Thrombectomy with the Indigo System for Acute Lower Limb Ischemia: preliminary experience and analysis of parameters affecting the outcome.

Ann Vasc Surg 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, "Sapienza" - University of Rome, Italy. Radiology and Interventional Radiology Unit, Sant'Andrea University Hospital.

Purpose: The purpose of our study is to assess the short-term technical success and the safety of the Indigo System in a series of patients undergoing vacuum-assisted catheter direct thrombus aspiration (IS-CDTA) for acute lower limb ischemia (ALLI) and to evaluate which parameters may affect the outcome.

Materials And Methods: All procedures using the IS-CDTA for ALLI, performed in a single-centre Interventional Radiology Unit from February 2016 to March 2020, were retrospectively analysed. Technical success was defined as the achievement of nearly-complete or complete revascularization (TIPI grade 2/3) and considered as a good outcome. Read More

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PROGNOSTIC VALUE OF CHARLSON COMORBIDITY INDEX IN ACUTE EMBOLIC LOWER LIMB ISCHAEMIA PATIENTS.

Ann Vasc Surg 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Angiology and Vascular Surgery Department, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, EPE, Praceta Professor Mota Pinto, 3000-075 Coimbra, Portugal. Electronic address:

Introduction: Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) is commonly used in outcome studies to adjust for patient comorbid conditions but has not been specifically validated for use in acute embolic lower limb ischaemia (AELLI).

Objectives: The aim of this study was to access whether a high CCI score unadjusted (CCIu) and adjusted (CCIa) by age relates to major amputation and mortality after a first episode of AELLI.

Methods: The last 100 patients presenting with the first event of AELLI submitted to embolectomy at our Vascular Surgery Department were retrospectively evaluated. Read More

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Predictors of Adherence to Anti-Impulse Therapy Among Patients Treated for Acute Type-B Aortic Dissections.

Ann Vasc Surg 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Division of Vascular Surgery.

Objectives: Medical management remains the mainstay of treatment for patients who present with acute Type-B aortic dissections (TBAD). However, it is unclear whether patients maintain adherence to their anti-impulse therapy medication regimen following hospital discharge. This study was designed to evaluate rates and predictors of medication adherence among insured patients treated for acute TBAD. Read More

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COULD GENDER IMPACT ON IMMEDIATE AND LONG-TERM CAROTID ARTERY STENTING OUTCOME? INSIGHT FROM AN ITALIAN SINGLE CENTER EXPERIENCE.

Ann Vasc Surg 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery Unit, Department of Surgery, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Introduction: Carotid artery stenting (CAS) has become a valid alternative to carotid endarterectomy in stroke prevention. However, female gender is still considered as an independent risk factor for CAS procedures, potentially limiting immediate and long-term benefits. Aim of present study was to evaluate gender differences in CAS submitted patients from an Italian high-volume center. Read More

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Characterizing the seizure onset zone and epileptic network using EEG-fMRI in a rat seizure model.

Neuroimage 2021 May 2:118133. Epub 2021 May 2.

Bioland Laboratory Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health Guangdong Laboratory, Guangzhou, China; Beijing Institute of Brain Disorders, Laboratory of Brain Disorders, Ministry of Science and Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Disorders, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Neuroelectrophysiological Laboratory, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Accurate epileptogenic zone (EZ) or seizure onset zone (SOZ) localization is crucial for epilepsy surgery optimization. Previous animal and human studies on epilepsy have reported that changes in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals induced by epileptic events could be used as diagnostic markers for EZ or SOZ localization. Simultaneous electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) recording is gaining interest as a non-invasive tool for preoperative epilepsy evaluation. Read More

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Bioactive lipid mediators in the initiation and resolution of inflammation after spinal cord injury.

Neuroscience 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Departament de Biologia Cel·lular, Fisiologia i Inmunologia, Institut de Neurociències, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia, Spain.

Neuroinflammation is a prominent feature of the response to CNS trauma. It is also an important hallmark of various neurodegenerative diseases in which inflammation contributes to the progression of pathology. Inflammation in the CNS can contribute to secondary damage and is therefore an excellent therapeutic target for a range of neurological conditions. Read More

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Comparison of Myeloablative Versus Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Regimens in Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients with Acute Myelogenous Leukemia with MRD Negative Disease at the Time of Transplant: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Blood and Marrow Transplant Center, AdventHealth Orlando Hospital, Orlando, FL 32804, USA. Electronic address:

Background/objective: The ideal conditioning intensity in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is evolving. Previous prospective studies comparing myeloablative versus reduced intensity conditioning regimens in adults with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) have shown mixed results. In many of these studies, patients were not stratified based on measurable residual disease (MRD). Read More

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Acute ingestion of a high-fructose drink impairs vascular autonomic modulation and reflex control of blood pressure in first-degree relatives of diabetic patients.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2021 May 2:108793. Epub 2021 May 2.

Cardiology Institute (IC)/Cardiology University Foundation (FUC) of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil; Physical Therapy Department, Federal University of Health Sciences of Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, Brazil.

First-degree relatives of diabetes patients, despite being euglycemic, presented impaired BRS and exacerbation of sympathetic modulation after ingestion of a high fructose drink when challenged to orthostatic stress. This finding alerts the importance of early autonomic dysfunction even in clinically healthy people, especially in face of a stressful situation. Read More

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Single-session effects of acute intermittent hypoxia on breathing function after human spinal cord injury.

