23,353 results match your criteria active surveillance

Influenza vaccination uptake and factors influencing vaccination decision among patients with chronic kidney or liver disease.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(4):e0249785. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Introduction: Seasonal influenza is a major global health problem causing substantial morbidity and health care costs. Yet, in many countries, the rates of influenza vaccination remain low. Chronic kidney or liver diseases (CKLD) predispose patients to severe influenza infections, but data on vaccination acceptance and status is limited in this risk population. Read More

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The role of radiotherapy in neuroendocrine cervical cancer: SEER-based study.

Sci Prog 2021 Apr-Jun;104(2):368504211009336

Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China.

Background: There are few randomised prospective data or guidelines for the treatment of neuroendocrine cervical cancer (NECC). In addition, the role of radiotherapy (RT) in NECC remains controversial. We used the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database to investigate the role of RT for the treatment of NECC. Read More

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Bleeding and Thrombotic Adverse Events in Hospitalized Patients Under Empiric Treatment for Suspected Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia While Awaiting Confirmatory Testing.

Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2021 Jan-Dec;27:1076029621996473

Hematology, 23217Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Empiric management in suspected heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is challenging due to imperfect prediction models, latency while awaiting test results and risks of empiric therapies. When there is high clinical suspicion for HIT, cessation of heparin and empiric non-heparin anticoagulation with FDA-approved argatroban is recommended. Alternatively off-label fondaparinux or watchful waiting have been utilized in clinical practice. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 among inmates over 60 years of age during a COVID-19 outbreak in a penitentiary complex in Brazil: positive health outcomes despite high prevalence.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Ministério da Saúde, Departamento de Saúde Ambiental, do Trabalhador e de Vigilância das Emergências em Saúde Pública, Coordenação Geral de Emergências em Saúde Pública, Programa de Treinamento em Epidemiologia Aplicada aos Serviços do Sistema Único de Saúde, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil.

Objectives: To assess SARS-CoV-2 prevalence and health outcomes among inmates over 60 years of age during a COVID-19 outbreak in a major penitentiary complex in the Federal District, Brazil.

Methods: A mass test campaign was performed on May 13, 2020, with the use of antibody-detection rapid tests for asymptomatic inmates and RT-PCR for symptomatic. Those with negative results were retested on June 16. Read More

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Disparities between US Hispanic and non-Hispanic women in obesity-related perinatal outcomes: a prospective cohort study.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Apr 11:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Mortality figures and national health surveillance data have demonstrated that Hispanics have a 24% lower risk of all-cause mortality compared to their non-Hispanic counterparts despite increased rates of obesity and related illnesses.

Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate if this paradox exists for obesity-related perinatal outcomes in otherwise low-risk Hispanic women.

Materials And Methods: A prospective cohort study of low-risk women across all BMI classes with a singleton, non-anomalous term pregnancy admitted in active labor or undergoing induction of labor between May 2014 and April 2017. Read More

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Development and Evaluation of Active Case Detection Methods to Support Visceral Leishmaniasis Elimination in India.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 24;11:648903. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Bihar Technical Support Program, CARE-India Solutions for Sustainable Development, Patna, India.

As India moves toward the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) as a public health problem, comprehensive timely case detection has become increasingly important, in order to reduce the period of infectivity and control outbreaks. During the 2000s, localized research studies suggested that a large percentage of VL cases were never reported in government data. However, assessments conducted from 2013 to 2015 indicated that 85% or more of confirmed cases were eventually captured and reported in surveillance data, albeit with significant delays before diagnosis. Read More

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Optimizing Village-Level Targeting of Active Case Detection to Support Visceral Leishmaniasis Elimination in India.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 24;11:648847. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Bihar Technical Support Program, CARE-India Solutions for Sustainable Development, Patna, India.

Background: India has made major progress in improving control of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in recent years, in part through shortening the time infectious patients remain untreated. Active case detection decreases the time from VL onset to diagnosis and treatment, but requires substantial human resources. Targeting approaches are therefore essential to feasibility. Read More

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Patient Perspectives on the Extent of Surgery and Radioactive Iodine Treatment for Low-Risk Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

Endocr Pract 2021 Jan 16. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Objective: To understand patient perspective regarding recommended changes in the 2015 American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines. Specifically, in regard to active surveillance (AS) of some small differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), performance of less extensive surgery for low-risk DTC, and more selective administration of radioactive iodine (RAI).

