13,611 results match your criteria active ingredients


Dengzhan Xixin injection derived from a traditional Chinese herb Erigeron breviscapus ameliorates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats via modulation of mitophagy and mitochondrial apoptosis.

J Ethnopharmacol 2022 Jan 12:114988. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

State Key Laboratory of Southwestern Chinese Medicine Resources, School of Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 611137, China; Ethnic Medicine Academic Heritage Innovation Research Center, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 611137, China; Innovative Institute of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 611137, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Dengzhan Xixin injection (DX), a preparation of extracts from traditional Chinese medicine Erigeron breviscapus (Vaniot) Hand.-Mazz., has been widely used in clinical treatment of cerebral ischemia sequelae in China for a long history. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Evaluation of two-year recall of self-reported pesticide exposure among Ugandan smallholder farmers.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2022 Jan 11;240:113911. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands; Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH), Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Objectives: To evaluate smallholder farmers' recall of pesticide use and exposure determinants over a two-year period in a low-income country context.

Methods: The Pesticide Use in Tropical Settings (PESTROP) study in Uganda consists of 302 smallholder farmers who were interviewed in 2017. In the same season in 2019, these farmers were re-questioned concerning pesticide use (e. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Condensed Tannins, a Viable Solution To Meet the Need for Sustainable and Effective Multifunctionality in Food Packaging: Structure, Sources, and Properties.

J Agric Food Chem 2022 Jan 14. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples "Federico II", Via Cintia 4, I-80126 Naples, Italy.

Condensed tannins (CT) have been the focus of increasing interest in the last years as a result of their potent biological properties, which have prompted their use in the food and feed sector as functional ingredients. The possible exploitation of these compounds as multifunctional additives for the implementation of active food packaging has also been recently appreciated. In this perspective, an overview of the structural features, accessible sources, methods of analysis, and functional properties of CT is provided, with the aim of critically emphasizing the opportunities offered by this widespread class of natural phenolic compounds for the rational design of multifunctional and sustainable food packaging materials. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Macroscopic current generated by local division and apoptosis in a minimal model of tissue dynamics.

Soft Matter 2022 Jan 14. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Department of Physics, University of Durham, Science Laboratories, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, UK.

It has been known that the motion of self-propelled particles inside an asymmetric channel can be rectified to give rise to a macroscopic and unidirectional current. In this paper, we show that division and apoptosis process alone (which are ubiquitous in all living systems), without any self-propulsion, are sufficient to give rise to a macroscopic and unidirectional current in a similar channel. More specifically, we consider a minimal computational model of two-dimensional living tissues, with two active ingredients: local particle division and apoptosis, and we found a net steady state current along the channel. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Batch versus continuous blending of binary and ternary pharmaceutical powder mixtures.

Int J Pharm X 2022 Dec 3;4:100111. Epub 2022 Jan 3.

DFE Pharma, Klever Strasse 187, 47568 Goch, Germany.

The material properties of excipients and active pharmaceutical ingredients (API's) are important parameters that affect blend uniformity of pharmaceutical powder formulations. With the current shift from batch to continuous manufacturing in the pharmaceutical industry, blending of excipients and API is converted to a continuous process. The relation between material properties and blend homogeneity, however, is generally based on batch-wise blending trials. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2022

Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Total Saponins from : Process Optimization, Phytochemical Characterization, and Mechanism of α-Glucosidase Inhibition.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2022 6;16:83-105. Epub 2022 Jan 6.

State Key Laboratory of Research & Development of Characteristic Qin Medicine Resources (Cultivation), Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine, Xi'an, 712046, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: , a medicinal food plant, and total saponins from its root bark extract inhibit α-glucosidase activity, which is associated with type 2 diabetes; however, the inhibitory mechanism is unknown. Furthermore, a green extraction technique superior to conventional hot reflux extraction (HRE) is needed for the rapid and easy extraction of total saponins (TSAT) to exploit and utilize this resource. Our aim was to develop a green extraction method for obtaining TSAT and to investigate the mechanism by which TSAT inhibits α-glucosidase. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Scalable and selective deuteration of (hetero)arenes.

Nat Chem 2022 Jan 13. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Leibniz-Institut für Katalyse e.V., Rostock, Germany.

Isotope labelling, particularly deuteration, is an important tool for the development of new drugs, specifically for identification and quantification of metabolites. For this purpose, many efficient methodologies have been developed that allow for the small-scale synthesis of selectively deuterated compounds. Due to the development of deuterated compounds as active drug ingredients, there is a growing interest in scalable methods for deuteration. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Ginseng in vascular dysfunction: A review of therapeutic potentials and molecular mechanisms.

Phytother Res 2022 Jan 13. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Jilin Ginseng Academy, Key Laboratory of Active Substances and Biological Mechanisms of Ginseng Efficacy, Ministry of Education, Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Bio-Macromolecules of Chinese Medicine, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, China.

