16,243 results match your criteria active fractions

Sensory-Guided Multidimensional Exploration of Antisweet Principles from (Retz) Schult.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Chair of Food Chemistry and Molecular Sensory Science, Technical University of Munich, Lise-Meitner-Straße 34, D-85354 Freising, Germany.

We report on activity-guided investigation of the key antisweet principles of . Orosensory-guided fractionation by means of solid phase extraction, preparative 2D-LC, and semipreparative HPLC followed by accurate MS and 1D/2D NMR experiments revealed six known and three previously unknown gymnemic acids as the key constituents of seven highly sensory-active fractions. Localized via a modified comparative taste dilution analysis (cTDA) and taste modulation probability (TMP) based screening techniques, a strong intrinsic bitterness was also observed for gymnemic acids. Read More

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Protein binding of clindamycin in vivo by means of intravascular microdialysis in healthy volunteers.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Objectives: The efficacy of an anti-infective drug is influenced by its protein binding (PB), since only the free fraction is active. We hypothesized that PB may vary in vitro and in vivo, and used clindamycin, a drug with high and concentration-dependent PB to investigate this hypothesis.

Methods: Six healthy volunteers received a single intravenous infusion of clindamycin 900 mg. Read More

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Coronarin K and L: Two Novel Labdane Diterpenes From : An Ayurvedic Crude Drug.

Front Chem 2021 21;9:642073. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Natural Product and Medicinal Chemistry Division, Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu, India.

The main objective of cancer treatment with chemotherapy is to kill the cancerous cells without affecting the healthy normal cells. In the present study, bioactivity-guided purification of the -chloroform soluble fraction from the methanol extract of resulted in the identification of two new labdane diterpenes: coronarin K () and coronarin L (), along with eight known compounds, coronarin A (), bisdemethoxycurcumin (), kaempferol 3--methyl ether (), kaempferol (), fenozan acid (), 3-(3-methoxy,4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid ferulic acid (), caffeic acid (), and gallic acid (). The structural identification of new compounds ( and ) were determined by detailed analysis of 1D (H and C) and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) spectroscopic data. Read More

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Two New Antiprotozoal Diterpenes From the Roots of .

Front Chem 2021 21;9:624741. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Phytochemistry Research Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria.

The powdered roots of the medicinal plant were extracted with hexane and ethyl acetate, and the extracts were subjected to column chromatography for the isolation of potentially bioactive compounds and their screening against kinetoplastid pathogens. NMR and HREI mass spectrometric analyses identified two new diterpenes, characterized as 16, 19-dihydroxycassa-12-en-15-one (Sandynone, ) and (5S, 7R, 8R, 9R, 10S, 13Z, 17S)-7,8:7,17:16,17-triepoxy-7,8-seco-cassa-13-ene (niloticane B, ). The previously reported (5S,7R,8R,9R,10S) -(-)-7,8-seco-7, 8-oxacassa-13,15-diene-7,17-diol (), (5S,7R,8R,9R,10S) -(-)-7,8-seco-7, 8-oxacassa-13,15-dien-7-ol-17-al (), and (5S,7R,8R,9R,10S) -(-)-7,8-seco-7, 8-oxacassa-13,15-dien-7-ol () a, mixture of stigmasterol () and sitosterol (), and lupeol () were also isolated. Read More

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Analysing fractions and essential oil for neuroprotective potential against anxiety, depression, and amnesia.

