138 results match your criteria activities faunal

Anthropogenic land‒use impacts on the size structure of macroinvertebrate assemblages are jointly modulated by local conditions and spatial processes.

Environ Res 2021 Sep 15:112055. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Freshwater Centre, Finnish Environment Institute, PO Box 413, FI‒90014, Oulu, Finland. Electronic address:

Body size descriptors and associated resemblance measurements may provide useful tools for forecasting ecological responses to increasing anthropogenic land‒use disturbances. Yet, the influences of agriculture and urbanisation on the size structure of biotic assemblages have seldom been investigated in running waters. Using a comprehensive dataset on stream macroinvertebrates from 21 river basins across Western Finland, we assessed whether the structure of assemblages via changes in taxonomic composition and body size distributions responded predictably to anthropogenic land‒use impacts. Read More

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September 2021

Medium-term monitoring reveals effects of El Niño Southern Oscillation climate variability on local salinity and faunal dynamics on a restored oyster reef.

PLoS One 2021 16;16(8):e0255931. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Life Sciences, Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, United States of America.

Human activities and regional-scale climate variability drive changes in the ecology of coastal and marine ecosystems. Ecological restoration has emerged as a best-management practice to combat habitat degradation and restore lost ecological functions. However, relatively short project monitoring timeframes have limited our understanding of the effects of interannual climate cycles on water quality and restoration dynamics. Read More

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Effects of temperature and soil fauna on the reduction and leaching of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone from Fusarium graminearum-infected maize stubbles.

Mycotoxin Res 2021 Aug 25;37(3):249-263. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Johann Heinrich von Thünen Institute (TI) - Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries, Institute of Biodiversity , Bundesallee 65, 38116, Braunschweig, Germany.

A microcosm study was conducted at two different temperatures under laboratory conditions to investigate the regulatory capacity and the interactive performance of two soil fauna species (Aporrectodea caliginosa, earthworms, and Proisotoma minuta, collembolans) on the reduction of Fusarium toxins in contaminated maize stubbles. Single and mixed species treatments were exposed to artificially infected maize stubbles highly contaminated with the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) (10,462 µg kg) and zearalenone (ZEN) (2,780 µg kg) at 17 °C and 25 °C for time periods of 3 and 6 weeks. Immediately after the respective end of incubation, the microcosms were heavily watered to determine the leaching potential of DON and ZEN from contaminated maize stubbles. Read More

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Termite mound formation reduces the abundance and diversity of soil resistomes.

Environ Microbiol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

School of Agriculture and Food, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, 3010, Australia.

Termites are pivotal ecosystem engineers in tropical and subtropical habitats, where they construct massive nests ('mounds') that substantially modify soil properties and promote nutrient cycling. Yet, little is known about the roles of termite nesting activity in regulating the spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), one of the major Global Health challenges. Here, we conducted a large-scale (> 1500 km) investigation in northern Australia and found distinct resistome profiles in termite mounds and bulk soils. Read More

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A 115,000-year-old expedient bone technology at Lingjing, Henan, China.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(5):e0250156. Epub 2021 May 6.

CNRS UMR5199 -PACEA, Université de Bordeaux, France.

Activities attested since at least 2.6 Myr, such as stone knapping, marrow extraction, and woodworking may have allowed early hominins to recognize the technological potential of discarded skeletal remains and equipped them with a transferable skillset fit for the marginal modification and utilization of bone flakes. Identifying precisely when and where expedient bone tools were used in prehistory nonetheless remains a challenging task owing to the multiple natural and anthropogenic processes that can mimic deliberately knapped bones. Read More

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Environmental drivers of meiofaunal natural variability, Egypt, Southeastern Mediterranean.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Mar 13;193(4):185. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Oceanography Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

Sandy beaches are challenging ecosystems, in which biota experience extreme physical conditions. We sampled meiofauna in conjunction with environmental factors that are well-known to affect faunal associations to describe the ecological state of sandy beaches that experience natural and human-made disturbances. We applied a random stratified sampling design with monthly collections (1800 cores) at three beaches on the Alexandria, Egypt, coast during two sampling periods over 1 year from November to April and May to September. Read More

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Joint effects of patch edges and habitat degradation on faunal predation risk in a widespread marine foundation species.

