5,648 results match your criteria activators surface


Phosphorylation of meprin β controls its cell surface abundance and subsequently diminishes ectodomain shedding.

FASEB J 2021 Jul;35(7):e21677

Biochemical Institute, Unit for Degradomics of the Protease Web, University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany.

Meprin β is a zinc-dependent metalloprotease exhibiting a unique cleavage specificity with strong preference for acidic amino acids at the cleavage site. Proteomic studies revealed a diverse substrate pool of meprin β including the interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) and the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Dysregulation of meprin β is often associated with pathological conditions such as chronic inflammation, fibrosis, or Alzheimer's disease (AD). Read More

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YeiE Regulates Motility and Gut Colonization in Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium.

mBio 2021 Jun 8:e0368020. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Regulation of flagellum biosynthesis is a hierarchical process that is tightly controlled to allow for efficient tuning of flagellar expression. Flagellum-mediated motility directs Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium toward the epithelial surface to enhance gut colonization, but flagella are potent activators of innate immune signaling, so fine-tuning flagellar expression is necessary for immune avoidance. In this work, we evaluate the role of the LysR transcriptional regulator YeiE in regulating flagellum-mediated motility. Read More

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Efficient removal and recovery of uranium from industrial radioactive wastewaters using functionalized activated carbon powder derived from zirconium carbide process waste.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Jiroft, P. O. Box, Jiroft, 7867161167, Iran.

Development of efficient sorbents for selective removing and recovery of uranium from radioactive wastewaters is highly important in nuclear fuel industries from the standpoint of resource sustainability and environmental safety issues. In this study, carbon powder waste was modified by various chemical activating agents under atmosphere of nitrogen gas at 725 °C to prepare an efficient sorbent for removal and recovery of uranium ions from radioactive wastewaters of nuclear fuel conversion facility. Activation of the carbon powder with KOH, among different activators, provided maximum porosity and surface area. Read More

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40 Years of RAS-A Historic Overview.

Genes (Basel) 2021 May 1;12(5). Epub 2021 May 1.

Centro de Investigación del Cáncer-IBMCC (CSIC-USAL) and CIBERONC, Universidad de Salamanca, 37007 Salamanca, Spain.

It has been over forty years since the isolation of the first human oncogene (HRAS), a crucial milestone in cancer research made possible through the combined efforts of a few selected research groups at the beginning of the 1980s. Those initial discoveries led to a quantitative leap in our understanding of cancer biology and set up the onset of the field of molecular oncology. The following four decades of RAS research have produced a huge pool of new knowledge about the RAS family of small GTPases, including how they regulate signaling pathways controlling many cellular physiological processes, or how oncogenic mutations trigger pathological conditions, including developmental syndromes or many cancer types. Read More

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Analysis of the Binding Sites on BAX and the Mechanism of BAX Activators through Extensive Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

J Chem Inf Model 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203, People's Republic of China.

The BAX protein is a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, which triggers apoptosis by causing permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane. However, the activation mechanism of BAX is far from being understood. Although a few small-molecule BAX activators have been reported in the literature, their crystal structures in complex with BAX have not been resolved. Read More

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A synthetic pathogen mimetic molecule induces a highly amplified synergistic immune response activation of multiple signaling pathways.

Chem Sci 2021 Apr 1;12(19):6646-6651. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago 5801 S Ellis Ave Chicago IL 60637 USA

The current understanding of how the immune system processes complex information during natural infections is yet to be exploited for the molecular design of potent immune activators. Here, we address this challenge by design of a pathogen-mimetic molecule that simultaneously co-activates cell-surface active, endosomal and cytosolic immune receptors. Read More

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Oily sludge derived carbons as peroxymonosulfate activators for removing aqueous organic pollutants: Performances and the key role of carbonyl groups in electron-transfer mechanism.

J Hazard Mater 2021 07 2;414:125552. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Catalysis and Pollution Control, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Catalysis and Health Risk Control, Institute of Environmental Health and Pollution Control, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 51006, China.

In this work, low-cost carbon-based materials were developed via a facile one-pot pyrolysis of oily sludge (OS) and used as catalysts to activate peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for removing aqueous recalcitrant pollutants. By adjusting the pyrolysis temperature, the optimized OS-derived carbocatalyst manifested good performance for PMS activation to abate diverse organic pollutants in water treatment. Particularly, an average removal rate of 0. Read More

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Internal OH induced cascade quenching of upconversion luminescence in NaYF:Yb/Er nanocrystals.