3 Biotech 2021 May 26;11(5):240. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh, Assam 786004 India.

Scientific pieces of evidence support the pharmacological activity of for its antidepressant, analgesic, anticonvulsant and antioxidant effect. Here, we evaluate the bioactivity of essential oil and the various polarity-based solvent partitioned fractions obtained from for anti-amnesia, anxiolytic and antidepressant activities using Elevated plus maze and Morris water maze models. The cold maceration technique using methanol was adopted for extraction from dried powdered rhizomes and essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation method. Read More

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Neoadjuvant immunoradiotherapy results in high rate of complete pathological response and clinical to pathological downstaging in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 May;9(5)

Providence Cancer Institute, Portland, Oregon, USA

Background: Checkpoint inhibitors targeting programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) have been tested in the neoadjuvant setting for the treatment of locoregionally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); however, response rates are modest. We hypothesized that adding stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) to anti-PD-1 would be safe prior to definitive surgical resection and would enhance pathological response compared with historical cohorts of patients with locoregionally advanced HNSCC treated with checkpoint inhibitor alone.

Methods: The Neoadjuvant Immuno-Radiotherapy Trial was an investigator-initiated single institution phase Ib clinical trial that enrolled patients with previously untreated locally advanced HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCC between 2018 and 2019. Read More

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Integrated analytical workflow for chromatographic profiling and metabolite annotation of a cytotoxic Phorbas amaranthus extract.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2021 Apr 21;1174:122720. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Separare, Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luís, km 235, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP, Brazil; Laboratório de Produtos Naturais, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ CEP 24020-141, Brazil. Electronic address:

Phorbas is a widely studied genus of marine sponge and produce structurally rich cytotoxic metabolites. Still, only few studies have assessed metabolites present in Brazilian species. To circumvent redundancy, in this work, we applied and herein report the use of a scouting liquid chromatographic system associate to the design of experiment produced by the DryLab® software to obtain a fast and efficient chromatographic separation of the active hexane fraction, further enabling untargeted high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) data. Read More

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Peroxidase Enzyme Fractions as Markers of Somatic Embryogenesis Capacities in Olive ( L.).

Plants (Basel) 2021 Apr 29;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Laboratoire d'Agroalimentaire, Biotechnologies et Valorisation des Bio-Ressources Végétales, Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Université Cadi Ayyad, BP 2390, Marrakech 40000, Morocco.

As part of the search for biochemical markers of somatic embryogenesis in tissue cultures of olive ( L.), peroxidases (POXs) in both the soluble and ionically wall-bound fractions were studied in two reputed olive cultivars (cvs.): "Picholine Marocaine" and "Dahbia". Read More

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Reverse tracing anti-thrombotic active ingredients from dried Rehmannia Radix based on multidimensional spectrum-effect relationship analysis of steaming and drying for nine cycles.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 May 1:114177. Epub 2021 May 1.

Research Center for Traceability and Standardization of TCMs, School of Traditional Chinese Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 211198, China; State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, School of Traditional Chinese Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 210009, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and modern pharmacodynamics, dried Rehmannia Radix (DRR) possesses prominent anti-thrombotic activity that decreases after processing by nine steaming and drying cycles to develop processed Rehmannia Radix (PRR). Due to the complexity of the DRR components, the chemical mechanism leading to efficacy changes of DRR caused by processing is still unclear.

Aim Of Study: This study aimed to trace the anti-thrombotic active compounds of DRR and different degrees of processed RR (PRR) and to evaluate the synergistic effects among different active components. Read More

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Inhibition mechanism of diacylated anthocyanins from purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) against α-amylase and α-glucosidase.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 23;359:129934. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Pharmacy, Wuhan City Central Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430014, China. Electronic address:

This study aimed to evaluate inhibitory activity of anthocyanins from purple sweet potato and blueberries against α-amylase and α-glucosidase, as well as investigate the inhibition mechanism of diacylated anthocyanins (Diacylated AF-PSP). Diacylated AF-PSP better inhibited α-amylase (IC = 0.078 mg mL) and α-glucosidase (IC = 1. Read More

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Assessment of the biological activity of fish muscle protein hydrolysates using in vitro model systems.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 20;359:129852. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

School of Food and Nutritional Science, University College Cork, T12 YN60 Cork, Ireland. Electronic address:

The generation of biologically active fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) is a useful technique to produce value-added products with potential application in the functional food and nutraceutical industries. Fish muscle is an attractive substrate for the production of protein hydrolysates due to its rich protein content, containing 15-25% of total fish protein. This paper reviews the production of protein hydrolysates from fish muscle, most commonly via enzymatic hydrolysis, and their subsequent bioactivities including anti-obesity, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory, anti-microbial, and anti-cancer activities as measured by in vitro testing methods. Read More

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The possible role of the surface active substances (SAS) in the airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2.

