62,993 results match your criteria activities major

Syntrophic metabolism facilitates Methanosarcina-led methanation in the anaerobic digestion of lipidic slaughterhouse waste.

Bioresour Technol 2021 May 4;335:125250. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Earth Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Different inoculum to slaughterhouse waste (SHW) ratios (Ino/SHW) influences the digester performance, substrate utilization, and methane yield through microbial shift and their metabolic syntrophy. Acetoclastic Methanosarcina (68-87%) was dominant in the exponential phase, overpowering the initial abundance of Methanosaeta (86% of methanogens) in the SHW digesters. Positive interactions among acetogenic and acetate-oxidizing species of Clostridium (11%) with Methanosarcina (84% of methanogens) improved the methanogenic activity (292 mL g VS d) and final VS utilization (90%) at the highest Ino/SHW loading. Read More

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Enzymes of acetylcholine metabolism in the rat inferior colliculus.

Brain Res 2021 May 12:147518. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Neurology and Division of Otolaryngology and Dentistry, Department of Surgery, University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences, Toledo, Ohio.

Although there is strong evidence for cholinergic projections to the rat inferior colliculus, especially from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (Noftz et al., 2020), there is a lack of information about the quantitative prevalence of the enzymes of acetylcholine metabolism in its various portions. We have used microdissection of freeze-dried sections combined with radiometric assays to map the distributions in the rat inferior colliculus of the activities of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), which catalyzes synthesis of acetylcholine, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which catalyzes its breakdown by hydrolysis. Read More

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Environmental monitoring and impact assessment of Prut River cross-border pollution.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 May 15;193(6):340. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, "Cristofor Simionescu" Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection, "Gheorghe Asachi" Technical University of Iași, 73 Prof. Dr. D. Mangeron Street, 700050, Iași, Romania.

The cross-border rivers management is a challenge for the involved countries, especially if they do not have the same type of legislation. The negative effects on water quality are quantified by using environmental impact assessment tools. Thus, the quantification of impacts that could affect the human health, ecosystem equilibrium, and biodiversity is based on monitoring of the water quality indicators. Read More

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New method of recording the functional activity pattern of the buccinator from the mucosal surface.

Physiol Behav 2021 May 11:113455. Epub 2021 May 11.

Oral Health Science Center, Tokyo Dental College, 2-9-18 Misaki-cho Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0061, Japan. Electronic address:

Objectives: The buccinator (BUC) is an important muscle for oral function. Since it lies deep in the facial skin, recording its activity is difficult; thus, studies on its function are limited. We developed a method to access the deep facial muscles from the mucosal side. Read More

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The association of oxytocin with major depressive disorder: role of confounding effects of antidepressants.

Rev Neurosci 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Obstetrics & Gynecology Department, Integrated Chinese and West Medicine Hospital Affiliated to Zhejiang Chinese Medicine University, 208 Huanchendong Road, 310003Hangzhou, China.

Major depressive disorder is a genetic susceptible disease, and a psychiatric syndrome with a high rate of incidence and recurrence. Because of its complexity concerning etiology and pathogenesis, the cure rate of first-line antidepressants is low. In recent years, accumulative evidences revealed that oxytocin act as a physiological or pathological participant in a variety of complex neuropsychological activities, including major depressive disorder. Read More

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Isolation and evaluation of the biocontrol potential of Talaromyces spp. against rice sheath blight guided by soil microbiome.

Environ Microbiol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

State Key Laboratory of Agriculture Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, Hubei Province, People's Republic of China.

Rice sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani is the major disease of rice that seriously threatens food security worldwide. Efficient and eco-friendly biological approaches are urgently needed since no resistant cultivars are available. In this study, fallow and paddy soils were initially subjected to microbiome analyses, and the results showed that Talaromyces spp. Read More

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Public awareness, perceptions and attitudes on air pollution and its health effects in Muscat, Oman.

J Air Waste Manag Assoc 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Biology, Sultan Qaboos University, Al-Khoud, Muscat, Oman, 123 SQU.

A survey was conducted in Muscat/Oman between February and May of 2020, with a total of 1289 respondents to investigate public knowledge, behaviour, and attitudes about the air pollution via online questionnaire. We considered the disparity among gender, age and education level in four main aspects, viz. sources of access to information, knowledge and risk perception about air pollution and willingness to change and act for mitigation. Read More

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Hydrological processing of salinity and nitrate in the Salinas Valley agricultural watershed.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 May 14;193(Suppl 1):272. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources & Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California, Davis, One Shield Avenue, Davis, CA, USA.

