28,375 results match your criteria activation skeletal


Effects of Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite Concentration and Skeletal Site on Bone and Cartilage Formation in Rats.

Acta Biomater 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, 2201 West End Ave, Nashville TN 37235; Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Vanderbilt University, 2201 West End Ave, Nashville TN 37235; Vanderbilt Center for Bone Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1211 Medical Center Dr., Nashville, TN 37212; Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1211 Medical Center Dr., Nashville, TN 37217. Electronic address:

Most fractures heal by a combination of endochondral and intramembranous ossification dependent upon strain and vascularity at the fracture site. Many biomaterials-based bone regeneration strategies rely on the use of calcium phosphates such as nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite (nHA) to create bone-like scaffolds. In this study, nHA was dispersed in reactive polymers to form composite scaffolds that were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Read More

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Toll-like Receptor 2 (TLR2) Deficiency Abrogates Diabetic and Obese Phenotypes while Restoring Endothelial Function via Inhibition of NOX1.

Diabetes 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095;

We have previously demonstrated a novel role of bone morphogenic protein-4 (BMP4) in inducing NOX1-dependent eNOS uncoupling, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammatory activation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, it has remained unclear as to how BMP4 activates NOX1 and whether targeting the new mechanistic pathway revealed is effective in preserving endothelial function in T2DM. Here we observed that BMP4 induced marked, time-dependent increase in physiological binding between TLR2 and NOX1 in aortic endothelial cells, as well as increased binding of TLR2 to NOXO1. Read More

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Effect of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations on skeletal mineralization in black and white women.

J Bone Miner Metab 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Bone and Mineral Research Laboratory, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, 48202, USA.

Introduction: There is controversy over the adverse effect of vitamin D deficiency on bone mineralization. The purpose of this study was to determine the ethnical differences in vitamin D and bone mineralization as well as the association between vitamin D deficiency and bone mineralization defects.

Materials And Methods: We examined serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and transiliac bone biopsies in 92 healthy black and white women, aged 20-73 years. Read More

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Interleukin-20 Acts as a Promotor of Osteoclastogenesis and Orthodontic Tooth Movement.

Stem Cells Int 2021 26;2021:5539962. Epub 2021 May 26.

Hospital of Stomatology, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Objectives: Bones constitute organs that are engaged in constant self-remodelling. Osteoblast and osteoclast homeostasis during remodelling contribute to overall skeletal status. Orthodontics is a clinical discipline that involves the investigation and implementation of moving teeth through the bone. Read More

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Myosin-based regulation of twitch and tetanic contractions in mammalian skeletal muscle.

Elife 2021 Jun 14;10. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Randall Division of Cell and Molecular Biophysics, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

Time-resolved X-ray diffraction from isolated fast-twitch muscles of the mouse was used to show how structural changes in the myosin-containing thick filaments contribute to the regulation of muscle contraction, extending the previous focus on regulation by the actin-containing thin filaments. This study shows that muscle activation involves the following sequence of structural changes: thin filament activation, disruption of the helical array of myosin motors characteristic of resting muscle, release of myosin motor domains from the folded conformation on the filament backbone, and actin attachment. Physiological force generation in the 'twitch' response of skeletal muscle to single action potential stimulation is limited by incomplete activation of the thick filament and the rapid inactivation of both filaments. Read More

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Analysis of anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects of acacia bark-derived proanthocyanidins in type 2 diabetes model KKAy mice.

J Nat Med 2021 Jun 13. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Department of Pharmacokinetics, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, 142-8501, Japan.

The acacia bark extract derived from Acacia mearnsii De Wild is rich in proanthocyanidins, whose constituent units are robinetinidol, fisetinidol, catechin, and gallocatechin. In this study, we examined the effect of proanthocyanidins on obesity and diabetes using KKAy mice, a type 2 diabetes model. KKAy mice were fed either a low-fat diet, a high-fat diet, or a high-fat diet mixed with an acacia bark extract, a proanthocyanidins fraction, and other fraction for 7 weeks. Read More

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Effect of the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine on mTORC1 activation and protein synthesis in human skeletal muscle.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2021 Jun 12;18(1):61. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Nutrition and Metabolism, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, TX, 77555-1124, USA.

Background: Previous work in HEK-293 cells demonstrated the importance of amino acid-induced mTORC1 translocation to the lysosomal surface for stimulating mTORC1 kinase activity and protein synthesis. This study tested the conservation of this amino acid sensing mechanism in human skeletal muscle by treating subjects with chloroquine-a lysosomotropic agent that induces in vitro and in vivo lysosome dysfunction.