Environ Res 2021 Apr 30;198:111215. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Mining and Metallurgy Institute, Bor, Serbia.

Surface active substances (SAS) have the potential to form films at different interfaces, consequently influencing the interfacial properties of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). They can be derived from both human activities and natural processes and can be found in an indoor and outdoor environment. This paper's fundamental question is the possible role of the SAS in stabilizing respiratory aerosols in the closed space. Read More

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FT-IR and GC-MS analyses of potential bioactive compounds of cow urine and its antibacterial activity.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Apr 1;28(4):2432-2437. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, Gurukula Kangri (Deemed to be University), Haridwar - 249404, Uttarakhand, India.

The main emphasis of this study was to identify the bioactive compounds responsible for antibacterial activity of cow urine isolated by thin layer chromatography. The most effective bioactive fraction was analysed by FT-IR and GC-MS analyses. Among the four major fractions (EW1, EW2, CA1 and CA2) obtained by TLC profiling, EW1 was found most active against bacterial strains viz. Read More

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Characterizing rumen microbiota and CAZyme profile of Indian dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) in response to different roughages.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 30;11(1):9400. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Animal Biotechnology, College of Veterinary Science & A.H., Anand Agricultural University, Anand, 388001, India.

In dromedary camels, which are pseudo-ruminants, rumen or C1 section of stomach is the main compartment involved in fiber degradation, as in true ruminants. However, as camels are adapted to the harsh and scarce grazing conditions of desert, their ruminal microbiota makes an interesting target of study. The present study was undertaken to generate the rumen microbial profile of Indian camel using 16S rRNA amplicon and shotgun metagenomics. Read More

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Angiogenic effects of low molecular weight organic acids present in fulvic acids of different sources.

Nat Prod Res 2020 Oct 14:1-5. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Center of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, China.

Fulvic acid (FA) is a natural mineral medicine with a long medical history in folk. However, the active chemicals of FA remain unknown due to its diversity of sources and the complexity of compositions, which have become a bottleneck in quality control and medicinal development. Based on the traditional effect on angiogenesis, FAs from eight different coal sources were prepared and their active fractions were investigated by the CAM model, resulting that most of acetonitrile dissolved parts of these FAs (DFAs) produced angiogenesis effects. Read More

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October 2020

In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Plant Extracts on Pathogenic Fungi of Blueberry ( sp.).

Plants (Basel) 2021 Apr 23;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigación para el Desarrollo Integral Regional Unidad Michoacán, Jiquilpan, MI 59510, Mexico.

Three pathogenic fungi of blueberry ( spp.) responsible for dieback disease, identified as , and , were isolated in the northwestern region of the state of Michoacán, Mexico. The mycelial growth in vitro of these fungi was inhibited by extracts from , and , medicinal plants collected in Sahuayo, Michoacán, Mexico. Read More

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Metabolism and Interspecies Variation of IMMH-010, a Programmed Cell Death Ligand 1 Inhibitor Prodrug.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Apr 21;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 1 Xian Nong Tan Street, Beijing 100050, China.

IMMH-010 is an ester prodrug of YPD-29B, a potent programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitor. The metabolism of IMMH-010 was investigated and compared in various species. Four metabolites of IMMH-010 were identified, and the major metabolite was the parent compound, YPD-29B, which was mainly catalyzed by carboxylesterase 1 (CES1). Read More

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Anti-Arthritic and Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Extract Fractions: An In Silico, In Vitro and In Vivo Approach.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Apr 21;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 173, Al-Kharj 11942, Saudi Arabia.

