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Dysautonomia: A Forgotten Condition - Part 1.

Arq Bras Cardiol 2021 Apr;116(4):814-835

Serviço de Eletrofisiologia do Vitória Apart Hospital, Vitória, ES - Brasil.

Dysautonomia covers a range of clinical conditions with different characteristics and prognoses. They are classified as Reflex Syndromes, Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS), Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Neurogenic Orthostatic Hypotension (nOH) and Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity Syndrome. Reflex (vasovagal) syndromes will not be discussed in this article. Read More

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Relationship between religiosity, spirituality and physical and mental outcomes in fibromyalgia patients.

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, and Internal Medicine H, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Centre, Israel.

Objectives: The coping mechanisms utilised by patients with the fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) pose a crucial focus of treatment. Previous research points to the positive effects of religiosity and spirituality (R/S) as tools for coping with illness. The role of these factors in coping with chronic pain in FMS has not previously been studied. Read More

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[New Hopes in Vaccine Technology: mRNA Vaccines].

Authors:
Engin Yılmaz

Mikrobiyol Bul 2021 Apr;55(2):265-284

Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biology, Emeritus, Ankara, Turkey.

The major disadvantages of traditional virus vaccines are time constraints in development and difficulties in large-scale production. Therefore, there is a need to develop stronger and more versatile vaccine platforms. mRNA vaccines constitute a promising alternative to traditional vaccine approaches due to their high potential, rapid development capacity, low cost production and safe administration potential. Read More

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Relationship between personality and physical capacities in older adults: The mediating role of subjective age, aging attitudes and physical self-perceptions.

Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2021 Apr 8;95:104417. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Université Côte d'Azur, Lamhess, France.

Walking speed and muscular strength are two main markers of health in adulthood. Previous studies have shown that personality traits may predict these two outcomes. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying these relationships. Read More

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Bacteria-induced mineral precipitation: a mechanistic review.

Microbiology (Reading) 2021 Apr;167(4)

Department of Biology and Biochemistry, Milner Centre for Evolution, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK.

Micro-organisms contribute to Earth's mineral deposits through a process known as bacteria-induced mineral precipitation (BIMP). It is a complex phenomenon that can occur as a result of a variety of physiological activities that influence the supersaturation state and nucleation catalysis of mineral precipitation in the environment. There is a good understanding of BIMP induced by bacterial metabolism through the control of metal redox states and enzyme-mediated reactions such as ureolysis. Read More

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Antioxidative response of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) to carbamazepine-induced stress.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

LEAF - Linking Landscape, Environment, Agriculture and Food, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017, Lisboa, Portugal.

Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a widely used anti-epileptic drug that has been detected in wastewaters from sewage treating plants and thus appears in rivers, streams and other water bodies. As plants can absorb this compound, it can also appear in edible plants like lettuce, entering the food chain. In this study, the effect of carbamazepine in lettuce plants grown in hydroponic solution is analyzed. Read More

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Association of Rheumatoid Arthritis with Diabetic Comorbidity: Correlating Accelerated Insulin Resistance to Inflammatory Responses in Patients.

J Multidiscip Healthc 2021 12;14:809-820. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Medical Laboratories, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Buraydah, Saudi Arabia.

Over the past two decades, with advancement of medical research and technology, treatments of many diseases including chronic disorders like rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been revolutionized. Treatment and management of RA has been refined by advances in understanding its pathologic mechanisms, the development of drugs which target them and its association with various other chronic comorbidities like diabetes. Diabetes prevalence is closely associated with RA since elevated insulin resistance have been observed with RA. Read More

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Calcineurin activity is increased in Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1B demyelinating neuropathy.

J Neurosci 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Hunter James Kelly Research Institute.

Schwann cells produce a considerable amount of lipids and proteins to form myelin in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). For this reason, the quality control of myelin proteins is crucial to ensure proper myelin synthesis. Deletion of serine 63 from P0 (P0S63del) protein in myelin forming Schwann cells causes Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1B (CMT1B) neuropathy in humans and mice. Read More

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The Economics of the Soy Kit as an Appropriate Household Technology for Food Entrepreneurs.

Food Nutr Bull 2021 Mar;42(1):104-115

Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics, 14589University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA.