Methods: mTORC1 signaling and muscle protein synthesis (MPS) were determined in vivo in a randomized controlled trial of 14 subjects (10 M, 4 F; 26 ± 4 year) that ingested 10 g of essential amino acids (EAA) after receiving 750 mg of chloroquine (CHQ, n = 7) or serving as controls (CON, n = 7; no chloroquine). Read More

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Systemic Jak1 activation causes extrarenal calcitriol production and skeletal alterations provoking stunted growth.

FASEB J 2021 Jul;35(7):e21721

Institute of Physiology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Mineral homeostasis is regulated by a complex network involving endocrine actions by calcitriol, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and FGF23 on several organs including kidney, intestine, and bone. Alterations of mineral homeostasis are found in chronic kidney disease and other systemic disorders. The interplay between the immune system and the skeletal system is not fully understood, but cytokines play a major role in modulating calcitriol production and function. Read More

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Exercise attenuates angiotensinⅡ-induced muscle atrophy by targeting PPARγ/miR-29b.

J Sport Health Sci 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Cardiac Regeneration and Ageing Lab, Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, School of Life Science, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China; Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Organ Repair, School of Medicine, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China. Electronic address:

Background: Exercise is beneficial for muscle atrophy. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and microRNA-29b (miR-29b) have been reported to be responsible for angiotensin Ⅱ (AngⅡ)-induced muscle atrophy. However, it is unclear whether exercise can protect AngⅡ-induced muscle atrophy by targeting PPARγ/miR-29b. Read More

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Ankylosing spondylitis: an autoimmune or autoinflammatory disease?

Nat Rev Rheumatol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Dipartimento di Medicina di Precisione, Università della Campania L. Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy.

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown aetiology. Unlike other systemic autoimmune diseases, in AS, the innate immune system has a dominant role characterized by aberrant activity of innate and innate-like immune cells, including γδ T cells, group 3 innate lymphoid cells, neutrophils, mucosal-associated invariant T cells and mast cells, at sites predisposed to the disease. The intestine is involved in disease manifestations, as it is at the forefront of the interaction between the mucosal-associated immune cells and the intestinal microbiota. Read More

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Inhibition of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory and Oxidative Responses by -cinnamaldehyde in C2C12 Myoblasts.

Int J Med Sci 2021 23;18(12):2480-2492. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Anti-Aging Research Center, Dong-eui University, Busan 47340, Republic of Korea.

-cinnamaldehyde (tCA), a bioactive component found in , has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, but its efficacy in muscle cells has yet to be found. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of tCA on inflammatory and oxidative stress induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in C2C12 mouse skeletal myoblasts. To investigate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of tCA in LPS-treated C2C12 cells, we measured the levels of pro-inflammatory mediator, cytokines, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Read More

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Random errors in protein synthesis activate an age-dependent program of muscle atrophy in mice.

Commun Biol 2021 Jun 8;4(1):703. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Institut für Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Universität Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.

Random errors in protein synthesis are prevalent and ubiquitous, yet their effect on organismal health has remained enigmatic for over five decades. Here, we studied whether mice carrying the ribosomal ambiguity (ram) mutation Rps2-A226Y, recently shown to increase the inborn error rate of mammalian translation, if at all viable, present any specific, possibly aging-related, phenotype. We introduced Rps2-A226Y using a Cre/loxP strategy. Read More

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"Time window" effect of Yoda1-evoked Piezo1 channel activity during mouse skeletal muscle differentiation.

Acta Physiol (Oxf) 2021 Jun 7:e13702. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy.

Aim: Mechanosensitive Piezo1 ion channels emerged recently as important contributors to various vital functions including modulation of the blood supply to skeletal muscles. The specific Piezo1 channel agonist Yoda1 was shown to regulate the tone of blood vessels similarly to physical exercise. However, the direct role of Piezo1 channels in muscle function has been little studied so far. Read More

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Cancer-derived exosome miRNAs induce skeletal muscle wasting by Bcl-2-mediated apoptosis in colon cancer cachexia.

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 2021 Jun 24;24:923-938. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Molecular Therapeutics and New Drug Development, School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China.

Cancer cachexia is a kind of whole-body metabolic disorder syndrome accompanied by severe wasting of muscle tissue in which cancer exosomes may be involved. Analysis of clinical samples showed that the serum exosome concentrations were correlated with the development of cancer cachexia. Exosomes secreted by C26 cells could decrease the diameter of C2C12 myotubes and decrease mouse muscle strength and tibialis anterior (TA) muscle weight . Read More

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Preclinical Investigation of Alpinetin in the Treatment of Cancer-Induced Cachexia Activating PPARγ.

