24,556 results match your criteria activation psychiatric


MST4 attenuates NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated neuroinflammation and affects the prognosis after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice.

Brain Res Bull 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Psychiatry, Chaohu Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui Province, China; Department of Psychiatry, Anhui Psychiatric Center, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui Province, China. Electronic address:

Background: The kinase MST4 limits inflammatory responses through direct phosphorylation of the adaptor TRAF6. TRAF6 interacted with NLRP3 to promote the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. However, the role of MST4 on neuroinflammation after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and how it interacts with NLRP3 inflammasome, remains unclear. Read More

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September 2021

Is left-behind a real reason for children's social cognition deficit? An fNIRS study on the effect of social interaction on left-behind preschooler's prefrontal activation.

PLoS One 2021 17;16(9):e0254010. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Key Laboratory of Child Development and Learning Science of Ministry of Education, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.

The left-behind phenomenon, caused by parent out-migration, has become a common social issue and might lead to long-term and potential risks for children in rural areas of China. It is important to investigate the effect of social interaction on prefrontal activation of left-behind children in China because of possible effects of parent out-migration on children's social cognition. We recruited 81 rural Chinese preschoolers aged 52-76 months (mean = 64. Read More

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September 2021

Postnatal immune activation causes social deficits in a mouse model of tuberous sclerosis: Role of microglia and clinical implications.

Sci Adv 2021 Sep 17;7(38):eabf2073. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Departments of Neurobiology, Psychology, and Psychiatry, Integrative Center for Learning and Memory, and Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

[Figure: see text]. Read More

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September 2021

Potential innovative targets in the treatment of pain: Combined µ and NOP receptor agonists.

Authors:
Raphael J Leo

J Opioid Manag 2021 Jul-Aug;17(4):277-283

Department of Psychiatry, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York.

Opioid analgesics are potent and widely used medications employed to manage moderate-to-severe acute pain; their utility in the management of chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain is modest and is beset with adverse effects and concerns related to abuse and addiction. The discovery of the nonclassical opioid, ie, the nociception/orphanin receptor (NOP), has sparked interest into another possible analgesic target. Preclinical studies have demonstrated pain mitigating effects associated with NOP receptor activation while simultaneously reducing conventional µ-opioid-related ad-verse and euphoric effects. Read More

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September 2021

Assessment of Allergic and Anaphylactic Reactions to mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines With Confirmatory Testing in a US Regional Health System.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Sep 1;4(9):e2125524. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Sean N. Parker Center for Allergy and Asthma Research at Stanford University, Stanford, California.

Importance: As of May 2021, more than 32 million cases of COVID-19 have been confirmed in the United States, resulting in more than 615 000 deaths. Anaphylactic reactions associated with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-authorized mRNA COVID-19 vaccines have been reported.

Objective: To characterize the immunologic mechanisms underlying allergic reactions to these vaccines. Read More

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September 2021

Neural Functional Connectivity Changes to Psychosocial Stress in Young Adults with Bipolar Disorder and Preliminary Associations with Clinical Trajectories.

Bipolar Disord 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Dell Medical School, University of Texas, Austin, TX, USA.

Background: Stress-related mechanisms are implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder and may contribute to heterogeneity in illness course. Yet, there is a lack of study investigating the neural mechanisms underlying the stress response in this condition. This study investigated changes in amygdala activation and functional connectivity in response to acute psychosocial stress in young adults with bipolar disorder and explored relations with clinical phenotype and prospective mood symptoms. Read More

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September 2021

Acetylcholine prioritises direct synaptic inputs from entorhinal cortex to CA1 by differential modulation of feedforward inhibitory circuits.

Nat Commun 2021 Sep 16;12(1):5475. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Center for Synaptic Plasticity, School of Physiology, Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol, UK.

Acetylcholine release in the hippocampus plays a central role in the formation of new memory representations. An influential but largely untested theory proposes that memory formation requires acetylcholine to enhance responses in CA1 to new sensory information from entorhinal cortex whilst depressing inputs from previously encoded representations in CA3. Here, we show that excitatory inputs from entorhinal cortex and CA3 are depressed equally by synaptic release of acetylcholine in CA1. Read More

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September 2021

Galantamine prevents and reverses neuroimmune induction and loss of adult hippocampal neurogenesis following adolescent alcohol exposure.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 Sep 16;18(1):212. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 104 Manning Drive, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA.

