58,075 results match your criteria activities mechanisms

Melatonin protects against focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in diabetic mice by ameliorating mitochondrial impairments: involvement of the Akt-SIRT3-SOD2 signaling pathway.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Jun 11;13. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Anesthesiology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430060, China.

Diabetic patients are more vulnerable to cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (CIR) injury and have a worse prognosis and higher mortality after ischemic stroke than non-diabetic counterparts. Melatonin can exert neuroprotective effects against CIR injury in nondiabetic animal models. However, its effects on diabetic CIR injury and the underlying mechanisms remain unclarified. Read More

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Driving mechanisms of gross primary productivity geographical patterns for Qinghai-Tibet Plateau lake systems.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 5;791:148286. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, PR China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, PR China. Electronic address:

Being a fundamental property of aquatic systems, gross primary productivity (GPP) is affected by complex environmental factors, such as salinity, nutrients, pH, and sunlight. Under conditions of intensified anthropogenic activity and climate change, it is critical to understand the driving mechanisms of GPP in alpine lakes. In this study, we investigated GPP and associated environmental factors of 23 lake systems in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) along an altitudinal range (from 2500 m to 4500 m). Read More

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Molecular mechanisms underlying health benefits of tea compounds.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, Nutrition and Health, Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China. Electronic address:

Tea is one of the three most widely consumed beverages in the world, not only because of its unique flavor but also due to its various health benefits. The bioactive components in tea, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, polypeptides, pigments, and alkaloids, are the main contributors to its health functions. Based on epidemiological surveys, the consumption of tea and its compounds in daily life has positive effects on cardiovascular diseases, cancers, hepatopathy, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. Read More

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Leojaponin inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation through restoration of autophagy via upregulating RAPTOR phosphorylation.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 9:114322. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry for Natural Resource, Ministry of Education; Yunnan Provincial Center for Research & Development of Natural Products; School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Duan Teng Yimu decoction is a Chinese herbal medicine compound with proven therapeutic effects on inflammasome-related diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. This decoction consists of three Chinese herbal medicines, including Leonurus japonicus (L. japonicus), which promotes the blood circulation and exhibits detumescence activity, traditionally curing gynecologic and inflammasome diseases. Read More

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Molecular basis of anticoagulant and anti-complement activity of the tick salivary protein Salp14 and its homologues.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jun 9:100865. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Maastricht, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Universiteitssingel 50, 6229 ER, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

During feeding, a tick's mouthpart penetrates the host's skin and damages tissues and small blood vessels, triggering the extrinsic coagulation and lectin complement pathways. To elude these defense mechanisms, ticks secrete multiple anticoagulant proteins and complement system inhibitors in their saliva. Here we characterized the inhibitory activities of the homologous tick salivary proteins TSLPI, Salp14, and Salp9Pac from Ixodida scapularis in the coagulation cascade and the lectin complement pathway. Read More

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A review on the computational studies of the reaction mechanisms of CO conversion on pure and bimetals of late 3d metals.

J Mol Model 2021 Jun 12;27(7):200. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Basic Sciences, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana.

Despite series of experimental studies that reveal unique activities of late 3d transition metals and their role in microorganisms known for CO conversion, these surfaces are not industrially viable yet. An insight into the elementary steps of surface catalytic processes is crucial for effective surface modification and design. The mechanisms of CO transformation into CO, through the reverse water gas shift and methane reforming, are being studied. Read More

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MecCog: A knowledge representation framework for genetic disease mechanism.

Bioinformatics 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, University of Maryland, 9600 Gudelsky Drive, Rockville, MD, 20850, USA.

Motivation: Experimental findings on genetic disease mechanisms are scattered throughout the literature and represented in many ways, including unstructured text, cartoons, pathway diagrams, and network graphs. Integration and structuring of such mechanistic information greatly enhances its utility.

Results: MecCog is a graphical framework for building integrated representations (mechanism schemas) of mechanisms by which a genetic variant causes a disease phenotype. Read More

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Myofibroblast fate plasticity in tissue repair and fibrosis: de-activation, apoptosis, senescence and reprogramming.