Regime shifts of major salinity constituents (Ca, Mg, Na, K, SO, Cl, HCO, and NO) in the lower Salinas River, an agricultural ecosystem, can have major impacts on ecosystem services central to continued agricultural production in the region. Regime shifts are large, persistent, and often abrupt changes in the structure and dynamics of social-ecological systems that occur when there is a reorganization of the dominant feedbacks in the system. Monitoring information on changes in the system state, controlling variables, and feedbacks is a crucial contributor to applying sustainability and ecosystem resilience at an operational level. Read More

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Detection of the Faraday Chiral Anisotropy.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Apr;126(17):177401

School of Physics, CRANN, Amber Research Centre, Trinity College Dublin, College Green, Dublin 2, Ireland.

The connection between chirality and electromagnetism has attracted much attention through the recent history of science, allowing the discovery of crucial nonreciprocal optical phenomena within the context of fundamental interactions between matter and light. A major phenomenon within this family is the so-called Faraday chiral anisotropy, the long-predicted but yet unobserved effect which arises due to the correlated coaction of both natural and magnetically induced optical activities at concurring wavelengths in chiral systems. Here, we report on the detection of the elusive anisotropic Faraday chiral phenomenon and demonstrate its enantioselectivity. Read More

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Listening to the experts: Parents' perspectives around infection risk and returning to education and social activities following their child's diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Cancer Rep (Hoboken) 2021 May 14:e1424. Epub 2021 May 14.

National Child Cancer Network, Auckland, New Zealand.

Background: During a child's prolonged treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), there is a need to balance their increased risk of developing infection-related complications with meeting their educational and social needs.

Aims: To determine the safe timing of return to social activities for children undergoing treatment for ALL and to determine how parents perceive and act on advice related to infection risk while navigating their child's "return to normal."

Methods And Results: Medical and educational attendance records were reviewed for 47 children who were diagnosed with ALL and 24 semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with a representative sample of their parents. Read More

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Nutmegs and wild nutmegs: An update on ethnomedicines, phytochemicals, pharmacology, and toxicity of the Myristicaceae species.

Phytother Res 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Agrotechnology and Rural Development Division, CSIR-North East Institute of Science & Technology, Jorhat, 785006, Assam, India.

Prized medicinal spice true nutmeg is obtained from Myristica fragrans Houtt. Rest species of the family Myristicaceae are known as wild nutmegs. Nutmegs and wild nutmegs are a rich reservoir of bioactive molecules and used in traditional medicines of Europe, Asia, Africa, America against madness, convulsion, cancer, skin infection, malaria, diarrhea, rheumatism, asthma, cough, cold, as stimulant, tonics, and psychotomimetic agents. Read More

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The Canadian Pain Society: A historical perspective.

Can J Pain 2020 Oct 6;4(1):247-251. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, and Centre for the Study of Pain, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

This article reviews the major features and events that have characterized the 40-year history of the Canadian Pain Society/Société canadienne de la douleur, which is a chapter of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP). The review first describes its early formative years in the 1970s as eastern and western chapters of IASP and then its evolution as a Canada-wide chapter and society. Also highlighted is the formulation in this period of its purpose to foster pain research, education, and management and the many activities in which the Society has been engaged to reinforce this purpose over the ensuing decades. Read More

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October 2020

Gut Microbiota Mediates the Preventive Effects of Dietary Capsaicin Against Depression-Like Behavior Induced by Lipopolysaccharide in Mice.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 27;11:627608. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Capsaicin (CAP) is an active ingredient in chili pepper that is frequently consumed. It exerts various pharmacological activities, and also has potential effects on mental illness. However, its mechanism of antidepressant effects is still unclear. Read More

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Potent ex vivo armed T cells using recombinant bispecific antibodies for adoptive immunotherapy with reduced cytokine release.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 May;9(5)

Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA

Background: T cell-based immunotherapies using chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) or bispecific antibodies (BsAb) have produced impressive responses in hematological malignancies. However, major hurdles remained, including cytokine release syndrome, neurotoxicity, on-target off-tumor effects, reliance on autologous T cells, and failure in most solid tumors. BsAb armed T cells offer a safe alternative. Read More

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Genetic damage in coal and uranium miners.