Exp Neurol 2021 May 2:113735. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Physical Therapy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States; Brooks Rehabilitation, Jacksonville, FL, United States; Breathing Research and Therapeutics Center, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States. Electronic address:

After spinal cord injury (SCI) respiratory complications are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) triggers spinal respiratory motor plasticity in rodent models, and repetitive AIH may have the potential to restore breathing capacity in those with SCI. As an initial approach to provide proof of principle for such effects, we tested single-session AIH effects on breathing function in adults with chronic SCI. Read More

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Parvalbumin affects skeletal muscle trophism through modulation of mitochondrial calcium uptake.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(5):109087

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padua, Padua 35131, Italy; Myology Center, University of Padua, via G. Colombo 3, 35100 Padova, Italy. Electronic address:

Parvalbumin (PV) is a cytosolic Ca-binding protein highly expressed in fast skeletal muscle, contributing to an increased relaxation rate. Moreover, PV is an "atrogene" downregulated in most muscle atrophy conditions. Here, we exploit mice lacking PV to explore the link between the two PV functions. Read More

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CD8 T cells specific for an immunodominant SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid epitope display high naive precursor frequency and TCR promiscuity.

Immunity 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, VIC 3084, Australia; Department of Medicine and Radiology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3000, Australia; Data Analytics Research and Evaluation (DARE) Centre, Austin Health and The University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, VIC 3084, Australia.

To better understand primary and recall T cell responses during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it is important to examine unmanipulated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific T cells. By using peptide-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) tetramers for direct ex vivo analysis, we characterized CD8 T cells specific for SARS-CoV-2 epitopes in COVID-19 patients and unexposed individuals. Unlike CD8 T cells directed toward subdominant epitopes (B7/N, A2/S, and A24/S) CD8 T cells specific for the immunodominant B7/N epitope were detected at high frequencies in pre-pandemic samples and at increased frequencies during acute COVID-19 and convalescence. Read More

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Uncoupling of macrophage inflammation from self-renewal modulates host recovery from respiratory viral infection.

Immunity 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, MN 55905, USA; Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic address:

Tissue macrophages self-renew during homeostasis and produce inflammatory mediators upon microbial infection. We examined the relationship between proliferative and inflammatory properties of tissue macrophages by defining the impact of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, a central regulator of self-renewal, in alveolar macrophages (AMs) . Activation of β-catenin by Wnt ligand inhibited AM proliferation and stemness, but promoted inflammatory activity. Read More

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Effects of the PCSK9 Antibody Alirocumab on Coronary Atherosclerosis in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Serial, Multivessel, Intravascular Ultrasound, Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging Study Rationale and Design of the PACMAN-AMI trial.

Am Heart J 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Cardiology, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: The risk for cardiovascular adverse events after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains high despite potent medical treatment including low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering with statins. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) antibodies substantially reduce LDL-C when added to statin. Alirocumab, a momoclonal antibody to PCSK9, reduces major adverse cardiovascular events after AMI. Read More

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Mortality and Healthcare Utilization of Patients with Compensated Hypercapnia.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

University of Michigan, 1259, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States.

Rationale: Acute hypercapnic respiratory failure has been shown to be associated with worse outcomes for various disease states, but less is known about patients with compensated hypercapnic respiratory failure. Although these patients have a normal pH, it remains unknown whether chronically elevated partial pressures of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), irrespective of etiology, put patients at risk of adverse events.

Objectives: To understand the burden of and clinical factors associated with morbidity and mortality in patients with compensated hypercapnic respiratory failure. Read More

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Efficacy of NVX-CoV2373 Covid-19 Vaccine against the B.1.351 Variant.

N Engl J Med 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

From Novavax, Gaithersburg, MD (V.S., L. Fries, S.C.-C., M.Z., C.B., G.A., E.F., J.S.P., A.R., S.N., I.C., G.M.G., F.D.); and the South African Medical Research Council, Vaccines and Infectious Diseases Analytics Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences (S.B., V.B., A.L.K., A.O.-J., A.T., S.A.M.), Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute (L. Fairlie, G.B.), University of the Witwatersrand, and Soweto Clinical Trials Centre (Q.B., A.E.B.), Johannesburg, Josha Research Centre, Bloemfontein (Z.H., J.J.L., S.F.), the Paediatric Infectious Diseases Unit (M.A., R.M.), the Respiratory and Critical Care Unit (U.L., N.L.), the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (D.M.), Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (S.H.), and Kwazulu-Natal Research Innovation and Sequencing Platform (T.O.), Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, the Setshaba Research Centre, Tshwane (M.S.L.M., A.P., K.A.), the Limpopo Clinical Research Initiative, Rustenburg (L. Fouche, P.-L.V.), the Madibeng Centre for Research, Department of Family Medicine, School of Health, University of Pretoria (C.L.), and the Aurum Institute (C.G.), Pretoria, the South African TB Vaccine Initiative (M.T., N.S., A.L.) and the Centre for Lung Infection and Immunity, Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, and UCT Lung Institute (K.D., A.E.), University of Cape Town, and the Health Systems Research Unit and the HIV Prevention Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council (N.S., A.G.), Cape Town, Mzansi Ethical Research Centre, Middelburg (G.K., F.G.P.), and Peermed Clinical Trial Centre, Kempton Park (N.C.-G.) - all in South Africa.

Background: The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants threatens progress toward control of the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic. In a phase 1-2 trial involving healthy adults, the NVX-CoV2373 nanoparticle vaccine had an acceptable safety profile and was associated with strong neutralizing-antibody and antigen-specific polyfunctional CD4+ T-cell responses. Evaluation of vaccine efficacy was needed in a setting of ongoing SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Read More

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