Wound Repair Regen 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Fibrosis Research Center, Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

In response to tissue injury, fibroblasts differentiate into professional repair cells called myofibroblasts, which orchestrate many aspects of the normal tissue repair program including synthesis, deposition and contraction of extracellular matrix proteins, leading to wound closure. Successful tissue repair responses involve termination of myofibroblast activities in order to prevent pathologic fibrotic scarring. Here, we discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms limiting myofibroblast activities during physiological tissue repair, including myofibroblast de-activation, apoptosis, reprogramming and immune clearance of senescent myofibroblasts. Read More

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E2F6 initiates stable epigenetic silencing of germline genes during embryonic development.

Nat Commun 2021 Jun 11;12(1):3582. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

In mouse development, long-term silencing by CpG island DNA methylation is specifically targeted to germline genes; however, the molecular mechanisms of this specificity remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the transcription factor E2F6, a member of the polycomb repressive complex 1.6 (PRC1. Read More

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Biochar induced improvement in root system architecture enhances nutrient assimilation by cotton plant seedlings.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Jun 11;21(1):269. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Agro-Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, 712100, China.

Background: Raising nitrogen use efficiency of crops by improving root system architecture is highly essential not only to reduce costs of agricultural production but also to mitigate climate change. The physiological mechanisms of how biochar affects nitrogen assimilation by crop seedlings have not been well elucidated.

Results: Here, we report changes in root system architecture, activities of the key enzymes involved in nitrogen assimilation, and cytokinin (CTK) at the seedling stage of cotton with reduced urea usage and biochar application at different soil layers (0-10 cm and 10-20 cm). Read More

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Herbacetin Broadly Blocks the Activities of CYP450s by Different Inhibitory Mechanisms.

Planta Med 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Herbacetin is a bioactive flavanol compound that has various pharmacological effects. However, the pharmacokinetic characteristics have not been thoroughly investigated. Previously, we screened a natural compound library and identified herbacetin as a potent CYP blocker. Read More

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The Novel FAT4 Activator Jujuboside A Suppresses NSCLC Tumorigenesis by Activating HIPPO Signaling and Inhibiting YAP Nuclear Translocation.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Jun 8:105723. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Joint Laboratory for Translational Cancer Research of Chinese Medicine of the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, International Institute for Translational Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510006, PR China; State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine/ Macau Institute for Applied Research in Medicine and Health, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau (SAR), China. Electronic address:

FAT atypical cadherin 4 (FAT4) has been identified as a tumor suppressor in lung cancers. However, no agent for lung cancer treatment targeting FAT4 has been used in the clinic. Jujuboside A (JUA) is a major active compound in Semen Ziziphi Spinosae. Read More

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Genome skimming reveals novel plastid markers for the molecular identification of illegally logged African timber species.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(6):e0251655. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Meise Botanic Garden, Meise, Belgium.

Tropical forests represent vast carbon stocks and continue to be key carbon sinks and buffer climate changes. The international policy constructed several mechanisms aiming at conservation and sustainable use of these forests. Illegal logging is an important threat of forests, especially in the tropics. Read More

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Neuromorphic Context-Dependent Learning Framework With Fault-Tolerant Spike Routing.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Jun 11;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Neuromorphic computing is a promising technology that realizes computation based on event-based spiking neural networks (SNNs). However, fault-tolerant on-chip learning remains a challenge in neuromorphic systems. This study presents the first scalable neuromorphic fault-tolerant context-dependent learning (FCL) hardware framework. Read More

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B2M gene expression shapes the immune landscape of lung adenocarcinoma and determines the response to immunotherapy.

Immunology 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Immunology, Nantong University, School of Medicine, Nantong, Jiangsu, 226001, China.

Loss of the B2M gene is associated with tumor immune escape and resistance to immunotherapy. However, genetic alterations of the B2M gene are rare. We performed an integrative analysis of the mutational and transcriptional profiles of large cohorts of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and found that epigenetic downregulation of B2M is common. Read More

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Long non-coding RNA A1BG-AS1 promotes tumorigenesis in breast cancer by sponging microRNA-485-5p and consequently increasing expression of FLOT1 expression.

Hum Cell 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Breast Surgery, Lishui Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 289 Kuocang Road, Lishui, 323000, Zhejiang, China.