Ecology 2021 05 8;102(5):e03316. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

School of Marine Science, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, The College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, Virginia, 23062-1346, USA.

Human activities degrade and fragment coastal marine habitats, reducing their structural complexity and making habitat edges a prevalent seascape feature. Though habitat edges frequently are implicated in reduced faunal survival and biodiversity, results of experiments on edge effects have been inconsistent, calling for a mechanistic approach to the study of edges that explicitly includes indirect and interactive effects of habitat alteration at multiple scales across biogeographic gradients. We used an experimental network spanning 17 eelgrass (Zostera marina) sites across the Atlantic and Pacific oceans and the Mediterranean Sea to determine (1) if eelgrass edges consistently increase faunal predation risk, (2) whether edge effects on predation risk are altered by habitat degradation (shoot thinning), and (3) whether variation in the strength of edge effects among sites can be explained by biogeographical variability in covarying eelgrass habitat features. Read More

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Recent environmental change in the Kosterhavet National Park marine protected area as reflected by hydrography and sediment proxy data.

Mar Environ Res 2021 Apr 4;166:105265. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

The Koster Trench is the deepest part of the Kosterfjord (Skagerrak, North Sea), which stretches southward along the west coast of Sweden. Since 2009 Kosterfjord has been included in the Marine Protected Area Kosterhavet National Park. To effectively manage national parks, long-term time series of ecological data are needed and those can be derived from local sediment archives. Read More

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Examining Neanderthal and carnivore occupations of Teixoneres Cave (Moià, Barcelona, Spain) using archaeostratigraphic and intra-site spatial analysis.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 22;11(1):4339. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social (IPHES-CERCA), Zona Educacional 4, Campus Sescelades URV (Edifici W3), 43007, Tarragona, Spain.

Teixoneres Cave (Moià, Barcelona, Spain) is a reference site for Middle Palaeolithic studies of the Iberian Peninsula. The cave preserves an extensive stratigraphic sequence made up of eight units, which is presented in depth in this work. The main goal of this study is to undertake an initial spatial examination of Unit III, formed during Marine Isotope Stage 3, with the aim of understanding spatial organization and past activities developed by Neanderthals and carnivores (bears, hyenas and smaller carnivores). Read More

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February 2021

Faunal and environmental drivers of carbon and nitrogen cycling along a permeability gradient in shallow North Sea sediments.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 18;767:144994. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Ghent University, Department of Biology, Marine Biology Research Group, Krijgslaan 281/S8, 9000 Ghent, Belgium; Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Operational Directorate Natural Environment, Marine Ecology and Management, Rue Vautier 29, 1000 Brussels, Belgium.

Ecosystem functions are driven by abiotic and biotic factors, but due to high collinearity of both, it is often difficult to disentangle the drivers of these ecosystem functions. We studied sedimentological and faunal controls of benthic organic matter mineralization, a crucial ecosystem process provided for by sediments of shelf seas. Subtidal benthic habitats representative of the wide permeability gradient found in the Belgian Part of the North Sea (Northeast Atlantic Shelf) were characterized in terms of sediment descriptors, macrofauna, and sediment biogeochemistry was estimated. Read More

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Investigating Neolithic caprine husbandry in the Central Pyrenees: Insights from a multi-proxy study at Els Trocs cave (Bisaurri, Spain).

PLoS One 2021 6;16(1):e0244139. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Departamento de Prehistoria y Arqueología, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain.

Sheep remains constitute the main archaeozoological evidence for the presence of Early Neolithic human groups in the highlands of the Southern Pyrenees but understanding the role of herding activities in the Neolithisation process of this mountain ecosystem calls for the analysis of large and well-dated faunal assemblages. Cova de Els Trocs (Bisaurri, Huesca, Spain), a cave located at 1564 m a.s. Read More

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Multiple stressor effects on benthic macroinvertebrates in very large European rivers - A typology-based evaluation of faunal responses as a basis for future bioassessment.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Feb 10;756:143472. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Department of Water, Atmosphere, Environment, Institute of Hydrobiology and Aquatic Ecosystem Management, Gregor-Mendel-Straße 33, 1180 Vienna, Austria.

