2,133 results match your criteria activity ptx

Phase I/II study of biweekly nab-paclitaxel in patients with platinum-pretreated non-small cell lung cancer: NJLCG1402.

Thorac Cancer 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Palliative Medicine, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

Background: NJLCG1402 was a phase I/II trial investigating biweekly nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-PTX) in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods: The study included patients aged ≥20 years with previously treated NSCLC. Nab-PTX (100-150 mg/m ) was administered biweekly in a 28-day cycle. Read More

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September 2021

PEGylated recombinant human hyaluronidase (PEGPH20) pre-treatment improves intra-tumour distribution and efficacy of paclitaxel in preclinical models.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2021 Sep 10;40(1):286. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, Department of Oncology, via M. Negri 2, 20156, Milan, Italy.

Background: Scarce drug penetration in solid tumours is one of the possible causes of the limited efficacy of chemotherapy and is related to the altered tumour microenvironment. The abnormal tumour extracellular matrix (ECM) together with abnormal blood and lymphatic vessels, reactive stroma and inflammation all affect the uptake, distribution and efficacy of anticancer drugs.

Methods: We investigated the effect of PEGylated recombinant human hyaluronidase PH20 (PEGPH20) pre-treatment in degrading hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid; HA), one of the main components of the ECM, to improve the delivery of antitumor drugs and increase their therapeutic efficacy. Read More

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September 2021

[Effects of idiopathic hypoparathyroidism on tooth eruption of rats].

Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Sep;56(9):880-891

Department of Pediatric Dentistry, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University & State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Chengdu 610041, China.

To explore the effects of reduced parathyroid function in early growth and development on tooth eruption and enamel development by establishing an animal model of idiopathic hypoparathyroidism (IHP) and to explore the mechanism of IHP affecting tooth eruption with a view to provide experimental basis for early diagnosis and clinical treatment of IHP. Forty-eight SD rats at postnatal day 7 were randomly and equally divided into sham operation group and IHP group. The bilateral parathyroidectomy (PTX) was performed by using carbon nanoparticles technique to establish an IHP rat model, while no parathyroids were removed in the sham operation group using the same technique. Read More

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September 2021

Administration of hydro-alcoholic extract of spinach improves oxidative stress and inflammation in high-fat diet-induced NAFLD rats.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2021 Sep 3;21(1):221. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 1449614535, Iran.

Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of spinach (HES) on hepatic and serum measurements of NAFLD in a rat model.

Methods: In the prevention phase, 18 Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet, a high-fat diet plus 400 mg/kg HES, or a chow diet for seven weeks. Read More

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September 2021

High Solubilization and Controlled Release of Paclitaxel Using Thermosponge Nanoparticles for Effective Cancer Therapy.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Jul 27;13(8). Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Center for Convergence Bioceramic Materials, Convergence R&D Division, Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, 202, Osongsaengmyeong 1-ro, Osong-eup, Heungdeok-gu, Cheongju 28160, Korea.

Cancer, which is a leading cause of death, contributes significantly to reducing life expectancy worldwide. Even though paclitaxel (PTX) is known as one of the main anticancer drugs, it has several limitations, including low solubility in aqueous solutions, a limited dosage range, an insufficient release amount, and patient resistance. To overcome these limitations, we suggest the development of PTX-loaded thermosponge nanoparticles ([email protected]), which result in improved anticancer effects, via a simple nanoprecipitation method, which allows the preparation of [email protected] with hydrophobic interactions without any chemical conjugation. Read More

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Models and Assays for the Assessment of Pertussis Toxin Activity.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 Aug 12;13(8). Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Institute for Translational Vaccinology (Intravacc), P.O. Box 450, 3720 AL Bilthoven, The Netherlands.