The dysregulated long non-coding RNA A1BG antisense RNA 1 (A1BG-AS1) has been implicated in the oncogenicity of hepatocellular carcinoma. Using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction in this study, we detected A1BG-AS1 expression in breast cancer and elucidated the regulatory functions and exact mechanisms of A1BG-AS1 in breast cancer cells. The regulatory functions of A1BG-AS1 were examined in vitro using the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, flow cytometric, and Transwell migration and invasion assays and in vivo through tumor xenograft experiments. Read More

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Resveratrol and endoplasmic reticulum stress: A review of the potential protective mechanisms of the polyphenol.

Phytother Res 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle that performs a set of essential functions in cellular biology. These include synthesis of lipids, homeostasis of calcium, and controlling the folding of proteins. Inflammation and oxidative stress are two important reasons behind the accumulation of misfolded or unfolded proteins in the ER. Read More

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Assessing Hospital Adaptive Resource Allocation Strategies in Responding to Mass Casualty Incidents.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2021 Jun 11:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Research Center in Emergency and Disaster Medicine, CRIMEDIM, Novara, Italy.

Background: Hospitals are expected to operate at a high performance level even under exceptional conditions of peak demand and resource disruptions. This understanding is not mature yet and there are wide areas of possible improvement. In particular, the fast mobilization and reconfiguration of resources frequently result into the severe disruption of elective activities, worsening the quality of care. Read More

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Vitamin D Intake and Brain Cortical Thickness in Community-Dwelling Overweight Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

J Nutr 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: Vitamin D is critical to brain health and a promising candidate to prevent cognitive decline and onset of Alzheimer disease (AD), although the underlying brain mechanisms are unclear.

Objectives: This study aimed to determine the association between vitamin D intake and brain cortical thickness in older adults.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional investigation of 263 cognitively unimpaired participants, aged 65 y and older, participating in the MIND (Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay) trial (an ongoing study testing the effects of a 3-y diet intervention on cognitive decline). Read More

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Proteolysis and multimerization regulate signaling along the two-component regulatory system AdeRS.

iScience 2021 May 26;24(5):102476. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Talent Highland and Center for Gut Microbiome Research of Med-X Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, China.

Bacterial two-component regulatory systems are ubiquitous environment-sensing signal transducers involved in pathogenesis and antibiotic resistance. The two-component regulatory system AdeRS is made up of a sensor histidine kinase AdeS and a cognate response regulator AdeR, which together reduce repression of the multidrug-resistant efflux pump AdeABC. Herein we demonstrate that an N-terminal intrinsically disordered tail in AdeR is important for the upregulation of expression, although it greatly increases the susceptibility of AdeR to proteasome-mediated degradation. Read More

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Gene Expression Profile of the Human Colorectal Carcinoma LoVo Cells Treated With Sporamin and Thapsigargin.

Front Oncol 2021 25;11:621462. Epub 2021 May 25.

School of Public Health, Capital Medical University (CMU), Beijing, China.

Sporamin, a proteinase inhibitor isolated from the sweet potato (), has shown promising anticancer effect against colorectal cancer (CRC) and but its mechanisms of action are poorly understood. In the present study, high throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology was applied to explore the transcriptomic changes induced by sporamin in the presence of thapsigargin (TG), a non-12-O-tetradecanolphorbol-13-acetate type cancer promoter, in the LoVo human CRC cells. Cellular total RNA was extracted from the cells after they were treated with vehicle (CTL), 1 μM of thapsigargin (TG), or 1 μM of TG plus 30 μM of sporamin (TGSP) for 24 h. Read More

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A review on ultrasonic neuromodulation of the peripheral nervous system: enhanced or suppressed activities?

Appl Sci (Basel) 2019 Apr 19;9(8). Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA.

Ultrasonic (US) neuromodulation has emerged as a promising therapeutic means by delivering focused energy deep into the tissue. Low-intensity ultrasound (US) directly activates and/or inhibits neurons in the central nervous system (CNS). US neuromodulation of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is less developed and rarely used clinically. Read More

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The Role of Mitophagy in Regulating Cell Death.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 18;2021:6617256. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Forensic Sciences, School of Basic Medicine and Biological Sciences, Affilated Guangji Hospital, Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Mitochondria are multifaceted organelles that serve to power critical cellular functions, including act as power generators of the cell, buffer cytosolic calcium overload, production of reactive oxygen species, and modulating cell survival. The structure and the cellular location of mitochondria are critical for their function and depend on highly regulated activities such as mitochondrial quality control (MQC) mechanisms. The MQC is regulated by several sets of processes: mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial fusion and fission, mitophagy, and other mitochondrial proteostasis mechanisms such as mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mtUPR) or mitochondrial-derived vesicles (MDVs). Read More

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GPR68 Contributes to Persistent Acidosis-Induced Activation of AGC Kinases and Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Organotypic Hippocampal Slices.