Two factors complicate the ecological status classification of very large rivers in Europe according to the EU Water Framework Directive: First, current assessment methods do not fully consider the specific ecology of very large rivers (such as lateral connectivity and the role of floodplains for ecological status). Second, most of Europe's very large rivers have been severely altered by human activities such as flood protection, damming and navigation. The aim of our study is to develop an assessment method for very large rivers by identifying suitable biological metrics as the basis for multi-metric bioassessment using benthic invertebrates. Read More

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February 2021

Macrozoobenthic community responses to sedimentary contaminations by anthropogenic toxic substances in the Geum River Estuary, South Korea.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 16;763:142938. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

School of Earth and Environmental Sciences & Research Institute of Oceanography, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

We investigated the sedimentary pollution by persistent toxic substances (PTSs) and their potential impacts on the macrobenthic faunal community in the Geum River Estuary, South Korea. Sediment and benthic macrofauna samples were collected from eight sites every two months during the period of February to December in 2015. Target PTSs encompassed metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn), one metalloid (As), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and alkylphenols (APs). Read More

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Summer and winter MgCO levels in the skeletons of Arctic bryozoans.

Mar Environ Res 2020 Dec 2;162:105166. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Marine Ecology Department, Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences, Powstańców Warszawy 55, 81-712 Sopot, Poland.

In the Arctic, seasonal patterns in seawater biochemical conditions are shaped by physical, chemical, and biological processes related to the alternation of seasons, i.e. winter polar night and summer midnight sun. Read More

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December 2020

Can we reduce phosphorus runoff from agricultural fields by stimulating soil biota?

J Environ Qual 2020 Jul;49(4):933-944

Dep. of Environmental Sciences, Univ. of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH, 43606, USA.

When fertilizer phosphorus (P) is applied to soils, the P can run off fields and cause harmful algal blooms. Due to its chemistry, much of the added P that does not run off can bind to soil particles and become inaccessible to plants. In natural systems, microbial and faunal decomposers can increase soil P accessibility to plants. Read More

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Advection exacerbates population decline from habitat loss: maintaining threatened taxa while restoring natural river flow regimes.

Oecologia 2020 Jul 25;193(3):773-785. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

Environmental Science Center, Laredo Community College, Laredo, USA.

Modification of flow regimes and habitat degradation are the strongest, most common, and often co-occurring human activities affecting riverine populations. Ongoing efforts to restore peak flow events found under pristine flow regimes could increase advection-driven dispersal for many species. In rivers with extensive habitat loss, increased advection could transport individuals from remnant populations into degraded downstream areas, causing restored flow regimes to decrease persistence of threatened species. Read More

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Soft-bottom community responses in a marine area influenced by recurrent dumping activities and freshwater discharges.

Mar Pollut Bull 2020 Jul 17;156:111259. Epub 2020 May 17.

CASAGEC INGENIERIE, 18 rue Maryse Bastié, 64600 Anglet, France. Electronic address:

The results of a 3 years monitoring program to assess the effects associated with recurrent dredged spoil disposal activity in a naturally stressed subtidal coastal area subjected to estuarine inputs are described. Changes observed through time in environmental and anthropogenic variables have been analyzed using cumulated sums and compared to macrobenthic community structure. Results revealed a scarce impact of the recurrent dumping activities, with faunal assemblages derived from the main "Tellina-venus community". Read More

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Site occupation dynamics of early modern humans at Misliya Cave (Mount Carmel, Israel): Evidence from the spatial taphonomy of faunal remains.

J Hum Evol 2020 06 1;143:102797. Epub 2020 May 1.

Zinman Institute of Archaeology, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa, 3498838, Israel.

Space use in Middle Paleolithic (MP) camps has been suggested as a source of information on the intensity and repetition of occupations and, by extension, of demographics. In the Levant, clear evidence for differential intrasite use and maintenance was important in viewing the late MP Neanderthal sites as base camps inhabited for a significant duration, relative to the Early MP (EMP). We test this model with the rich faunal assemblage from the EMP (>140 ka) site of Misliya Cave, Mount Carmel, Israel. Read More

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Earliest African evidence of carcass processing and consumption in cave at 700 ka, Casablanca, Morocco.