Background: Binge ethanol exposure during adolescence reduces hippocampal neurogenesis, a reduction which persists throughout adulthood despite abstinence. This loss of neurogenesis, indicated by reduced doublecortin+ immunoreactivity (DCX+IR), is paralleled by an increase in hippocampal proinflammatory signaling cascades. As galantamine, a cholinesterase inhibitor, has anti-inflammatory actions, we tested the hypothesis that galantamine would prevent (study 1) or restore (study 2) AIE induction of proinflammatory signals within the hippocampus as well as AIE-induced loss of hippocampal neurogenesis. Read More

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September 2021

Centromedial amygdala is more relevant for phobic confrontation relative to the bed nucleus of stria terminalis in patients with spider phobia.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Sep 3;143:268-275. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Center of Mental Health, Dept. of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics, and Psychotherapy, University Hospital of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Recent studies indicate differential involvement of the centromedial amygdala (CM) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) during processing (anticipation and confrontation) of threat stimuli. Here, temporal predictability was shown to be a relevant factor. In this study, we want to investigate the relevance of these effects, which were found in healthy subjects, for anxiety disorders. Read More

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September 2021

Exploring the association between social behaviour, trust, and its neural correlates in first episode psychosis patients and in individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis.

Br J Clin Psychol 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Clinical, Neuro and Developmental Psychology, Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, Institute for Brain and Behaviour (IBBA) Amsterdam, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: Psychosis is characterized by paranoid delusions, social withdrawal, and distrust towards others. Trust is essential for successful social interactions. It remains unknown which aspects of social functioning are associated with reduced trust in psychosis. Read More

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September 2021

The Spread of Spectrin in Ataxia and Neurodegenerative Disease.

J Exp Neurol 2021 ;2(3):131-139

Department of Pathology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.

Experimental and hereditary defects in the ubiquitous scaffolding proteins of the spectrin gene family cause an array of neuropathologies. Most recognized are ataxias caused by missense, deletions, or truncations in the SPTBN2 gene that encodes beta III spectrin. Such mutations disrupt the organization of post-synaptic receptors, their active transport through the secretory pathway, and the organization and dynamics of the actin-based neuronal skeleton. Read More

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January 2021

Targeting working memory to modify emotional reactivity in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

Brain Imaging Behav 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Understanding the neural mechanisms of emotional reactivity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may help develop more effective treatments that target emotion dysregulation. In adult ADHD, emotion regulation problems cover a range of dimensions, including emotional reactivity (ER). One important process that could underlie an impaired ER in ADHD might be impaired working memory (WM) processing. Read More

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September 2021

Haloperidol and aripiprazole impact on the BDNF and glucocorticoid receptor levels in the rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex: effect of the chronic mild stress.

Endocr Regul 2021 Sep 13;55(3):153-162. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Institute of Experimental Endocrinology, Biomedical Research Center, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Changes in the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HIP) are associated with psychiatric diseases and stress response. Chronic mild stress (CMS) may alter BDNF as well as GR levels in both the PFC and the HIP. The aim of the present study was to find out whether chronic treatment with a typical antipsychotic haloperidol (HAL) and an atypical antipsychotic aripiprazole (ARI) may modify the CMS effect on the BDNF and GR expression in the above-mentioned structures. Read More

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September 2021

Mechanistic insights into dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission - concerted interactions with helices 5 and 6 drive the functional outcome.

Chem Sci 2021 Aug 2;12(33):10990-11003. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Research Programme on Biomedical Informatics (GRIB), Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM) - Pompeu Fabra University (UPF) Dr Aiguader 88 Barcelona E-08003 Spain

Brain functions rely on neurotransmitters that mediate communication between billions of neurons. Disruption of this communication can result in a plethora of psychiatric and neurological disorders. In this work, we combine molecular dynamics simulations, live-cell biosensor and electrophysiological assays to investigate the action of the neurotransmitter dopamine at the dopaminergic D receptor (DR). Read More

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The Babytwins Study Sweden (BATSS): A Multi-Method Infant Twin Study of Genetic and Environmental Factors Influencing Infant Brain and Behavioral Development.

Twin Res Hum Genet 2021 Sep 15:1-11. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Psychological Sciences, Birkbeck, University of London, London, UK.