Mutat Res 2021 Jun 16;866:503348. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, FURG, Rio Grande, Brazil; Laboratório de Ensaios Farmacológicos e Toxicológicos, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, FURG, Brazil.

Mining has a direct impact on the environment and on the health of miners and is considered one of the most hazardous occupations worldwide. Miners are exposed to several occupational health risks, including genotoxic substances, which may cause adverse health effects, such as cancer. This review summarizes the relation between DNA damage and mining activities, focusing on coal and uranium miners. Read More

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Identifying background microbiomes in an evidence recovery laboratory: A preliminary study.

Sci Justice 2021 May 7;61(3):280-290. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.

16S rRNA profiling of bacterial communities may have forensic utility in the identification or association of individuals involved with criminal activities. Microbial profiling of evidence may, in the future, be performed within environments currently utilised for human DNA recovery, such as a forensic biology laboratory. It would be important to establish the background microbiome of such an environment to determine the potential presence of human or environmental microbial signatures to assist forensic scientists in the appropriate interpretation of target microbial communities. Read More

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Adrenomedullin 2 improves bone regeneration in type 1 diabetic rats by restoring imbalanced macrophage polarization and impaired osteogenesis.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 May 13;12(1):288. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, 200233, People's Republic of China.

Background: Both advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and AGE-mediated M1 macrophage polarization contribute to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) dysfunction, leading to impaired bone regeneration in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Adrenomedullin 2 (ADM2), an endogenous bioactive peptide belonging to the calcitonin gene-related peptide family, exhibits various biological activities associated with the inhibition of inflammation and reduction of insulin resistance. However, the effects and underlying mechanisms of ADM2 in AGE-induced macrophage M1 polarization, BMSC dysfunction, and impaired bone regeneration remain poorly understood. Read More

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Network pharmacology-based exploration of therapeutic mechanism of Liu-Yu-Tang in atypical antipsychotic drug-induced metabolic syndrome.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Apr 30;134:104452. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Shanghai Clinical Research Center for Mental Health, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200030, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is prevalent in patients receiving atypical antipsychotic drugs (AADs), but there are few effective interventions. The Traditional Chinese herbal decoction Liu-Yu-Tang (LYT) has achieved clinical improvement for AAD-induced MetS, but its pharmacological mechanism remains unclear.

Method: A network pharmacology-based method was utilized in this study. Read More

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Impact of organic acids and sulfate on the biogeochemical properties of soil from urban subsurface environments.

J Environ Manage 2021 May 10;292:112756. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Urban subsurface environments are often different from undisturbed subsurface environments due to the impacts of human activities. For example, deterioration of underground infrastructure can introduce elevated levels of Ca, Fe, and heavy metals into subsurface soils and groundwater. Likewise, leakage from sewer systems can lead to contamination by organic C, N, S, and P. Read More

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Thundering hoofbeats and dazzling zebras: A model integrating current rare disease perspectives in paleopathology.

Int J Paleopathol 2021 May 10;33:196-208. Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, PO Box 872402, Tempe, AZ, 85287-2402, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: The article reviews the study of rare diseases and their nomenclature, emerging government policies and initiatives, and the concerns voiced by the modern rare disease communities. An interpretive model is then presented for the bioarchaeological interpretations of individuals with paleopathological evidence of rare diseases.

Materials: In demonstration of the application of the proposed framework, we evaluate the skeletal remains of an adult female (EZ 3-7-1) excavated in the 1980s from the Middle Woodland (50BCE-CE400) context of the Elizabeth site (11PK512) in the lower Illinois Valley, USA. Read More

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Ethnopharmacology, biological activities and chemical compounds of Canarium strictum: An important resin-yielding medicinal tree in India.

Fitoterapia 2021 May 10:104920. Epub 2021 May 10.

Section for Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Department of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1068, 0316 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

The resin of Canarium strictum Roxb. is used for rheumatism and asthma; the bark is used as a mosquito repellent. The major compounds in the resin are triterpenoids, but as no studies have been performed on the bark, this study investigated this economically important resource. Read More

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Phytochemical composition, antisnake venom and antibacterial activities of ethanolic extract of Aegiphila integrifolia (Jacq) Moldenke leaves.