One of the main virulence factors produced by is pertussis toxin (PTx) which, in its inactivated form, is the major component of all marketed acellular pertussis vaccines. PTx ADP ribosylates Gα proteins, thereby affecting the inhibition of adenylate cyclases and resulting in the accumulation of cAMP. Apart from this classical model, PTx also activates some receptors and can affect various ADP ribosylation- and adenylate cyclase-independent signalling pathways. Read More

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Liposomal paclitaxel induces apoptosis, cell death, inhibition of migration capacity and antitumoral activity in ovarian cancer.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Oct 20;142:112000. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Genetics & Morphology, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Brasília, Brasília, DF 70910-900, Brazil. Electronic address:

The main goal of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the paclitaxel (PTX) drug formulated with a liposomal nanosystem (L-PTX) in a peritoneal carcinomatosis derived from ovarian cancer. In vitro cell viability studies with the human ovarian cancer line A2780 showed a 50% decrease in the inhibitory concentration for L-PTX compared to free PTX. A2780 cells treated with the L-PTX formulation demonstrated a reduced capacity to form colonies in comparison to those treated with PTX. Read More

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October 2021

Hypericin Enhances Paclitaxel-Induced B16-F10 Cell Apoptosis by Activating a Cytochrome Release-Dependent Pathway.

Front Pharmacol 2021 4;12:652452. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.

The enhanced inhibitory effect of paclitaxel (PTX) combined with hypericin (HY) on B16-F10 cells may be realized through the ROS-related cytochrome c release pathway. The apoptotic characteristics of the B16-F10 cells, such as DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, and apoptotic body formation, were all enhanced in the combined treatment group. Further investigation showed that the combination of paclitaxel and HY could increase the level of mitochondrial damage and the concentration of cytochrome , causing the expression of caspase-3 and the cleavage of PARP. Read More

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p53-dependent apoptosis is essential for the antitumor effect of paclitaxel response to DNA damage in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

Int J Med Sci 2021 11;18(14):3197-3205. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

Department of Thyroid Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

A functional p53 protein plays an important role in killing tumor cells. Previous studies showed that chemotherapeutic drug, paclitaxel (PTX), showed anti-tumor activity through inducing G2/M arrest and apoptosis by targeting microtubules in tumor cells. However, PTX was not sensitive to p53-inactivated papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cells by inducing G2/M arrest only. Read More

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Phase-change mesoporous Prussian blue nanoparticles for loading paclitaxel and chemo-photothermal therapy of cancer.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Aug 4;207:112018. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, No.103, Wenhua Road, Shenyang, 110016, China. Electronic address:

Complete treatment of cancer remains a major challenge today. Herein, a biocompatible drug delivery system named as PCM + [email protected]/PEG was constructed. In this system, Paclitaxel (PTX) was blended with phase-change material (PCM) and loaded in mesoporous Prussian blue nanoparticles (mPBs), and chelated with polyethylene glycol at surface. Read More

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Glutathione-responsive prodrug conjugates for image-guided combination in cancer therapy.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Aug 8;225:113746. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Institute of Artificial Intelligence Biomedicine, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023, PR China; Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Children's Genetics and Metabolic Diseases, Children's Hospital Affiliated to Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450018, China. Electronic address:

Theranostic prodrug was highly desirable for precise diagnosis and anti-cancer therapy to decrease side effects. However, it is difficult to conjugate chemo-drug and molecular probe for combined therapy due to the complex pharmacokinetics of different molecules. Here, a novel anticancer theranostic prodrug (BTMP-SS-PTX) had been designed and synthesized by conjugating paclitaxel (PTX) with 2-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-4-methoxyphenol (BTMP) through a disulphide (-S-S-) linkage, which was redox-sensitive to the high concentration of glutathione in tumors. Read More

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Effects of Dihydrotanshinone I on Proliferation and Invasiveness of Paclitaxel-Resistant Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 28;22(15). Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Medicine, University of Udine, Via Chiusaforte, 33100 Udine, Italy.

ATC is a very rare, but extremely aggressive form of thyroid malignancy, responsible for the highest mortality rate registered for thyroid cancer. In patients without known genetic aberrations, the current treatment is still represented by palliative surgery and systemic mono- or combined chemotherapy, which is often not fully effective for the appearance of drug resistance. Comprehension of the mechanisms involved in the development of the resistance is therefore an urgent issue to suggest novel therapeutic approaches for this very aggressive malignancy. Read More

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Development of paclitaxel loaded pegylated gelatin targeted nanoparticles for improved treatment efficacy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): an in vitro and in vivo evaluation study.

Acta Biochim Pol 2021 Aug 6. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

2Department of Thoracic Surgery, Qing Dao Municipal Hospital, Qing Dao, 266011, China.