Light Sci Appl 2021 May 19;10(1):105. Epub 2021 May 19.

van't Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098XH, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Internal hydroxyl impurity is known as one of the main detrimental factors affecting the upconversion (UC) efficiency of upconversion luminescence (UCL) nanomaterials. Different from surface/ligand-related emission quenching which can be effectively diminished by, e.g. Read More

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Modified nanoscale zero-valent iron in persulfate activation for organic pollution remediation: a review.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, 610500, Sichuan, China.

Under the action of different activators, persulfate can produce sulfate radicals (SO·) with strong oxidizing ability, which can destruct many organic compounds. Meanwhile, persulfate is widely used in groundwater and soil remediation because of its fast reaction and wide application. With the high specific surface area and reactivity of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI), it can enhance the degradation efficiency of the persulfate system on organic pollutants in soil and water as a persulfate activator. Read More

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Patterns of whole-body muscle activations following vertical perturbations during standing and walking.

J Neuroeng Rehabil 2021 05 6;18(1):75. Epub 2021 May 6.

Center of Advanced Technologies in Rehabilitation, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan, Israel.

Background: Falls commonly occur due to losses of balance associated with vertical body movements (e.g. reacting to uneven ground, street curbs). Read More

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Structural and bioinformatic analyses of Azemiops venom serine proteases reveal close phylogeographic relationships to pitvipers from eastern China and the New World.

Toxicon 2021 Jul 3;198:93-101. Epub 2021 May 3.

Institute of Biological Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.

The semi-fossil and pit-less Azemiops feae is possibly the most primitive crotalid species. Here, we have cloned and sequenced cDNAs encoding four serine proteases (vSPs) from the venom glands of Chinese A. feae. Read More

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Rac-maninoff and Rho-vel: The symphony of Rho-GTPase signaling at excitatory synapses.

Small GTPases 2021 May 6:1-34. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Synaptic connections between neurons are essential for every facet of human cognition and are thus regulated with extreme precision. Rho-family GTPases, molecular switches that cycle between an active GTP-bound state and an inactive GDP-bound state, comprise a critical feature of synaptic regulation. Rho-GTPases are exquisitely controlled by an extensive suite of activators (GEFs) and inhibitors (GAPs and GDIs) and interact with many different signalling pathways to fulfill their roles in orchestrating the development, maintenance, and plasticity of excitatory synapses of the central nervous system. Read More

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Drug Release from Thermo-Responsive Polymer Brush Coatings to Control Bacterial Colonization and Biofilm Growth on Titanium Implants.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 Jun 5;10(11):e2100069. Epub 2021 May 5.

Physical Chemistry I and Research Center of Micro and Nanochemistry and Engineering (Cµ), Department of Chemistry and Biology, School of Science and Technology, University of Siegen, Adolf-Reichwein-Str. 2, Siegen, 57076, Germany.

Despite decades of biomedical advances, the colonization of implant devices with bacterial biofilms is still a leading cause of implant failure. Clearly, new strategies and materials that suppress both initial and later stage bacterial colonization are required in this context. Ideal would be the implementation of a bactericidal functionality in the implants that is temporally and spatially triggered in an autonomous fashion at the infection site. Read More

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PIP regulation of TRPC5 channel activation and desensitization.

J Biol Chem 2021 Apr 29:100726. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Bouvé College of Health Sciences; Center for Drug Discovery; Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, College of Science, Northeastern University, Boston, MA. Electronic address:

Transient receptor potential canonical type 5 (TRPC5) ion channels are expressed in the brain and kidney, and have been identified as promising therapeutic targets whose selective inhibition can protect against diseases driven by a leaky kidney filter, such as Focal Segmental Glomerular Sclerosis (FSGS). TRPC5 channels are activated by elevated levels of extracellular Caor lanthanide ions, but also by G protein (G) stimulation. Phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP) hydrolysis by phospholipase C (PLC) enzymes leads to protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated phosphorylation of TRPC5 channels and their subsequent desensitization. Read More

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Clot activators and anticoagulant additives for blood collection. A critical review on behalf of COLABIOCLI WG-PRE-LATAM.

Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 2021 May 2;58(3):207-224. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Latin American Working Group for Preanalytical Phase (WG-PRE-LATAM), Latin America Confederation of Clinical Biochemistry (COLABIOCLI), Montevideo, Uruguay.