Background: The ability for women to operate as food entrepreneurs presents opportunities to leverage at-home production technologies that not only support family nutrition but also generate income. To these ends, the Feed the Future Malawi Agriculture Diversification Activity recently launched a development project involving a new technology, the Soy Kit. The Activity, a USAID (United States Agency for International Development) funded effort, sought to improve nutrition utilizing an underutilized local and highly nutritious feedstuff, soybean, through a woman's entrepreneurship scheme. Read More

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The effects of alcohol consumption and its associations with disease activity among 979 patients with inflammatory arthritis.

RMD Open 2021 Apr;7(2)

The Centre for Arthritis and Rheumatic Disease, St Vincent's University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland

Objective: The role of alcohol in inflammatory disease remains debated. This study explores the relationship between alcohol and disease activity in patients with inflammatory arthritis.

Methods: Patients attending a rheumatology clinic between 2010 and 2020 were prospectively followed. Read More

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Submerged batch culture of the psychrophile Monographella nivalis in a defined medium; growth, carbohydrate utilization and responses to temperature.

New Phytol 1995 Feb;129(2):299-308

Cell Biology, Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, Plas Gogerddan, Aberystwyth, SY23 3EB, UK.

An asporogenous strain of the pink snow mould fungus, Monographella nivalis (Schaffnit) E. Müller, anamorph Gerlachia nivalis (Ces. ex Sac. Read More

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February 1995

Flandrian vegetational history of southeastern England. Pollen data from Pannel Bridge, East Sussex.

Authors:
M P Waller

New Phytol 1993 Jun;124(2):345-369

Department of Geography, University of North London, 383, Holloway Road, London N7 ORN, UK.

Pollen data, plant macrofossil remains and lithostratigraphy are used to reconstruct Flandrian vegetational history from a coastal site in south-eastern England. The record at this site, Pannel Bridge in East Sussex, extends back to c. 10000 BP and is the most complete so far obtained from this region. Read More

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Respiration and photosynthesis in oats exhibiting different levels of partial resistance to Erysiphe graminis D.c. ex Merat f. sp. avenae Marchal.

New Phytol 1991 Sep;119(1):129-136

School of Biological Sciences, University College of North Wales, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW, U.K.

Rates of photosynthesis and respiration were measured by two methods, oxygen electrode and infrared gas analysis (IRGA), in infected and control, seedling and adult leaves of oat genotypes exhibiting different levels of partial resistance. Measurements were carried out up to 9 d after inoculation, sporulation commencing on day 5. There was no decrease in the rate of photosynthesis, except in the second leaves of one genotype, and no decrease in any of the fifth leaves relative to controls. Read More

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September 1991

Activity of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from potato cultivars with differential response to ozone stress.

New Phytol 1992 Nov;122(3):493-500

Department of Plant Pathology and Environmental Resources Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, 211 Buckhout Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802.

The effect of ozone (O ) on the carboxylation activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) from the fifth youngest leaf of four cultivars of Solarium tuberosum L. (potato) was investigated. Ozone-tolerant cultivars 'Superior' (SP) and 'Norgold Russet' (NR), and O -sensitive cultivars 'Cherokee' (CK) and 'Norland' (NL) were exposed to O for five consecutive days in controlled-environment chambers. Read More

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November 1992

Tansley Review No. 37 Circadian rhythms: their origin and control.

New Phytol 1992 Jul;121(3):347-375

Department of Botany, Glasgow University, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, UK.

This article reviews the circadian rhythm of carbon dioxide metabolism in leaves of the Crassulacean plant Bryophyllum (Kalanchoë) fedtsckenkoi which persists both in continuous darkness and a CO -free atmosphere, and in continuous light and normal air. Under both conditions the rhythm is due to the periodic activity of the enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPc). The physiological characteristics of the rhythm are described in detail and, from these characteristics, hypotheses are advanced to account for both the generation of the rhythm and the regulation of its phase and period by environmental factors. Read More

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The effects of oxides of nitrogen and carbon dioxide enrichment on photosynthesis and growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

Authors:
Simon J M Caporn

New Phytol 1989 Mar;111(3):473-481

Institute of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Lancaster, Lancaster LAI 4YQ, UK.