Methods: An online survey was disseminated to thyroid cancer patient advocacy organizations and members of the ATA to distribute to the patients. Read More

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January 2021

Calf Vein Thrombosis Outcomes Comparing Anticoagulation and Serial Ultrasound Imaging Management Strategies.

Mayo Clin Proc 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Gonda Vascular Center, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; Cardiovascular Department, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Electronic address:

Objective: To compare outcomes among patients with calf deep vein thrombosis (DVT) stratified by management strategy because distal or calf DVT is said to have low rates of propagation, embolization, and recurrence and, as such, guideline recommendations include provisions for serial imaging without treatment.

Patients And Methods: Consecutive patients with ultrasound-confirmed acute DVT involving the calf veins (January 1, 2016, to August 1, 2018) were identified by scrutinizing the Gonda Vascular Center Ultrasound database. Patients were segregated into 2 categories depending on management strategy; anticoagulation vs serial surveillance ultrasound without anticoagulation. Read More

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Active surveillance for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer: A systematic review and pooled-analysis.

Cancer Treat Res Commun 2021 Apr 3;27:100369. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

IRCCS Humanitas Research Hospital - Rozzano, Milan, Italy.

Introduction: One of the Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer (NMIBC) treatment options recently recommended by International Guidelines is represented by Active Surveillance (AS),. Herein we carried out a systematic review and pooled-analysis of currently available evidences in order to provide recommendations for daily urological practice.

Material And Methods: The PubMed, EMBASE, and Coch rane Library databases were searched with the terms "Non-Muscle Invasive" or "pTa/pT1" and "Bladder Cancer" or "Bladder Tumor". Read More

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A novel tool to screen for treatments with clenbuterol in bovine: Identification of two hepatic markers by metabolomics investigation.

Food Chem 2021 Feb 23;353:129366. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Department of Chemistry, Legnaro (PD), Italy.

Surveillance of illegal use of growth promoters such as β-agonists in food producing animals rely on the detection of drug residues by LC-MS/MS. Screening strategies focusing on indirect physiological responses following administration of active compounds are promising approaches to strengthen existing targeted methods and ensure food safety. A metabolomics analysis based on LC-HRMS was carried out on liver extracts from bulls experimentally treated with clenbuterol combined with dexamethasone (n = 8) to mimic a potential anabolic practice, and control animals (n = 8). Read More

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February 2021

Determination of antimicrobial resistance profiles and mechanisms of using a Raman spectroscopy-based metabolomic approach.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Food, Nutrition and Health Program, Faculty of Land and Food Systems, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada

Rapid identification of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles and mechanisms is critical for clinical management and drug development. However, the current AMR detection approaches take up to 48 h to obtain a result. Here we demonstrate a Raman spectroscopy-based metabolomic approach to rapidly determine the AMR profile of , a major cause of foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide. Read More

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Sex and Racial Differences in Autopsy-Defined Causes of Presumed Sudden Cardiac Death.

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, City & County of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.

- Sudden cardiac death (SCD) studies report higher incidence in men and Blacks but presume cardiac cause. We sought to identify sex and race differences in rates and causes of presumed SCDs in a prospective postmortem study in San Francisco County. - All incident presumed SCDs meeting World Health Organization definition ages 18-90 were autopsied via active surveillance of consecutive out-of-hospital deaths in the stmortem ystematic Invesigation of udden ardiac eath (POST SCD) Study (2/1/2011 - 3/1/2014). Read More

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Impact of a Genomic Test on Treatment Decision in a Predominantly African American Population With Favorable-Risk Prostate Cancer: A Randomized Trial.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Apr 9:JCO2002997. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Pathology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL.

Purpose: The Genomic Prostate Score (GPS), performed on biopsy tissue, predicts adverse outcome in prostate cancer (PCa) and has shown promise for improving patient selection for active surveillance (AS). However, its impact on treatment choice in high-risk populations of African Americans is largely unknown and, in general, the effect of the GPS on this difficult decision has not been evaluated in randomized trials.

Methods: Two hundred men with National Comprehensive Cancer Network very low to low-intermediate PCa from three Chicago hospitals (70% Black, 16% college graduates) were randomly assigned at diagnosis to standard counseling with or without a 12-gene GPS assay. Read More

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Critical Photoperiod and Its Potential to Predict Mosquito Distributions and Control Medically Important Pests.