Toxicon 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Chemical Engineering Section, Military Institute of Engineering, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Electronic address:

Snakebites are considered a major neglected tropical disease, resulting in around 100,000 deaths per year. The recommended treatment by the WHO is serotherapy, which has limited effectiveness against the toxins involved in local tissue damage. In some countries, patients use plants from folk medicines as antivenoms. Read More

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Melittin as a promising anti-protozoan peptide: current knowledge and future prospects.

AMB Express 2021 May 13;11(1):69. Epub 2021 May 13.

Skin Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Protozoan diseases such as malaria, leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, and sleeping sickness still levy a heavy toll on human lives. Deplorably, only few classes of anti-protozoan drugs have thus far been developed. The problem is further compounded by their intrinsic toxicity, emergence of drug resistance, and the lack of licensed vaccines. Read More

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The human WNT5A isoforms display similar patterns of expression but distinct and overlapping activities in normal human osteoblasts.

J Cell Biochem 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Biology, University of North Carolina Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina, USA.

WNT5A activates noncanonical Wnt signaling pathways and has critical functions in early development, differentiation, and tissue homeostasis. Two major WNT5A protein isoforms, which in this study we term WNT5A-L(A) and WNT5A-S(B), have been identified that differ by 18 AA at their amino terminus. Functional differences between the isoforms have been indicated in studies utilizing cancer cell lines but the activities of the isoforms in normal cells and during differentiation have not been explored. Read More

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An architecture for non-linear discovery of aggregated multimedia document web search results.

PeerJ Comput Sci 2021 21;7:e449. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Computer Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

The recent proliferation of multimedia information on the web enhances user information need from simple textual lookup to multi-modal exploration activities. The current search engines act as major gateways to access the immense amount of multimedia data. However, access to the multimedia content is provided by aggregating disjoint multimedia search verticals. Read More

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Benefits and Limitations of TKIs in Patients with Medullary Thyroid Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Eur Thyroid J 2021 Apr 11;10(2):125-139. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Endocrine Unit, Department of Medical Therapeutics, School of Medicine, Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Introduction: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been used in patients with advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC); however, data on their effectiveness and safety are limited. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to document clinical response and toxicities of TKIs in advanced MTC.

Methods: We systematically searched major databases for articles or abstracts on TKI use in MTC patients until May 2018. Read More

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Parents' Views on Play and the Goal of Early Childhood Education in Relation to Children's Home Activity and Executive Functions: A Cross-Cultural Investigation.

Front Psychol 2021 26;12:646074. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Institute of Education, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary.

The present study investigated the cross-cultural variations in parents' views on the role of play in child development and the primary purpose of preschool education from Ethiopia and Hungary. It also examined the cross-cultural variations in preschoolers' executive functions (EF), the frequency of their engagement in home activities, and the role of these activities in the development of EF skills. Participants included 266 preschoolers (Ethiopia: 139 of which 44. Read More

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Dengue Fever: Therapeutic Potential of L. Leaves.

Front Pharmacol 2021 26;12:610912. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (The National University of Malaysia), Cheras, Malaysia.

Dengue, a very widespread mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by virus, has been occurring during the monsoons every year. The prevalence and incidence of dengue fever and death due to its complications have been increased drastically in these recent years in Bangladesh, Philippines, Thailand, Brazil, and India. Recently, dengue had spread in an epidemic form in Bangladesh, Thailand, and Philippines. Read More

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Development of a data utility framework to support effective health data curation.

BMJ Health Care Inform 2021 May;28(1)

Central Team, Health Data Research UK, London, UK.

Objectives: The value of healthcare data is being increasingly recognised, including the need to improve health dataset utility. There is no established mechanism for evaluating healthcare dataset utility making it difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of activities improving the data. To describe the method for generating and involving the user community in developing a proposed framework for evaluation and communication of healthcare dataset utility for given research areas. Read More

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Distinguishing between household headship with and without power and its association with subjective well-being among older adults: an analytical cross-sectional study in India.

BMC Geriatr 2021 May 12;21(1):304. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Mathematical Demography and Statistics, International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, Maharashtra, 400088, India.

Background: The status of household headship accorded to the older members of the family is often symbolic and seldom vested with some control over resources. The increased dependency and diminished ability to contribute to household economy are major factors that lead to a decline in the respect accorded to older people and their status in the family. The present study aimed to understand the distinction between the functional and nominal household headship status of older adults based on their decision-making power and examine how it is associated with their subjective well-being. Read More

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