Front Pharmacol 2021 21;12:687491. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Oncology, Tongji Medical College, Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

The ongoing loss of skeletal muscle is a central event of cancer cachexia, and its consequences include adverse effects on patient's quality of life and survival. Alpinetin (Alp), a natural plant-derived flavonoid obtained from Hayata, has been reported to possess potent anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities. This study aimed to explore the therapeutic effect and underlying mechanism of Alp in the prevention of cancer cachexia. Read More

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Lipids activate skeletal muscle mitochondrial fission and quality control networks to induce insulin resistance in humans.

Metabolism 2021 Jun 4;121:154803. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Integrated Physiology and Molecular Medicine Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA; Department of Inflammation and Immunity, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: A diminution in skeletal muscle mitochondrial function due to ectopic lipid accumulation and excess nutrient intake is thought to contribute to insulin resistance and the development of type 2 diabetes. However, the functional integrity of mitochondria in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle remains highly controversial.

Methods: 19 healthy adults (age:28. Read More

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The efficacy of botulinum toxin A treatment for tension-type or cervicogenic headache: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled trials.

Scand J Pain 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Pain Clinic, Division of Surgical Medicine and Intensive Care, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Objectives: The pathogeneses of chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) and cervicogenic headache (CEH) are not well established. Peripheral activation or sensitization of myofascial nociceptors is suggested as a potential mechanism and injections of botulinum toxin (BONTA) have thus been used in the treatment for both headache conditions. BONTA inhibits the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction and inhibits contraction of skeletal muscles. Read More

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High intensity muscle stimulation activates a systemic Nrf2-mediated redox stress response.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 Jun 3;172:82-89. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, United States. Electronic address:

High intensity exercise is a popular mode of exercise to elicit similar or greater adaptive responses compared to traditional moderate intensity continuous exercise. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these adaptive responses are still unclear. The purpose of this pilot study was to compare high and low intensity contractile stimulus on the Nrf2-mediated redox stress response in mouse skeletal muscle. Read More

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Myofiber stretch induces tensile and shear deformation of muscle stem cells in their native niche.

Biophys J 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Laboratory for Myology, Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, 1081 HZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Muscle stem cells (MuSCs) are requisite for skeletal muscle regeneration and homeostasis. Proper functioning of MuSCs, including activation, proliferation, and fate decision, is determined by an orchestrated series of events and communication between MuSCs and their niche. A multitude of biochemical stimuli are known to regulate MuSCs fate and function. Read More

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Sarcopenia in Persons Living with HIV under Antiretroviral Therapy: Literature Review.

AIDS Rev 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Public Health School; School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities. University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

The epidemiological profile of people living with HIV (PLWH) has expressively changed since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), from a high mortality rate to a profile similar to those living with chronic diseases. Despite the advances and effectiveness of ART, there are still various challenges to overcome, and we highlight the increased risk of sarcopenia in PLWH. This review study aims to (i) explore the pathophysiological background of sarcopenia in PLWH under the different existing ART and (ii) develop a mini-systematic review searching epidemiological studies investigating sarcopenia prevalence in PLWH. Read More

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Gliquidone ameliorates hepatic insulin resistance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Sur1 rats.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Jun 1;906:174221. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong Key Laboratory of Rheumatic Disease and Translational Medicine, Shandong Institute of Nephrology, Laboratory of Endocrinology, Jinan, 250014, China; Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Shandong Qianfoshan Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, 250014, China. Electronic address:

Gliquidone was suggested to exert hypoglycemic effect through enhancing hepatic insulin sensitivity. However, inadequate in vivo evidences make this statement controversial. The aim of the present study was to clarify the insulin-sensitizer role of gliquidone in liver and muscle, so as to confirm its extra-pancreatic effects in vivo. Read More

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miR-486-3p regulates CyclinD1 and promotes fluoride-induced osteoblast proliferation and activation.

Environ Toxicol 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

School of Public Health, The key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Monitoring and Disease Control, Ministry of Education, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, China.

Fluoride is a persistent environmental pollutant, and its excessive intake contributes to skeletal and dental fluorosis. The mechanisms underlying fluoride-induced abnormal osteoblast proliferation and activation, which are related to skeletal fluorosis, have not yet been fully clarified. As important epigenetic regulators, microRNAs (miRNAs) participate in bone metabolism. Read More

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Hydrogen sulfide donor protects against mechanical ventilation-induced atrophy and contractile dysfunction in the rat diaphragm.

Clin Transl Sci 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, University of Florida, Gainesville.

Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a clinical tool providing adequate alveolar ventilation in patients that require respiratory support. Although a life-saving intervention for critically ill patients, prolonged MV results in the rapid development of inspiratory muscle weakness due to both diaphragmatic atrophy and contractile dysfunction; collectively known as "ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction" (VIDD). VIDD is a severe clinical problem because diaphragmatic weakness is a risk factor for difficulties in weaning patients from MV. Read More

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Saturation mutagenesis defines novel mouse models of severe spine deformity.