J Med Entomol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Entomology, The Ohio State University, Coffey Road, Kottman Hall, Columbus, OH, USA.

Diapause, a period of arrested development that allows mosquitoes to survive inhospitable conditions, is triggered by short daylengths in temperate mosquitoes. Different populations of mosquitoes initiate diapause in response to a specific photoperiod, or daylength, resulting in population-specific differences in annual cycles of abundance. The photoperiod that causes approximately 50% of a population to initiate diapause is known as the critical photoperiod (CPP). Read More

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Elective ventral hernia repair provides significant abdominal wall quality of life improvements in older patients.

Surg Endosc 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Surgery, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA.

Background: An increasing proportion of ventral hernia patients are over age 65. These patients are frequently offered watchful waiting rather than surgical intervention due to their frail state or perioperative risk. However, many in this age group suffer from significant quality of life impacts that are not well understood. Read More

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What is the effect of MRI with targeted biopsies on the rate of patients discontinuing active surveillance? A reflection of the use of MRI in the PRIAS study.

Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Urology, Erasmus University Medical Centre Cancer Institute, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: The reduction of overtreatment by active surveillance (AS) is limited in patients with low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) due to high rates of patients switching to radical treatment. MRI improves biopsy accuracy and could therewith affect inclusion in or continuation of AS. We aim to assess the effect of MRI with target biopsies on the total rate of patients discontinuing AS, and in particular discontinuation due to Grade Group (GG) reclassification. Read More

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Risk factors for nosocomial rectal colonization with carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in hospital: a matched case-control study.

Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 2021 Apr 8;10(1):69. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of infectious Diseases, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via del Pozzo 71, 41122, Modena, Italy.

Background: During the last decade carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) became hyper-endemic in hospitals due to difficult to control spreading. Our aim is to identify risk factors for nosocomial rectal CRAB colonization in an endemic hospital.

Methods: A retrospective matched case-control study (ratio 1:2) with a prospective inclusion of cases and concurrent selection of controls was conducted from January 2017 to December 2018 in a tertiary-care hospital. Read More

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Understanding Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer.

JCO Oncol Pract 2021 Apr 8:OP2000929. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

Purpose: To assess how active surveillance for prostate cancer is apportioned across specialties and how testing patterns and transition to treatment vary by specialty.

Methods: We used a 20% national sample of Medicare claims to identify men diagnosed with prostate cancer from 2010 through 2016 initiating surveillance (N = 13,048). Patients were assigned to the physician responsible for the bulk of surveillance care based on billing patterns. Read More

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Triatomine home invasions in active foci of Chagas disease in Abaetetuba, Pará, Brazil.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Epidemiology Service and Chagas Disease Laboratory, Instituto Evandro Chagas, Health Surveillance Secretariat/Ministry of Health, BR 316 Highway Km7, Ananindeua, PA, Brazil. Zip code: 67015120, Brazil.

Background: Chagas disease is a parasitic infection with high re-emergence rates in some Amazon regions. The main vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi are haematophagous insects, the triatomines. Only a few reports are available about the occurrence of these wild vectors and their contact with the inhabitants of the riverside regions of the Amazon. Read More

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Psychological distress and sleep disturbance throughout thyroid nodules screening, diagnosis and treatment.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Health and Management Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background: Many controversies exist regarding screening and treatment of thyroid cancer (TC), especially papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). The aim of this study was to evaluate patients' psychological distress and sleep disturbance throughout thyroid nodules (TNs) screening, diagnosis and treatment.

Materials And Methods: A total of 2834 participants (1153 participants with TNs) were enrolled during the screening phase, and 1105 individuals with TNs (87 individuals with TC) were enrolled during the diagnosis phase. Read More

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Paediatrics: how to manage obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

Drugs Context 2021 26;10. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is defined as the intermittent reduction or cessation of airflow due to partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway during sleep. Paediatric OSAS has specific contributing factors, presenting symptoms and management strategies in various age groups. Untreated OSAS can lead to detrimental effects on neurocognitive development and cardiovascular and metabolic functions of a growing child. Read More

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Mid-oesophageal traction diverticulum in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Apr 7;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

General Surgery, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK

In this report, a case of a large mid-oesophageal traction diverticulum in a 66-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus has been presented. She was initially managed conservatively with active surveillance for 6 years. When her symptoms progressed, she had repeat endoscopy and CT scan which showed an increase in size of the diverticulum to 6 cm in diameter. Read More

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