The fruits of have traditionally been used for the management of rheumatism in the northeast region of India. The present study explores the probable anti-arthritis and anti-inflammatory potential of fruit extract's ethanolic fraction (EtoH-F). To support this study, we first approached the parameters in silico by means of the active constituents of the plant (beta amyrin, beta sitosterol, oleonolic acid and co-crystallised ligands, i. Read More

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Isolation, Structure Elucidation and In Silico Prediction of Potential Drug-Like Flavonoids from Targeted towards Functionally Important Proteins of Drug-Resistant Bad Bugs.

Molecules 2021 Apr 2;26(7). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Basic Science Department, College of Medicine, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh 11671, Saudi Arabia.

Admittedly, the disastrous emergence of drug resistance in prokaryotic and eukaryotic human pathogens has created an urgent need to develop novel chemotherapeutic agents. is a source of traditional medicine with cooling, laxative, and anthelmintic effects. The objective of the current research was to analyze the biological potential of and to isolate and characterize the chemical constituents of the plant. Read More

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Antioxidant and Pro-Oxidant Capacities as Mechanisms of Photoprotection of Olive Polyphenols on UVA-Damaged Human Keratinocytes.

Molecules 2021 Apr 8;26(8). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

National Research Council, Institute of Sciences of Food Production, (CNR-ISPA, Lecce), Via Prov.le Lecce-Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy.

A wide variety of polyphenols are reported to have considerable antioxidant and skin photoprotective effects, although the mechanisms of action are not fully known. Environmentally friendly and inexpensive sources of natural bioactive compounds, such as olive mill wastewater (OMWW), the by-product of olive-oil processing, can be considered an economic source of bioactive polyphenols, with a range of biological activities, useful as chemotherapeutic or cosmeceutical agents. Green strategies, such as the process based on membrane technologies, allow to recover active polyphenols from this complex matrix. Read More

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Thermodynamics, Charge Transfer and Practical Considerations of Solid Boosters in Redox Flow Batteries.

Molecules 2021 Apr 7;26(8). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Research Group of Battery Materials and Technologies, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Turku, 20014 Turun Yliopisto, Finland.

Solid boosters are an emerging concept for improving the performance and especially the energy storage density of the redox flow batteries, but thermodynamical and practical considerations of these systems are missing, scarce or scattered in the literature. In this paper we will formulate how these systems work from the point of view of thermodynamics. We describe possible pathways for charge transfer, estimate the overpotentials required for these reactions in realistic conditions, and illustrate the range of energy storage densities achievable considering different redox electrolyte concentrations, solid volume fractions and solid charge storage densities. Read More

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Biochemical Background in Mitochondria Affects 2HG Production by IDH2 and ADHFE1 in Breast Carcinoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 4;13(7). Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Institute of Physiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Laboratory of Mitochondrial Physiology, 142 20 Prague, Czech Republic.

Mitochondrial production of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) can be catalyzed by wild-type isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) and alcohol dehydrogenase, iron-containing 1 (ADHFE1). We investigated whether biochemical background and substrate concentration in breast cancer cells promote 2HG production. To estimate its role in 2HG production, we quantified 2HG levels and its enantiomers in breast cancer cells using analytical approaches for metabolomics. Read More

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Specific Compositions of Compounds Have Cytotoxic Activity and Inhibit Motility and Colony Formation of Human Glioblastoma Cells In Vitro.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 5;13(7). Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Institute of Plant Science, Agriculture Research Organization, Volcani Institute, Rishon LeZion 7505101, Israel.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal subtype of glioma. is used for the treatment of various medical conditions. Around 150 phytocannabinoids have been identified in , among them Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) that trigger GBM cell death. Read More

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Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells Recruit Neutrophils by Secreting TGF-β and CXCR2 Ligands.

Front Immunol 2021 12;12:659996. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, United States.