Vascular dysfunction can lead to a variety of fatal diseases, including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, and cancer. Although a large number of studies have reported the therapeutic effects of natural compounds on vascular-related diseases, ginseng is still the focus of research. Ginseng and its active substances have bioactive effects against different diseases with vascular dysfunction. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Topologically directed confocal Raman imaging (TD-CRI): Advanced Raman imaging towards compositional and micromeritic profiling of a commercial tablet components.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2022 Jan 6;210:114581. Epub 2022 Jan 6.

Research Center Pharmaceutical Engineering GmbH (RCPE), Inffeldgasse 13/3, 8010 Graz, Austria; Graz University of Technology, Institute of Process and Particle Engineering, Inffeldgasse 13/3, 8010 Graz, Austria. Electronic address:

Particle size distribution (PSD), spatial location and particle cluster size of ingredients, polymorphism, compositional distribution of a pharmaceutical product are few of the most important attributes in establishing the drug release-controlling microstructural and solid state properties that would be used to (re)design or reproduce similar products. There are numerous solid-state techniques available for PSD analysis. Laser diffraction (LD) is mostly used to study PSD of raw materials. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy indicates the infrared spectral markers of the optimum scorching degree of rhubarb (Rhei Radix et Rhizoma) to enhance the anti-inflammatory activity.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2022 Jan 5;270:120853. Epub 2022 Jan 5.

School of Life Sciences, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 102488, China. Electronic address:

Rhubarb has been used as herbal purgative with a long and worldwide history. But purgation is a side effect of rhubarb in many cases. In traditional Chinese medicine, rhubarb can be stir-baked to scorch to attenuate the purgative function while enhance other bioactivities such as the anti-inflammatory effect. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Oxyphylla A ameliorates cognitive deficits and alleviates neuropathology via the Akt-GSK3β and Nrf2-Keap1-HO-1 pathways in and in murine models of Alzheimer's disease.

J Adv Res 2021 Dec 8;34:1-12. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macao, China.

Introduction: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive brain disorder, and one of the most common causes of dementia and amnesia. Due to the complex pathogenesis of AD, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Although scientists have made increasing efforts to develop drugs for AD, no effective therapeutic agents have been found. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

Investigating the Mechanisms of Pollen Typhae in the Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Based on Network Pharmacology and Molecular Docking.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 3;2022:5728408. Epub 2022 Jan 3.

Guang'anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053, China.

Objective: To explore the main bioactive compounds and investigate the underlying mechanism of Pollen Typhae (PT) against diabetic retinopathy (DR) by network pharmacology and molecular docking analysis.

Methods: Bioactive ingredients and the target proteins of PT were obtained from TCMSP, and the related target genes were acquired from the SwissTargetPrediction database. The target genes of DR were obtained from GeneCards, TTD database, DisGeNET database, and DrugBank. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Site-Specific and Country-of-Origin Labeling for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing.

Ann Pharmacother 2022 Jan 13:10600280211069541. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Pharm3r LLC, New York, NY, USA.

There is increasing concern about the quality of pharmaceuticals, especially generics made in Asia. Popular books and news reports have the public questioning the quality of pharmaceuticals. Recalls and import bans shake confidence in medications, particularly for active pharmaceutical ingredients and finished dosage forms made outside the United States. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Potential benefits versus hazards of herbal therapy during pregnancy; a systematic review of available literature.

Phytother Res 2022 Jan 12. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

The use of herbal medicine has considerably grown worldwide in the past two decades. Studies have shown that the prevalence of herbal diet therapy in pregnancy ranged from 1% to 60% in different societies. Many clinical reports have shown that some herbal medicines may have toxic effects on pregnant women and their fetuses because active ingredients of some medicinal plants can readily pass through the biological barriers (e. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Fabrication of delayed release hard capsule shells from zein/methacrylic acid copolymer blends.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2022 Jan 8:106124. Epub 2022 Jan 8.

Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand; Chulalongkorn University Drug and Health Products Innovation Promotion Center, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. Electronic address:

Hard capsule shells with an inherent delayed release action are useful for oral administration of active ingredients, which are acid-labile and/or enzymatically degradable in the gastric environment, without the need of film coating. The objective of this study was to fabricate delayed release hard capsule shells by the dip coating method. The film coating formulations comprised blends of zein and methacrylic acid copolymer (Eudragit® L100-55), with and without the addition of the plasticizer, polyethylene glycol 1000. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Aesculin offers increased resistance against oxidative stress and protective effects against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Eur J Pharmacol 2022 Jan 8:174755. Epub 2022 Jan 8.