Twin studies can help us understand the relative contributions of genes and environment to phenotypic trait variation, including attentional and brain activation measures. In terms of applying methodologies such as electroencephalography (EEG) and eye tracking, which are key methods in developmental neuroscience, infant twin studies are almost nonexistent. Here, we describe the Babytwins Study Sweden (BATSS), a multi-method longitudinal twin study of 177 MZ and 134 DZ twin pairs (i. Read More

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September 2021

Getting in synch: Unpacking the role of parent-child synchrony in the development of internalizing and externalizing behaviors.

Dev Psychopathol 2021 Sep 15:1-13. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Psychiatry, Washington University in St. Louis, School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

While substantial research supports the role of parent-child interactions on the emergence of psychiatric symptoms, few studies have explored biological mechanisms for this association. The current study explored behavioral and neural parent-child synchronization during frustration and play as predictors of internalizing and externalizing behaviors across a span of 1.5 years. Read More

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September 2021

Dopaminergic and noradrenergic modulation of stress-induced alterations in brain activation associated with goal-directed behaviour.

J Psychopharmacol 2021 Sep 14:2698811211044679. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Clinical Psychological Science, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Background: Acute stress is thought to reduce goal-directed behaviour, an effect purportedly associated with stress-induced release of catecholamines. In contrast, experimentally increased systemic catecholamine levels have been shown to increase goal-directed behaviour. Whether experimentally increased catecholamine function can modulate stress-induced reductions in goal-directed behaviour and its neural substrates, is currently unknown. Read More

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September 2021

A simple permutation-based test of intermodal correspondence.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Penn Statistics in Imaging and Visualization Center, Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Informatics, University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Many key findings in neuroimaging studies involve similarities between brain maps, but statistical methods used to measure these findings have varied. Current state-of-the-art methods involve comparing observed group-level brain maps (after averaging intensities at each image location across multiple subjects) against spatial null models of these group-level maps. However, these methods typically make strong and potentially unrealistic statistical assumptions, such as covariance stationarity. Read More

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September 2021

The role of glia in the physiology and pharmacology of GLP-1: Implications for obesity, diabetes, and neurodegenerative processes including glaucoma.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Psychiatry Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania.

The medical application of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists is ever-growing in scope, highlighting the urgent need for a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms through which GLP-1R activation impacts physiology and behavior. A new wave of research aims to elucidate the role GLP-1R signaling in glia plays in regulating energy balance, glycemic control, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress. Once controversial, existing evidence now suggests that subsets of glia (e. Read More

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September 2021

Religion-Adapted Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Review and Description of Techniques.

J Relig Health 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Research Center in Spirituality and Health (NUPES), School of Medicine, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), Rua José Lourenço Kelmer, s/n, São Pedro, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil.

Systematic reviews have shown the efficacy of religion-adapted cognitive behavioral therapy (R-CBT); however, many clinicians lack practical knowledge of these protocols. We describe here the techniques of religious adaptation to CBT that have proved effective. We selected randomized clinical trials comparing R-CBT with control conditions in clients with a diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder and extracted the information from their adapted manuals. Read More

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September 2021

Resting state EEG in youth with ASD: age, sex, and relation to phenotype.

J Neurodev Disord 2021 Sep 13;13(1):33. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Center on Child Health, Behavior and Development, Seattle Children's Research Institute, 1920 Terry Ave, CURE-03, Seattle, WA, 98101, USA.

Background: Identification of ASD biomarkers is a key priority for understanding etiology, facilitating early diagnosis, monitoring developmental trajectories, and targeting treatment efforts. Efforts have included exploration of resting state encephalography (EEG), which has a variety of relevant neurodevelopmental correlates and can be collected with minimal burden. However, EEG biomarkers may not be equally valid across the autism spectrum, as ASD is strikingly heterogeneous and individual differences may moderate EEG-behavior associations. Read More

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September 2021

A pilot study investigating the efficacy of brief, phone-based, behavioral interventions for burnout in graduate students.

J Clin Psychol 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive-Behavioral Research and Therapy Program, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Objective: This pilot study tested the efficacy of two brief, phone-administered, behavioral interventions derived from behavioral activation in reducing burnout among doctoral students.

Methods: Sixty-six doctoral students demonstrating current high burnout were randomly assigned to one of three intervention conditions: (1) Reward: increasing pleasant, rewarding behaviors, (2) Approach: approaching important goals that they have been avoiding, or (3) Control: monitoring only.