Purpose: To develop and evaluate paclitaxel (PTX) loaded pegylated gelatin targeted nanoparticles for improved efficacy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment.

Method: PTX loaded gelatin nanoparticles (PTX-GNP) were prepared by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde aqueous solution. These nanoparticles (NPs) were further incubated with PEG 400 to form PEGylated NPs (PEG-PTX-GNP). Read More

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Controlling Photoluminescence and Photocatalysis Activities in Lead-Free Cs Pt Sn Cl Perovskites via Ion Substitution.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Aug 5. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Institute of Molecular Sciences and Engineering, Institute of Frontier and Interdisciplinary Science, Shandong University, Qingdao, 266237, China.

Lead-free halide perovskites have triggered interest in the field of optoelectronics and photocatalysis because of their low toxicity, and tunable optical and charge-carrier properties. From an application point of view, it is desirable to develop stable multifunctional lead-free halide perovskites. We have developed a series of Cs Pt Sn Cl perovskites (0≤x≤1) with high stability, which show switchable photoluminescence and photocatalytic functions by varying the amount of Pt substitution. Read More

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Self-assembled micelles of the (lipo) glycopeptides, teicoplanin, as taxane nanocarriers.

Nanotechnology 2021 Aug 27;32(46). Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Centro de Excelencia en Productos y Procesos de Córdoba (CEPROCOR), Córdoba, Argentina.

The use of nanoparticles is one of the strategies currently studied to minimize the toxicity and lack of tissue specificity of many cancer drugs used in chemotherapy. In this research the physicochemical and biological behavior of a novel self-assembled nanostructure of the antibiotic Teicoplanin (Teico) was characterized as a nanocarrier system for solubilizing highly hydrophobic drugs like Paclitaxel (Ptx) in aqueous media. The Teico micelles were loaded with Ptx in DMSO or PEG-400. Read More

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Impacts of anti-inflammatory phosphodiesterase inhibitors on a murine model of chronic pulmonary inflammation.

Pharmacol Res Perspect 2021 Aug;9(4):e00840

Department of Emergency Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often tends to respond poorly to glucocorticoid (GC) therapy. Reduced Histone deacetylase-2 (HDAC-2) activity is an important mechanism behind this GC insensitivity. In this study, we investigated the effects of three phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDEIs), with an anti-inflammatory propensity, on cigarette smoke (CS)-induced pulmonary inflammation and HDAC-2 activity. Read More

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Synergistic Growth Inhibition of HT-29 Colon and MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells with Simultaneous and Sequential Combinations of Antineoplastics and CNS Drugs.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 10;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 10.

OncoPharma Research Group, Center for Health Technology and Services Research (CINTESIS), Rua Doutor Plácido da Costa, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal.

Several central nervous system (CNS) drugs exhibit potent anti-cancer activities. This study aimed to design a novel model of combination that combines different CNS agents and antineoplastic drugs (5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and paclitaxel (PTX)) for colorectal and breast cancer therapy, respectively. Cytotoxic effects of 5-FU and PTX alone and in combination with different CNS agents were evaluated on HT-29 colon and MCF-7 breast cancer cells, respectively. Read More

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AIE-active polymeric micelles based on modified chitosan for bioimaging-guided targeted delivery and controlled release of paclitaxel.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Oct 10;269:118327. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), School of Chemistry and Material Science, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080, China. Electronic address:

In this study, a novel polymer based on aggregation-induced emission (AIE) fluorogen, biotin and disulfide bonds modified chitosan (TPE-bi(SS-CS-Bio)) was designed and synthesized. The polymer could self-assemble into micelles in aqueous media and encapsulate paclitaxel (PTX) into the core with high drug loading. Fluorescence study indicated that the micelles exhibited excellent AIE feature with intense blue fluorescence emitted. Read More

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October 2021

Paclitaxel anticancer activity is enhanced by the MEK 1/2 inhibitor PD98059 in vitro and by PD98059-loaded nanoparticles in BRAF melanoma-bearing mice.