The response of glasshouse crops to the nitrogen oxide pollutants which may be generated during enrichment with O has been studied in controlled environments. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Read More

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THE ROLE OF FREE RADICALS IN SENESCENCE AND WOUNDING.

New Phytol 1987 Mar;105(3):317-344

Departments of Biology and Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1.

Reactions involving free radicals are an inherent feature of plant senescence and appear to contribute to a process of oxidative deterioration that leads ultimately to cell death. Radical species derived from molecular oxygen are the primary mediators of this oxidative damage, but non-radical excited states of oxygen, specifically singlet oxygen, may also be involved. Several lines of evidence suggest that degradation of lipids in senescing membranes and the ensuing release of free fatty acids initiate oxidative deterioration by providing substrate for lipoxygenase. Read More

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Primary cell wall metabolism: tracking the careers of wall polymers in living plant cells.

Authors:
Stephen C Fry

New Phytol 2004 Mar 16;161(3):641-675. Epub 2004 Jan 16.

The Edinburgh Cell Wall Group, Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, The University of Edinburgh, Daniel Rutherford Building, The King's Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JH, UK.

Numerous examples have been presented of enzyme activities, assayed in vitro, that appear relevant to the synthesis of structural polysaccharides, and to their assembly and subsequent degradation in the primary cell walls (PCWs) of higher plants. The accumulation of the corresponding mRNAs, and of the (immunologically recognized) proteins, has often also (or instead) been reported. However, the presence of these mRNAs, antigens and enzymic activities has rarely been shown to correspond to enzyme action in the living plant cell. Read More

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Calmodulin as a versatile calcium signal transducer in plants.

New Phytol 2001 Jul;151(1):35-66

Centre for Plant Sciences, Leeds Institute for Biotechnology and Agriculture (LIBA), School of Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK.

The complexity of Ca patterns observed in eukaryotic cells, including plants, has led to the hypothesis that specific patterns of Ca propagation, termed Ca signatures, encode information and relay it to downstream elements (effectors) for translation into appropriate cellular responses. Ca -binding proteins (sensors) play a key role in decoding Ca signatures and transducing signals by activating specific targets and pathways. Calmodulin is a Ca sensor known to modulate the activity of many mammalian proteins, whose targets in plants are now being actively characterized. Read More

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Analysis of Gait Motion Changes by Intervention Using Robot Suit Hybrid Assistive Limb (HAL) in Myelopathy Patients After Decompression Surgery for Ossification of Posterior Longitudinal Ligament.

Front Neurorobot 2021 31;15:650118. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.

Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is a hyperostonic condition in which the posterior longitudinal ligament becomes thick and loses its flexibility, resulting in ectopic ossification and severe neurologic deficit (Matsunaga and Sakou, 2012). It commonly presents with myelopathy and radiculopathy and with myelopathy progression motor disorders and balance disorders can appear. Even after appropriate surgical decompression, some motor impairments often remain. Read More

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Associations Between Adolescent Mental Health and Health-Related Behaviors in 2005 and 2015: A Population Cross-Cohort Study.

J Adolesc Health 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Associate Professor, Centre for Longitudinal Studies and MRC Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing, UCL, London, UK. Electronic address:

Purpose: Adolescent mental ill-health is a growing concern. There is little understanding of changes over time in the associations between mental health and health-related behaviors and outcomes (such as substance use, antisocial behavior, and obesity). We investigate whether the associations between different health and health-related outcomes in adolescence are changing over time in two recent cohorts of adolescents born 10 years apart. Read More

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Anatomical organization of the lateral cervical nucleus in Artiodactyls.

Vet Res Commun 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Bologna, Ozzano dell'Emilia, BO, Italy.

The presence of the lateral cervical nucleus (LCN) in different mammals, including humans, has been established in a number of anatomical research works. The LCN receives its afferent inputs from the spinocervical tract, and conveys this somatosensory information to the various brain areas, especially the thalamus. In the present study, the organization of the calf and pig LCN was examined through the use of thionine staining and immunohistochemical methods combined with morphometrical analyses. Read More

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Dramatic nucleolar dispersion in the salivary gland of Schwenkfeldina sp. (Diptera: Sciaridae).

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 16;11(1):8347. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Departamento de Genética e Biologia Evolutiva, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 277, Cidade Universitária, São Paulo, SP, 05508-090, Brazil.