Dis Model Mech 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Center for Pediatric Bone Biology and Translational Research, Scottish Rite for Children, Dallas, TX, USA.

Embryonic formation and patterning of the vertebrate spinal column requires coordination of many molecular cues. After birth, the integrity of the spine is impacted by developmental abnormalities of the skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems, which may result in deformities such as kyphosis and scoliosis. We sought to identify novel genetic mouse models of severe spine deformity by implementing in vivo skeletal radiography as part of a high-throughput saturation mutagenesis screen. Read More

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Effects of a novel polyphenol-rich plant extract on body composition, inflammation, insulin sensitivity, and glucose homeostasis in obese mice.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Parasitology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background/objectives: The worldwide prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is reaching epidemic proportions that urge the development of new management strategies. Totum-63 is a novel, plant-based polyphenol-rich active principle that has been shown to reduce body weight, fasting glycemia, glucose intolerance, and fatty liver index in obese subjects with prediabetes. Here, we investigated the effects and underlying mechanism(s) of Totum-63 on metabolic homeostasis in insulin-resistant obese mice. Read More

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Changes in energetic metabolism and lysosomal destruction in the skeletal muscle and cardiac tissues of pigeons (Columba livia f. urbana) from urban areas of the northern Pomeranian region (Poland).

Ecotoxicology 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Physics, Institute of Science and Technology, Pomeranian University in Słupsk, Słupsk, Poland.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biochemical responses of the skeletal muscle and cardiac tissues of the urban pigeon as a bioindicator organism tested in diverse environments (Szpęgawa as a rural environment and Słupsk as an urban environment, Pomeranian Voivodeship, northern Poland), resulting in changes in the level of lipid peroxidation at the initial and final stages of this process and the activities of Krebs cycle enzymes (succinate dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and alfa-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase). Szpęgawa village was chosen due to the intensive use of the European motorway A1 with significant traffic and pollution levels. The concentration of Pb was higher in the soil and feathers of pigeons nesting in the polluted areas (Szpęgawa). Read More

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Modulates Cell Non-Autonomous Response in Zebrafish Skeletal Muscle Homeostasis.

Cells 2021 May 18;10(5). Epub 2021 May 18.

i3S-Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal.

is a master regulator of the cell cycle, contributing to cell proliferation. Recent data have shown that this transcription factor also modulates gene networks associated with other cellular mechanisms, suggesting non-proliferative functions that remain largely unexplored. In this study, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to disrupt in the zebrafish terminally differentiated fast-twitching muscle cells. Read More

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Ankle Muscle Activations during Different Foot-Strike Patterns in Running.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 May 14;21(10). Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Physical Education, National Taiwan University of Sport, Taichung 40404, Taiwan.

This study analysed the landing performance and muscle activity of athletes in forefoot strike (FFS) and rearfoot strike (RFS) patterns. Ten male college participants were asked to perform two foot strikes patterns, each at a running speed of 6 km/h. Three inertial sensors and five EMG sensors as well as one 24 G accelerometer were synchronised to acquire joint kinematics parameters as well as muscle activation, respectively. Read More

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Olive Leaf Extract Supplementation to Old Wistar Rats Attenuates Aging-Induced Sarcopenia and Increases Insulin Sensitivity in Adipose Tissue and Skeletal Muscle.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 May 7;10(5). Epub 2021 May 7.

Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28029 Madrid, Spain.

Aging is associated with increased visceral adiposity and a decrease in the amount of brown adipose tissue and muscle mass, known as sarcopenia, which results in the development of metabolic alterations such as insulin resistance. In this study, we aimed to analyze whether 3-week supplementation with a phenolic-rich olive leaf extract (OLE) to 24 months-old male Wistar rats orally (100 mg/kg) attenuated the aging-induced alterations in body composition and insulin resistance. OLE treatment increased brown adipose tissue and attenuated the aging-induced decrease in protein content and gastrocnemius weight. Read More

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Hexarelin Modulation of MAPK and PI3K/Akt Pathways in Neuro-2A Cells Inhibits Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Apoptotic Toxicity.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 May 8;14(5). Epub 2021 May 8.

School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, 20900 Monza, Italy.

Hexarelin, a synthetic hexapeptide, exerts cyto-protective effects at the mitochondrial level in cardiac and skeletal muscles, both in vitro and in vivo, may also have important neuroprotective bioactivities. This study examined the inhibitory effects of hexarelin on hydrogen peroxide (HO)-induced apoptosis in Neuro-2A cells. Neuro-2A cells were treated for 24 h with various concentrations of HO or with the combination of HO and hexarelin following which cell viability and nitrite (NO) release were measured. Read More

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