In the clinical laboratory, knowledge of and the correct use of clot activators and anticoagulant additives are critical to preserve and maintain samples in optimal conditions prior to analysis. In 2017, the Latin America Confederation of Clinical Biochemistry (COLABIOCLI) commissioned the Latin American Working Group for Preanalytical Phase (WG-PRE-LATAM) to study preanalytical variability and establish guidelines for preanalytical procedures to be applied by clinical laboratories and health care professionals. The aim of this critical review, on behalf of COLABIOCLI WG-PRE-LATAM, is to provide information to understand the mechanisms of the interactions and reactions that occur between blood and clot activators and anticoagulant additives inside evacuated tubes used for laboratory testing. Read More

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Tissue plasminogen activator is a ligand of cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor and consists of glycoforms that contain mannose 6-phosphate.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 15;11(1):8213. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Biochemistry, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 W. Watertown Plank Rd, Milwaukee, WI, 53226, USA.

Plasmin is the key enzyme in fibrinolysis. Upon interaction with plasminogen activators, the zymogen plasminogen is converted to active plasmin. Some studies indicate plasminogen activation is regulated by cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR), a protein that facilitates lysosomal enzyme trafficking and insulin-like growth factor 2 downregulation. Read More

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Role of membrane lipid rafts in MRP4 (ABCC4)-dependent regulation of the cAMP pathway in blood platelets.

Thromb Haemost 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Université de Paris, Innovative Therapies in Haemostasis, INSERM U1140, Paris, France.

Background: Platelet cytosolic cAMP levels are balanced by synthesis, degradation, and efflux. Efflux can occur via MRP4 (multidrug resistant protein-4, ABCC4) present on dense granule and/or plasma membranes. As lipid rafts have been shown to interfere on cAMP homeostasis, we evaluated the relationships between the distribution and activity of MRP4 in lipid rafts and cAMP efflux. Read More

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Chromatin-embedded reporter genes: Quantification of stimulus-induced gene transcription.

Gene 2021 Jun 20;787:145645. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Saarland University Medical Faculty, D-66421 Homburg, Germany.

Receptors and ion channels expressed on the cell surface ensure proper communication between the cells and the environment. In multicellular organism, stimulus-regulated gene transcription is the basis for communication with the environment allowing individual cells to respond to stimuli such as nutrients, chemical stressors and signaling molecules released by other cells of the organism. Hormones, cytokines, and mitogens bind to receptors and ion channels and induce intracellular signaling cascades involving second messengers, kinases, phosphatases, and changes in the concentration of particular ions. Read More

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Influence of n-ZnO Morphology on Sulfur Crosslinking and Properties of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber Vulcanizates.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Mar 26;13(7). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Institute of General and Ecological Chemistry, Lodz University of Technology, 90-924 Lodz, Poland.

This paper examines the influence of the morphology of zinc oxide nanoparticles (n-ZnO) on the activation energy, vulcanization parameters, crosslink density, crosslink structure, and mechanical properties in the extension of the sulfur vulcanizates of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). Scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the particle size distribution and morphology, whereas the specific surface area (SSA) and squalene wettability of the n-ZnO nanoparticles were adequately evaluated using the Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) equation and tensiometry. The n-ZnO were then added to the SBR in conventional (CV) or efficient (EV) vulcanization systems. Read More

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Fibrinolysis: A Primordial System Linked to the Immune Response.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 26;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Molecular Neurotrauma and Haemostasis Laboratory, Australian Centre for Blood Diseases, Central Clinical School Melbourne, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia.

The fibrinolytic system provides an essential means to remove fibrin deposits and blood clots. The actual protease responsible for this is plasmin, formed from its precursor, plasminogen. Fibrin is heralded as it most renowned substrate but for many years plasmin has been known to cleave many other substrates, and to also activate other proteolytic systems. Read More

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Highly Porous Carbons Synthesized from Tannic Acid via a Combined Mechanochemical Salt-Templating and Mild Activation Strategy.

Molecules 2021 Mar 24;26(7). Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Advanced Materials and Liquid Crystal Institute, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242, USA.

Highly porous activated carbons were synthesized via the mechanochemical salt-templating method using both sustainable precursors and sustainable chemical activators. Tannic acid is a polyphenolic compound derived from biomass, which, together with urea, can serve as a low-cost, environmentally friendly precursor for the preparation of efficient N-doped carbons. The use of various organic and inorganic salts as activating agents afforded carbons with diverse structural and physicochemical characteristics, e. Read More

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The Improvement of Energy Storage Performance by Sucrose-Derived Carbon Foams via Incorporating Nitrogen Atoms.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Mar 17;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Gagarina 7, 87-100 Torun, Poland.

This paper addresses the problem of improving electrochemical energy storage with electrode materials obtained from common raw ingredients in a facile synthesis. In this study, we present a simple, one-pot route of synthesizing microporous carbon via a very fast reaction of sucrose and graphene (carbon source), chitosan (carbon and nitrogen source), and HPO. Porous carbons were successfully produced during high temperature carbonization, using nitrogen as a shielding gas. Read More

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A Narrative Review on Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 and Its (Patho)Physiological Role: To Target or Not to Target?