Micronucleoli are among the structures composing the peculiar scenario of the nucleolus in salivary gland nuclei of dipterans representative of Sciaridae. Micronucleolar bodies contain ribosomal DNA and RNA, are transcriptionally active and may appear free in the nucleoplasm or associated with specific chromosome regions in salivary gland nuclei. This report deals with an extreme case of nucleolar fragmentation/dispersion detected in the salivary gland of Schwenkfeldina sp. Read More

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Kinetic and static analysis of poly-(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) targeted F-FluorThanatrace (F-FTT) PET images of ovarian cancer.

J Nucl Med 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

University of Pennsylvania, United States.

The poly-(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family of proteins participates in numerous functions, most notably the DNA damage response. Cancer vulnerability to DNA damage has led to development of several PARP inhibitors (PARPi). This class of drugs has demonstrated therapeutic efficacy in ovarian, breast, and prostate cancers, but with variable response. Read More

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Genome-wide analysis of plant miRNA action clarifies levels of regulatory dynamics across developmental contexts.

Genome Res 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Center for Plant Molecular Biology, University of Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.

Development of complex organisms requires the delicate and dynamic spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression. Central to this are microRNAs (miRNAs). These mobile small RNAs offer specificity in conveying positional information and versatility in patterning the outcomes of gene expression. Read More

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The control of polycomb repressive complexes by long noncoding RNAs.

Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA 2021 Apr 16:e1657. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Pharmacology and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

The polycomb repressive complexes 1 and 2 (PRCs; PRC1 and PRC2) are conserved histone-modifying enzymes that often function cooperatively to repress gene expression. The PRCs are regulated by long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in complex ways. On the one hand, specific lncRNAs cause the PRCs to engage with chromatin and repress gene expression over genomic regions that can span megabases. Read More

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Structure-Activity Relationship Analysis of Psychedelics in a Rat Model of Asthma Reveals the Anti-Inflammatory Pharmacophore.

ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci 2021 Apr 13;4(2):488-502. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Louisiana Stat University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112, United States.

Psychedelic drugs can exert potent anti-inflammatory effects. However, anti-inflammatory effects do not appear to correlate with behavioral activity, suggesting different underlying mechanisms. We hypothesized that the distinct structural features of psychedelics underlie functionally selective mechanisms at the target 5-HT receptor to elicit maximal anti-inflammatory effects. Read More

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Pre-stimulus low-alpha frontal networks are associated with pareidolias in Parkinson's disease.

Brain Connect 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Osaka University, 13013, Suita, Osaka prefecture, Japan;

Pareidolias are visual phenomena wherein ambiguous, abstract forms or shapes appear meaningful due to incorrect perception. In Parkinson's disease (PD), patients susceptible to visual hallucinations experience visuo-perceptual deficits in the form of pareidolias. While pareidolias necessitate top-down modulation of visual processing, the cortical dynamics of internally generated perceptual priors on these visual misperceptions is unknown. Read More

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The Neural Circuits Underlying General Anesthesia and Sleep.

Anesth Analg 2021 May;132(5):1254-1264

From the Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

General anesthesia is characterized by loss of consciousness, amnesia, analgesia, and immobility. Important molecular targets of general anesthetics have been identified, but the neural circuits underlying the discrete end points of general anesthesia remain incompletely understood. General anesthesia and natural sleep share the common feature of reversible unconsciousness, and recent developments in neuroscience have enabled elegant studies that investigate the brain nuclei and neural circuits underlying this important end point. Read More

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Effects of Acute and Chronic Exposure to a Mixed Field of Neutrons and Photons and Single or Fractionated Simulated Galactic Cosmic Ray Exposure on Behavioral and Cognitive Performance in Mice.

Radiat Res 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Departments of Behavioral Neuroscience and.

During space missions, astronauts experience acute and chronic low-dose-rate radiation exposures. Given the clear gap of knowledge regarding such exposures, we assessed the effects acute and chronic exposure to a mixed field of neutrons and photons and single or fractionated simulated galactic cosmic ray exposure (GCRsim) on behavioral and cognitive performance in mice. In addition, we assessed the effects of an aspirin-containing diet in the presence and absence of chronic exposure to a mixed field of neutrons and photons. Read More

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