Int J Pharm 2021 Sep 10;606:120876. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Experimental Therapeutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA; Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. Electronic address:

Melanoma, the most malignant form of skin cancer, shows resistance to traditional anticancer drugs including paclitaxel (PTX). Furthermore, over 50% of melanoma cases express the BRAF mutation which activates the MAPK pathway increasing cell proliferation and survival. In the current study, we investigated the capacity of the combination therapy of PTX and the MAPK inhibitor, PD98059, to enhance the cytotoxicity of PTX against melanoma and therefore improve treatment outcomes. Read More

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September 2021

Preclinical tolerance evaluation of the addition of a cisplatin-based dry powder for inhalation to the conventional carboplatin-paclitaxel doublet for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jul 16;139:111716. Epub 2021 May 16.

Unit of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels, Belgium.

Despite the advances in targeted therapies and immunotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, the intravenous administration of carboplatin (CARB) and paclitaxel (PTX) in well-spaced cycles is widely indicated for the treatment of NSCLC from stage II to stage IV. Our strategy was to add a controlled-release cisplatin-based dry-powder for inhalation (CIS-DPI-ET) to the conventional CARB-PTX-IV doublet, administered during the treatment off-cycles to intensify the therapeutic response while avoiding the impairment of pulmonary, renal and haematological tolerance of these combinations. The co-administration of CIS-DPI-ET (0. Read More

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A Quantitative Pharmacology Model of Exosome-Mediated Drug Efflux and Perturbation-Induced Synergy.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Jun 30;13(7). Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73117, USA.

Exosomes, naturally occurring vesicles secreted by cells, are undergoing development as drug carriers. We used experimental and computational studies to investigate the kinetics of intracellular exosome processing and exosome-mediated drug efflux and the effects of exosome inhibition. The experiments used four human-breast or ovarian cancer cells, a cytotoxic drug paclitaxel (PTX), two exosome inhibitors (omeprazole (OME), which inhibits exosome release, and GW4869 (GW), which inhibits synthesis of sphingolipid ceramide required for exosome formation), LC-MS/MS analysis of PTX levels in exosomes, and confocal microscopic study of endocytic transport (monitored using fluorescent nanoparticles and endocytic organelle markers). Read More

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Paclitaxel-Loaded Folate-Targeted Albumin-Alginate Nanoparticles Crosslinked with Ethylenediamine. Synthesis and In Vitro Characterization.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Jun 24;13(13). Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

Among the different ways to reduce the secondary effects of antineoplastic drugs in cancer treatment, the use of nanoparticles has demonstrated good results due to the protection of the drug and the possibility of releasing compounds to a specific therapeutic target. The α-isoform of the folate receptor (FR) is overexpressed on a significant number of human cancers; therefore, folate-targeted crosslinked nanoparticles based on BSA and alginate mixtures and loaded with paclitaxel (PTX) have been prepared to maximize the proven antineoplastic activity of the drug against solid tumors. Nanometric-range-sized particles (169 ± 28 nm-296 ± 57 nm), with negative Z-potential values (between -0. Read More

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Interactions of Some Chemotherapeutic Agents as Epirubicin, Gemcitabine and Paclitaxel in Multicomponent Systems Based on Orange Essential Oil.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 Jun 27;14(7). Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, University of Craiova, Calea Bucuresti 107i, 200478 Craiova, Romania.

In order to anticipate the effect induced by a natural product on the chemical activity of medicines simultaneously administered, spontaneous interactions of certain cancer treatment drugs such as, epirubicin (EPR), gemcitabine (GCT), and paclitaxel (PTX) with limonene (LIM)-a natural compound extracted from orange peel and known as an anticancer agent-were investigated. To estimate the stability of the drugs over time, a current density of 50 mA cm was applied as an external stimulus between two platinum electrodes immersed in hydrochloric acid solution containing ethyl alcohol/water in the volume ratio of 2/3, in the absence and presence of orange essential oil (limonene concentration of 95%). The concentration variation of chemotherapeutic agents over time was evaluated by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Read More

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Influence of Paclitaxel and Doxorubicin Therapy of ßIII-Tubulin, Carbonic Anhydrase IX, and Survivin in Chemically Induced Breast Cancer in Female Rat.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 14;22(12). Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Anatomy, Medical Faculty, Šafárik University, Šrobárova 2, 041 83 Košice, Slovakia.