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 8;22(5). Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Laboratory for Therapeutic and Diagnostic Antibodies, Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, KU Leuven, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.

Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the main physiological inhibitor of plasminogen activators (PAs) and is therefore an important inhibitor of the plasminogen/plasmin system. Being the fast-acting inhibitor of tissue-type PA (tPA), PAI-1 primarily attenuates fibrinolysis. Through inhibition of urokinase-type PA (uPA) and interaction with biological ligands such as vitronectin and cell-surface receptors, the function of PAI-1 extends to pericellular proteolysis, tissue remodeling and other processes including cell migration. Read More

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Constitutive and Regulated Shedding of Soluble FGF Receptors Releases Biologically Active Inhibitors of FGF-2.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 8;22(5). Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Molecular Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

The identification of soluble fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors in blood and the extracellular matrix has led to the prediction that these proteins modulate the diverse biological activities of the FGF family of ligands in vivo. A recent structural characterization of the soluble FGF receptors revealed that they are primarily generated by proteolytic cleavage of the FGFR-1 ectodomain. Efforts to examine their biological properties are now focused on understanding the functional consequences of FGFR-1 ectodomain shedding and how the shedding event is regulated. Read More

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Activin A and Cell-Surface GRP78 Are Novel Targetable RhoA Activators for Diabetic Kidney Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 11;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8N 4A6, Canada.

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the leading cause of kidney failure. RhoA/Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) signaling is a recognized mediator of its pathogenesis, largely through mediating the profibrotic response. While RhoA activation is not feasible due to the central role it plays in normal physiology, ROCK inhibition has been found to be effective in attenuating DKD in preclinical models. Read More

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Thrombolysis Combined Therapy Using [email protected]/uPA Nanoparticles.

Front Chem 2021 11;9:643411. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Vascular Surgery, The Second People's Hospital of Anhui, Province, Hefei, China.

Massive hemorrhage caused by the uncontrolled release of thrombolysis drugs is a key issue of thrombolysis therapy in clinical practice. In this study, we report a near-infrared (NIR) light-triggered drug delivery system, i.e. Read More

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Hemocompatibility of polyzwitterion-modified titanium dioxide nanotubes.

Nanotechnology 2021 May 3;32(30). Epub 2021 May 3.

The State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022, People's Republic of China.

Titanium dioxide nanotubes (TNTs) have attracted increasing interest as implantable materials due to their many desirable properties. However, their blood compatibility remains an issue. In this paper, TNTs of different diameters were modified with two types of zwitterionic polymers, poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (pSBMA) and poly(carboxybetaine methacrylate) (pCBMA), which were grafted onto the TNTs using ARGET-ATRP (activators regenerated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization) method. Read More

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Deregulation of Factor H by Factor H-Related Protein 1 Depends on Sialylation of Host Surfaces.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:615748. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Institute of Pharmacology of Natural Products and Clinical Pharmacology, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany.

To discriminate between self and non-self surfaces and facilitate immune surveillance, the complement system relies on the interplay between surface-directed activators and regulators. The dimeric modulator FHR-1 is hypothesized to competitively remove the complement regulator FH from surfaces that strongly fix opsonic C3b molecules-a process known as "deregulation." The C-terminal regions of FH and FHR-1 provide the basis of this competition. Read More

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February 2021

Aerobic glycolysis supports hepatitis B virus protein synthesis through interaction between viral surface antigen and pyruvate kinase isoform M2.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Mar 15;17(3):e1008866. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan.

As an intracellular pathogen, the reproduction of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) depends on the occupancy of host metabolism machinery. Here we test a hypothesis if HBV may govern intracellular biosynthesis to achieve a productive reproduction. To test this hypothesis, we set up an affinity purification screen for host factors that interact with large viral surface antigens (LHBS). Read More

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One Atom Makes All the Difference: Getting a Foot in the Door between SOS1 and KRAS.

J Med Chem 2021 05 15;64(10):6569-6580. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Boehringer Ingelheim RCV GmbH & Co KG, Dr. Boehringer-Gasse 5-11, A-1121 Vienna, Austria.

KRAS, the most common oncogenic driver in human cancers, is controlled and signals primarily through protein-protein interactions (PPIs). The interaction between KRAS and SOS1, crucial for the activation of KRAS, is a typical, challenging PPI with a large contact surface area and high affinity. Here, we report that the addition of only one atom placed between Y884 and A73 is sufficient to convert SOS1 activators into SOS1 inhibitors. Read More

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