School of Biosciences & Biopharmaceutics, and Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Biotechnology Drug Candidates, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou, 510006, China. Electronic address:

Aesculin, a coumarin compound, is one of the major active ingredients of traditional Chinese herbal medicine Qinpi (Cortex Fraxini), which has been reported to exhibit antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties against oxidative stress and cellular apoptosis. However, the regulatory mechanisms remain poorly characterized in vivo. This research was performed to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms behind aesculin response conferring oxidative stress resistance, and the protective effects on amyloid-β (Aβ)-mediated neurotoxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Impact of two commercially available hair dyes on germination, morpho-physiology, and biochemistry of Cicer arietinum L. and cytotoxicity study on Allium cepa L. root tip.

Environ Res 2022 Jan 8;208:112681. Epub 2022 Jan 8.

Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Environmental Science, The University of Burdwan, West Bengal, India.

Contamination of agricultural land and surface water by personal care products and pharmaceutical constituents is a potential environmental threat. The active ingredients of personal care products are life-threatening for users. Present work highlighted the efficacy of the different components of two commercially available hair dyes (synthetic and herbal) on germination, morpho-physiological, biochemical parameters of Cicer arietinum, and cytotoxicity study by Allium cepa root tip. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Dialysis-derived urchin-like supramolecular assembly of tannic acid and paclitaxel with high porosity.

Nanoscale 2022 Jan 11. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Department of Emerging Materials Science, DGIST, Daegu, 42988, Republic of Korea.

Co-crystallization of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) with pharmaceutically acceptable additives has emerged as an alternative to current drug delivery systems for hydrophobic drugs, due to their high drug loading efficiency. During this process, we herein report that tannic acid (TA) can be used as an amphiphilic stabilizer for the model drug, paclitaxel (PTX), that results in the shape and morphology variations of the synthesized microstructures, depending on the synthetic environment. We observed that rapid co-precipitation of PTX and TA dialysis in water resulted in unprecedented urchin-like supramolecular microstructures with high porosity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Mechanochemistry in Portugal-A Step towards Sustainable Chemical Synthesis.

Molecules 2021 Dec 31;27(1). Epub 2021 Dec 31.

LAQV-REQUIMTE, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal.

In Portugal, publications with mechanochemical methods date back to 2009, with the report on mechanochemical strategies for the synthesis of metallopharmaceuticals. Since then, mechanochemical applications have grown in Portugal, spanning several fields, mainly crystal engineering and supramolecular chemistry, catalysis, and organic and inorganic chemistry. The area with the most increased development is the synthesis of multicomponent crystal forms, with several groups synthesizing solvates, salts, and cocrystals in which the main objective was to improve physical properties of the active pharmaceutical ingredients. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

Pharmacological Potential and Chemical Composition of Leaf Extracts.

Molecules 2021 Dec 21;27(1). Epub 2021 Dec 21.

Graduate Institute of Natural Products, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan.

L. (saffron) has been traditionally used as a food coloring or flavoring agent, but recent research has shown its potent pharmacological activity to tackle several health-related conditions. sp. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

A Rapid and Sensitive Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Multipolar Compounds in Plant Tea by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography Coupled to Ion Mobility Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

Authors:
Zi-Xuan Yue Jun Cao

Foods 2022 Jan 1;11(1). Epub 2022 Jan 1.

College of pharmacy, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 311121, China.

In this study, matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) microextraction combined with supercritical fluid chromatography-ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SFC/IM-QTOF-MS) was used to analyze the multipolar compounds in plant tea. The parameters of stationary phase, mobile phase, make-up solution, temperature, and back pressure were optimized. The target analytes were gradient eluted in 8 min by supercritical CO on a Zorbax RX-SIL column. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Sodium Caseinate and Acetylated Mung Bean Starch for the Encapsulation of Lutein: Enhanced Solubility and Stability of Lutein.

Foods 2021 Dec 28;11(1). Epub 2021 Dec 28.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Xianyang 712100, China.

Lutein is a kind of vital carotenoid with high safety and significant advantages in biological functions. However, poor water solubility and stability of lutein have limited its application. This study selected different weight ratios of sodium caseinate to acetylated mung bean starch (10:0, 9:1, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7, 1:9, and 0:10) to prepare lutein emulsions, and the microcapsules were produced by spray drying technology. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

Recent Advances in the Excipients Used in Modified Release Vaginal Formulations.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Jan 3;15(1). Epub 2022 Jan 3.

Department of Pharmacy, Division of Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Health Sciences, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15784 Athens, Greece.