Sci Rep 2020 03 16;10(1):4761. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.

To date, in Africa, evidence for animal processing and consumption in caves routinely used as living spaces is only documented in the late Middle Pleistocene of the North and South of the continent and postdates the Middle Pleistocene in East Africa. Here we report the earliest evidence in a North-African cave (Grotte des Rhinocéros at Casablanca, Morocco) of cut, percussion and human gnawing marks on faunal remains directly associated with lithic knapping activities in the same space and in a well-documented stratified context. Ages for this Acheulean site are provided by the dating of herbivorous teeth to 690-720 ka and 520-550 ka (lower and upper sets) by combined Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) and U-series techniques. Read More

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The spatial organization of craft production at the Kura-Araxes settlement of Köhne Shahar in northwestern Iran: A zooarchaeological approach.

PLoS One 2020 4;15(3):e0229339. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Department of Anthropology, Grand Valley State University, Allendale, Michigan, United States of America.

The Kura-Araxes cultural tradition (ca. 3500-2200 BCE) was one of the most widespread archaeological horizons in Southwest Asian prehistory, spanning from the Caucasus to the southern Levant. Although several decades of research have considerably increased our knowledge about this Early Bronze Age tradition, the social and economic organization of its communities remains a matter of much debate. Read More

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Longitudinal changes in the targets of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) hunts at Mahale Mountains National Park: how and why did they begin to intensively hunt red colobus (Piliocolobus rufomitratus) in the 1980s?

Primates 2020 May 24;61(3):391-401. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

School of Policy Studies, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, 669-1337, Japan.

The hunting activities of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Mahale Mountains National Park exhibited a significant change over a 46-year observation period, shifting from sporadic hunting for small ungulates and primates through seizure or chasing, to a specialized hunting habit for red colobus (Piliocolobus rufomitratus). By the early 1980s, a new hunting habit had developed through the following stages: (1) occasional single kills by mature/adolescent males, (2) multiple kills by mature/adolescent males, (3) participation of mature females in both multiple and single kills, and (4) increased frequencies of multiple kills and female participation in killing. Throughout the observation period, red colobus was the most frequently hunted species, accounting for 71. Read More

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A Review on Pharmacological Activities and Active Phytoconstituents of Roadside Trees of Tamil Nadu.

Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem 2020 Feb 19. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Centre for Biological Sciences, Department of Biochemistry, K.S.Rangasamy College of Arts and Science (Autonomous), Tiruchengode, India.

Roadsides are habitats with very specific environmental conditions, often substantially differing from their natural surroundings. Roadside trees provide home for many floral and faunal species and have many environmental benefits including removing air pollutants, supporting wildlife etc. Many medicinal plants including road side trees have been discovered and traditionally they are being used for treating many kinds of diseases. Read More

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February 2020

Natural dynamics overshadow anthropogenic impact on marine fauna at an urbanised coastal embayment.

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 30;716:137009. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

College of Engineering, Energy & Environment Research Group, Zienkiewicz Centre for Computational Engineering, Swansea University, Bay Campus, Swansea SA1 8EN, Wales, UK.

Understanding vulnerabilities of coastal ecosystems facing anthropogenic use is a precondition for management decisions and development planning. This can be challenging in urbanised areas with multiple activities affecting different faunal communities. The aim of this study was to provide a holistic understanding of the relative importance of anthropogenic and natural variables for macroinfauna, epifauna and fish in a heavily modified waterbody (HMWB) designated under the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). Read More

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Mugharat an-Nachcharini: A specialized sheep-hunting camp reveals high-altitude habitats in the earliest Neolithic of the Central Levant.

PLoS One 2020 22;15(1):e0227276. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Department of Anthropology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

The earliest Neolithic of southwest Asia is generally perceived and portrayed as a period of emerging economic practices that anticipated full-fledged food-producing economies. This first Neolithic, however, can also be seen as the last gasp of an earlier way of life that remained fundamentally Epipaleolithic in character. While people at this time had begun to cultivate some of the plant foods gathered in preceding periods, and to live for lengthy periods in sites with substantial architecture, they also relied on hunting for a significant portion of their diet and logistical movement across landscapes to exploit diverse environments. Read More

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Meiobenthic nematodes in the assessment of the relative impact of human activities on coastal marine ecosystem.