Front Neurosci 2021 25;15:692217. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, University of South Alabama College of Medicine, Mobile, AL, United States.

Persistent acidosis occurs in ischemia and multiple neurological diseases. In previous studies, acidic stimulation leads to rapid increase in intracellular calcium in neurons. However, it remains largely unclear how a prolonged acidosis alters neuronal signaling. Read More

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Global Research Trends of Herbal Medicine for Pain in Three Decades (1990-2019): A Bibliometric Analysis.

J Pain Res 2021 4;14:1611-1626. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

System Complexity Research Center of Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the global research trends of herbal medicine for pain from 1990 to 2019, using bibliometric methods, and explore international collaborations, intellectual structure, the evolution of active topics, emerging trends, and research frontiers.

Methods: Articles on herbal medicine for pain were retrieved from WoSCC. Two information visualization softwares including CiteSpace and HistCite were used to process bibliographic catalogs. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 envelope protein causes acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)-like pathological damages and constitutes an antiviral target.

Cell Res 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences/Key Laboratory of Bioactive Peptides of Yunnan Province, KIZ-CUHK Joint Laboratory of Bioresources and Molecular Research in Common Diseases, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

Cytokine storm and multi-organ failure are the main causes of SARS-CoV-2-related death. However, the origin of excessive damages caused by SARS-CoV-2 remains largely unknown. Here we show that the SARS-CoV-2 envelope (2-E) protein alone is able to cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)-like damages in vitro and in vivo. Read More

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Readiness and early response to COVID-19: achievements, challenges and lessons learnt in Ethiopia.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 06;6(6)

Director General office, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Declaration of the novel coronavirus disease as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern necessitated countries to get ready to respond. Here, we describe key achievements, challenges and lessons learnt during the readiness and early response to COVID-19 in Ethiopia. Readiness activities commenced as early as January 2020 with the activation of a national Public Health Emergency Operations Centre and COVID-19 Incident Management System (IMS) by the Ethiopian Public Health Institute. Read More

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Conservation and diversity of the eukaryotic SAGA coactivator complex across kingdoms.

Epigenetics Chromatin 2021 Jun 10;14(1):26. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Epigenetics and Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, TX, USA.

The SAGA complex is an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional coactivator that regulates gene expression through its histone acetyltransferase and deubiquitylase activities, recognition of specific histone modifications, and interactions with transcription factors. Multiple lines of evidence indicate the existence of distinct variants of SAGA among organisms as well as within a species, permitting diverse functions to dynamically regulate cellular pathways. Our co-expression analysis of genes encoding human SAGA components showed enrichment in reproductive organs, brain tissues and the skeletal muscle, which corresponds to their established roles in developmental programs, emerging roles in neurodegenerative diseases, and understudied functions in specific cell types. Read More

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Silicon elevated cadmium tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by endorsing nutrients uptake and antioxidative defense mechanisms in the leaves.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 May 31;166:148-159. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Numerous abiotic stressors including heavy metal stresses, specifically cadmium (Cd) stress in agricultural bio-system hinder the plant adequate growth. The present study was aimed to reveal the protective role of silicon (Si) application with two levels and to recognize the optimum level of Si for wheat plants grown hydroponically under three different levels of Cd toxicities. In methodology, we used nine treatments with three levels of Si (0, 1, and 3 mmol L; NaSiO) against three levels of Cd (0, 50, 200 μmol L; CdCl) with three biological replicates. Read More

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miR-190a-5p regulates cardiomyocytes response to ferroptosis via directly targeting GLS2.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Jun 7;566:9-15. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Anesthesiology, Ningbo Urology and Nephrology Hospital, Ningbo Yinzhou No 2. Hospital, 998 North Qianhe Road, Yinzhou District, Ningbo, 315100, Zhejiang, China.

Ferroptosis is a novel identified form of regulated cell death that has been implied in the pathology of myocardial infarction (MI). However, the regulation mechanisms of ferroptosis in cardiomyocyte are still elusive. MiRNAs are a group of small non-coding RNAs that play crucial roles in various biological activities. Read More

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