The formulation of an ideal vaginal drug delivery system (DDS), with the requisite properties, with respect to safety, efficacy, patient compliance, aesthetics, harmonization with the regulatory requirements, and cost, requires a meticulous selection of the active ingredients and the excipients used. Novel excipients defined by diversity and multifunctionality are used in order to ameliorate drug delivery attributes. Synthetic and natural polymers are broadly used in pharmaceutical vaginal formulations (solid, semi-solid dosage forms, implantable devices, and nanomedicines) with a promising perspective in improving stability and compatibility issues when administered topically or systemically. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Lipidomic Profile and Enzymes Activity in Hepatic Microsomes of Rats in Physiological and Pathological Conditions.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Dec 31;23(1). Epub 2021 Dec 31.

Department of Bromatology, Medical University of Warsaw, Banacha 1, 02-097 Warsaw, Poland.

Among the risk factors affecting the development of cancer, nutritional factors occupy a significant place. Pomegranate seed oil (PSO) and bitter melon extract (BME), used for ages in folk medicine, are nowadays used in the prevention of many diseases and as ingredients of dietary supplements. Despite numerous publications on these raw materials or their active substances, their mechanism of action in various pathological states has not been recognized yet, nor has the safety of their simultaneous use been evaluated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

A Novel Antibacterial Component and the Mechanisms of an Leaf Ethyl Acetate Extract against subsp. .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Dec 28;23(1). Epub 2021 Dec 28.

College of Plant Protection, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China.

The aim of the present investigation was to determine the active ingredients in L. leaves and develop a biological pesticide. Organic solvent extraction, column chromatography, liquid chromatography, ODS-C18 reverse elution, Sephadex LH-20 gel filtration, H spectrum, and C spectrum were used to isolate the pure product for an assessment of the agricultural activity and bacteriostatic mechanisms. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

Removal of Persistent Sulfamethoxazole and Carbamazepine from Water by Horseradish Peroxidase Encapsulated into Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Electrospun Fibers.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Dec 27;23(1). Epub 2021 Dec 27.

Institute of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, Berdychowo 4, PL-60965 Poznan, Poland.

Enzymatic conversion of pharmaceutically active ingredients (API), using immobilized enzymes should be considered as a promising industrial tool due to improved reusability and stability of the biocatalysts at harsh process conditions. Therefore, in this study horseradish peroxidase was immobilized into sodium alginate capsules and then trapped into poly(vinyl chloride) electrospun fibers to provide additional enzyme stabilization and protection against the negative effect of harsh process conditions. Due to encapsulation immobilization, 100% of immobilization yield was achieved leading to loading of 25 μg of enzyme in 1 mg of the support. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

Supercritical CO extraction of fermented soybean lipids against erastin-induced ferroptosis in rat pheochromocytoma cells.

Food Chem 2022 Jan 4;377:132051. Epub 2022 Jan 4.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850, China. Electronic address:

The optimum supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO) extraction of fermented soybean lipids (FSE-C) was as follows: 35 °C, 30 MPa, and 2.40 ± 0.19% moisture content using response surface methodology. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Beyond Brittle/Ductile Classification: Applying Proper Constitutive Mechanical Metrics to Understand the Compression Characteristics of Pharmaceutical Materials.

J Pharm Sci 2022 Jan 7. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

Small Molecule Pharmaceutics, Genentech, Inc., One DNA Way, South San Francisco, California 94080 USA. Electronic address:

Active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and excipients are often classified as 'brittle' or 'ductile' based on their yield pressure determined through the Heckel analysis. Such a brittle/ductile classification is often correlated to some measure of elasticity, die-wall stresses, and brittle fracture propensities from studies performed with a handful of model excipients. This subsequently gives rise to the presumption that all ductile materials behave similarly to microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and that all brittle materials to lactose, mannitol, or dicalcium phosphate. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Design of a Thiol-Responsive, Traceless Prodrug with Rapid Self-Immolation for Cancer Chemotherapy.

ACS Appl Bio Mater 2021 Jun 21;4(6):4982-4989. Epub 2021 May 21.

School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, China.

Prodrugs can be formed by chemical modification of the existing active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs); however, this often sacrifices their functional efficacy. Self-immolative linkers have recently attracted attention, as they can be designed to release pristine APIs. Herein, we report a strategy to generate a self-immolative prodrug (SIP) that can release pristine doxorubicin (DOX). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

P013 Resolution of Infliximab Associated Infusion Hypersensitivity After Switching to Biosimilar Infliximab-dyyb.

Am J Gastroenterol 2021 Dec;116(Suppl 1):S3

Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas, United States.

Case: Background: Administration of infliximab for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease has a well-recognized risk of infusion-related (IR) adverse events. The recent introduction of the biosimilar infliximab-dyyb (Inflectra®) has been shown to have similar efficacy with comparable safety profile when compared to infliximab; however, although the active ingredients are similar, the inactive ingredients are different. We present a case of a 26-year-old female with ulcerative colitis who had resolution of her IR hypersensitivity when switched from infliximab to infliximab-dyyb. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021