Environ Monit Assess 2020 Jan 2;192(2):81. Epub 2020 Jan 2.

Laboratory of Biodiversity, Department of Life Science, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea.

Ecological quality (EcoQ) status of the Southwest and West coasts of South Korea was evaluated within the "National Investigation of Marine Ecosystems in Korea" in the 2015. In particular, the study dealt to assess the ecological quality of the sediments using free-living nematode communities. A total of 149 species were found in the study area, and Daptonema, Sabatieria, Parodontophora, Sphaerolaimus, and Viscosia were found as dominant genera. Read More

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January 2020

Long-term effects of cultural filtering on megafauna species distributions across China.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 01 23;117(1):486-493. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

Section for Ecoinformatics and Biodiversity, Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark;

Human activities currently play a dominant role in shaping and eroding Earth's biodiversity, but the historical dynamics leading to this situation are poorly understood and contentious. Importantly, these dynamics are often studied and discussed without an emphasis on cultural evolution, despite its potential importance for past and present biodiversity dynamics. Here, we investigate whether cultural filtering, defined as the impact of cultural evolution on species presence, has driven the range dynamics of five historically widespread megafauna taxa (Asiatic elephant, rhinoceroses, tiger, Asiatic black bear, and brown bear) across China over the past 2 millennia. Read More

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January 2020

The Neanderthal teeth from Marillac (Charente, Southwestern France): Morphology, comparisons and paleobiology.

J Hum Evol 2020 01 22;138:102683. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

UMR5199 PACEA: de la préhistoire à l'actuel: culture, environnement et anthropologie, Université de Bordeaux, bât. B8. Allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire - CS 50023, 33615 Pessac, France.

Few European sites have yielded human dental remains safely dated to the end of MIS 4/beginning of MIS 3. One of those sites is Marillac (Southwestern France), a collapsed karstic cave where archeological excavations (1967-1980) conducted by B. Vandermeersch unearthed numerous faunal and human remains, as well as a few Mousterian Quina tools. Read More

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January 2020

Seasonal oyster harvesting recorded in a Late Archaic period shell ring.

PLoS One 2019 20;14(11):e0224666. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.

The function of Late Archaic period (5000-3000 B.P.) shell rings has been a focus of debate among archaeologists for decades. Read More

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Subsistence strategy changes during the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition reveals specific adaptations of Human Populations to their environment.

Sci Rep 2019 11 1;9(1):15817. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Faculty of Archaeology, Leiden University, 2333CC, Leiden, Netherlands.

The transition from Middle to Upper Paleolithic is a major biological and cultural threshold in the construction of our common humanity. Technological and behavioral changes happened simultaneously to a major climatic cooling, which reached its acme with the Heinrich 4 event, forcing the human populations to develop new strategies for the exploitation of their environment. The recent fieldwork at Les Cottés (France) transitional site offers a good opportunity to document subsistence strategies for this period and to provide for the first time high-resolution insights on its evolution. Read More

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November 2019

Influence of Human Activities on Broad-Scale Estuarine-Marine Habitats Using Omics-Based Approaches Applied to Marine Sediments.

Microorganisms 2019 Oct 4;7(10). Epub 2019 Oct 4.

Land and Water, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, P. O. Box 2583, Dutton Park, QLD 4001, Australia.

Rapid urban expansion and increased human activities have led to the progressive deterioration of many marine ecosystems. The diverse microbial communities that inhabit these ecosystems are believed to influence large-scale geochemical processes and, as such, analyzing their composition and functional metabolism can be a means to assessing an ecosystem's resilience to physical and chemical perturbations, or at the very least provide baseline information and insight into future research needs. Here we show the utilization of organic and inorganic contaminant screening coupled with metabolomics and bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing to assess the microbial community structure of marine sediments and their functional metabolic output. Read More

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October 2019