Tumor associated neutrophils (TANs) are frequently detected in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Recent studies also reveal the importance of neutrophils in promoting tumor progression and metastasis during breast cancer. However, the mechanisms regulating neutrophil trafficking to breast tumors are less clear. Read More

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Theoretical investigation of the impact of different timing schemes in hypofractionated radiotherapy.

Med Phys 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Faculty of Physics, Sofia University "St. Kliment ,Ohridski", Sofia, 1164, Bulgaria.

Purpose: This study compares the effectiveness of three fractionation schemes of equal fraction size, comprising five fractions of SBRT over five days, ten days, or fifteen days respectively.

Method: This comparative study is based on two tumour-control-probability (TCP) models that take into account tumour cell re-sensitization and repopulation during treatment; the Zaider-Minerbo-Stavreva (ZMS) and the Ruggieri-Nahum (RN) models. The ZMS model is further modified to include also re-sensitization according to the β mechanism of the linear-quadratic (LQ) model of cell killing. Read More

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UPLC-PDA-ESI/MS metabolic profiling of dill shoots bioactive fraction; evidence of its antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects in vitro and in vivo.

J Food Biochem 2021 Apr 26:e13741. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Hydroxyl radical ( OH) scavenging capacity of aqueous dill (Anethum graveolens L.) shoot (ADSh) extract was assessed using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. ADSh extract (at concentrations of 0. Read More

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Metatranscriptomic analyses reveal ruminal pH regulates fiber degradation and fermentation by shifting the microbial community and gene expression of carbohydrate-active enzymes.

Anim Microbiome 2021 Apr 23;3(1):32. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Deptartment of Dairy Science, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Litton-Reaves Hall, 175 West Campus Drive, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, USA.

Background: Volatile fatty acids (VFA) generated from ruminal fermentation by microorganisms provide up to 75% of total metabolizable energy in ruminants. Ruminal pH is an important factor affecting the profile and production of VFA by shifting the microbial community. However, how ruminal pH affects the microbial community and its relationship with expression of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) for fiber degradation and fermentation are not well investigated. Read More

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Antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant properties of hydro-alcoholic extracts from (Combretaceae).

Heliyon 2021 Apr 2;7(4):e06648. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Laboratory of Physiology/Pharmacology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lome, BP 1515, Togo.

(Combretaceae) is a medicinal plant used in Togo to treat diabetes mellitus and others diseases. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of total extract and fractions of roots of The antihyperlipidemic activity of the total extract and the supernatant was performed by the fructose overload test in ICR mice. Antioxidant potential was determined by methods based on scavenging of DPPH∗, total antioxidant capacity and reducing power. Read More

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Bioactive-guided isolation and identification of oligostilbenes as anti-rheumatoid arthritis constituents from the roots of Caragana stenophylla.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Apr 19:114134. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100193, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The roots of Caragana stenophylla have been used as folk medicine due to the functions of activating blood, diuresis, analgesic and tonicity, especially in treating rheumatoid arthritis and hypertension. However, the anti-rheumatoid arthritis mechanisms and bioactive ingredients have not previously been fully investigated.

Aim Of The Study: The aim of this study was to assess the anti-rheumatoid arthritis effects of the roots of Caragana stenophylla ethanol extract (EC), elucidate its mechanism of action and identify its active substances. Read More

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Safety aspects of kraft lignin fractions: Discussions on the in chemico antioxidant activity and the induction of oxidative stress on a cell-based in vitro model.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 19;182:977-986. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Graduate Program in Genetics, Department of Genetics - Federal University of Paraná (UFPR), Curitiba, PR, Brazil. Electronic address:

Lignin is a complex phenolic biopolymer present in plant cell walls and a by-product of the cellulose pulping industry. Lignin has functional properties, such as antioxidant activity, that make it a potential natural active ingredient for health-care products. However, not all safety aspects of lignin fractions have been adequately investigated. Read More

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