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in females. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of paclitaxel (PTX) and doxorubicin (DOX) therapy on the βIII-tubulin, carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX), and survivin expression in chemically-induced rat mammary tumors. Animals with induced mammary carcinogenesis were randomly divided into treatment groups and an untreated group. Read More

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Paclitaxel-loaded polymeric nanoparticles based on α-tocopheryl succinate for the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: murine model.

Drug Deliv 2021 Dec;28(1):1376-1388

Department otolaryngology, Hospital Universitario de Getafe, Getafe (Madrid), Carretera de Toledo, km 12.500, Getafe, Madrid, Spain.

The prognosis of patients with recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) is generally poor. New treatments are required to supplement the current standard of care. Paclitaxel (PTX), an effective chemotherapeutic for HNSCC, has serious side effects. Read More

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December 2021

N-acetylgalactosamine-decorated nanoliposomes for targeted delivery of paclitaxel to hepatocellular carcinoma.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Oct 5;222:113605. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

China International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Food Nutrition/Safety and Medicinal Chemistry, College of Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Sino-French Joint Lab of Food Nutrition/Safety and Medicinal Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Industrial Fermentation Microbiology of Ministry of Education, Tianjin, 300457, China. Electronic address:

In this study, we designed and developed a novel asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR)-targeted PEGylated paclitaxel (PTX) nanoliposome for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). N-acetylgalactosamine with α configuration (Tn) was synthesized and used as the active targeting ligand. Notably, Tn modified nanoliposomes loaded with PTX (Tn-Lipo-PTX) showed a narrow distribution (PDI = 0. Read More

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October 2021

Lapatinib enhances paclitaxel toxicity in MCF-7, T47D, and MDA-MB-321 breast cancer cells.

Toxicol In Vitro 2021 Sep 11;75:105200. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences in Sosnowiec, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland; Department of Biopharmacy, Jedności 8 St, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland.

Paclitaxel (PTX) is used to treat breast cancer both as a monotherapy and in combination with other anticancer drugs. Chemoresistance is one of the main reasons for the failure of breast cancer treatment. Mechanisms which contribute to multidrug resistance of breast cancer cells to PTX include the active removal of the drug from the cell related to the increased activity of ABC family membrane transporters. Read More

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September 2021

Preparation and characterization of paclitaxel palmitate albumin nanoparticles with high loading efficacy: an in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor study in mouse models.

Drug Deliv 2021 Dec;28(1):1067-1079

Department of Pharmacy, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, China.

Background: Combination of the prodrug technique with an albumin nano drug-loaded system is a novel promising approach for cancer treatment. However, the long-lasting and far-reaching challenge for the treatment of cancers lies in how to construct the albumin nanometer drug delivery system with lead compounds and their derivatives.

Methods: In this study, we reported the preparation of injectable albumin nanoparticles (NPs) with a high and quantitative drug loading system based on the Nab technology of paclitaxel palmitate (PTX-PA). Read More

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December 2021

The length of disulfide bond-containing linkages impacts the oral absorption and antitumor activity of paclitaxel prodrug-loaded nanoemulsions.

Nanoscale 2021 Jun;13(23):10536-10543

Wuya College of Innovation, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, China.

The rational design of oral paclitaxel (PTX) preparations is still a challenge. Many studies focus on developing PTX-loaded nanoemulsions (NEs) for oral administration. Unfortunately, PTX has poor affinity with the commonly used oil phases, leading to low encapsulation efficiency, poor colloidal stability, and premature drug leakage of PTX-loaded NEs. Read More

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Inhibition of the PI3K/mTOR Pathway in Breast Cancer to Enhance Response to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Breast Cancer.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 14;22(10). Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Veterans Affairs, Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, TN 37212, USA.

Objectives: Inhibition of the PI3K/mTOR pathway suppresses breast cancer (BC) growth, enhances anti-tumor immune responses, and works synergistically with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). The objective here was to identify a subclass of PI3K inhibitors that, when combined with paclitaxel, is effective in enhancing response to ICI.

Methods: C57BL/6 mice were orthotopically implanted with syngeneic luminal/triple-negative-like PyMT cells exhibiting high endogenous PI3K activity. Read More

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