Results: Results indicated that doctoral students treated with the approach intervention reported significantly lower burnout compared to participants in the control condition immediately after the intervention and at a 1-week follow-up. Read More

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September 2021

Differential reinforcement learning responses to positive and negative information in unmedicated individuals with depression.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2021 Sep 9;53:89-100. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1051 Riverside Drive, Unit 69, New York, NY 10032, United States; Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, United States. Electronic address:

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by behavioral and neural abnormalities in processing both rewarding and aversive stimuli, which may impact motivational and affective symptoms. Learning paradigms have been used to assess reinforcement encoding abnormalities in MDD and their association with dysfunctional incentive-based behavior, but how the valence and context of information modulate this learning is not well understood. To address these gaps, we examined responses to positive and negative reinforcement across multiple temporal phases of information processing. Read More

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September 2021

Imaging associations of self-injurious behaviours amongst patients with Borderline Personality Disorder: A mini-review.

J Affect Disord 2021 Aug 31;295:781-787. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy; Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy.

Background: Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a severe and disabling psychiatric syndrome, frequently associated with self-injurious behaviours (SIB). In recent years, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) investigations have tried to identify alterations associated with SIB amongst BPD patients, in order to better delineate possible neurobiological underpinnings of these manifestations. In this mini-review, we aimed at summarizing fMRI studies exploring patterns of neural activation associated with SIB in BPD patients. Read More

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High-resolution computational modelling of the current flow in the outer ear during transcutaneous auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation (taVNS).

Brain Stimul 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Transcutaneous auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation (taVNS) applies low-intensity electrical current to the ear with the intention of activating the auricular branch of the Vagus nerve. The sensitivity and selectivity of stimulation applied to the ear depends on current flow pattern produced by a given electrode montage (size and placement).

Objective: We compare different electrodes designs for taVNS considering both the predicted peak electric fields (sensitivity) and their spatial distribution (selectivity). Read More

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September 2021

Activation of α7 nicotinic receptors suppresses sucrose addiction in mice.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2021 Sep 10:110439. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Pharmacological Department of Herbal Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima, Japan.

The mesolimbic dopamine system is important for the rewarding and motivational aspects of consuming rewarding and palatable food. Nicotinic receptors are present in the mesolimbic dopamine system and enhance the reinforcement of drugs of abuse. In this study, we examined the involvement of nicotine receptor subtypes in sucrose addiction in a sucrose preference paradigm. Read More

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September 2021

The predictive value of patient, therapist, and in-session ratings of motivational factors early in remote cognitive behavioural therapy for severe health anxiety.

Br J Clin Psychol 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Division of Psychiatry and Applied Psychology, University of Nottingham, UK.

Objectives: Remote psychotherapy and the prevalence of Severe Health Anxiety (SHA) are both growing as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Remotely delivered Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (rCBT) for SHA is evidenced as effective, but many who seek help do not benefit. Motivational processes can influence outcomes, but it is unclear what assessment methods offer the best clinical utility in rCBT for SHA. Read More

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September 2021

Multi-omic profiling of primary mouse neutrophils predicts a pattern of sex and age-related functional regulation.

Nat Aging 2021 Aug 19;1(8):715-733. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Leonard Davis School of Gerontology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA.

Neutrophils are the most abundant human white blood cell and constitute a first line of defense in the innate immune response. Neutrophils are short-lived cells, and thus the impact of organismal aging on neutrophil biology, especially as a function of biological sex, remains poorly understood. Here, we describe a multi-omic resource of mouse primary bone marrow neutrophils from young and old female and male mice, at the transcriptomic, metabolomic and lipidomic levels. Read More

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Scaffold Hopping to Imidazo[1,2-]pyrazin-8-one Positive Allosteric Modulators of Metabotropic Glutamate 2 Receptor.

ACS Omega 2021 Sep 25;6(35):22997-23006. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Discovery Chemistry, Discovery Sciences, Janssen Research & Development, Division of Janssen-Cilag S.A., Jarama 75A, Toledo 45007, Spain.

Glutamate hyperfunction is implicated in multiple neurological and psychiatric diseases. Activation of the mGlu2 receptor results in reduced glutamate release and decreased excitability representing a promising novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of disorders such as epilepsy, schizophrenia, mood, anxiety, and other neuropsychiatric disorders. We have previously reported substantial efforts leading to potent and selective mGlu2 PAMs from different chemical series. Read More

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September 2021

Activation of Antioxidant and Proteolytic Pathways in the Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic System After 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine Administration: Sex-Related Differences.

Front Pharmacol 2021 27;12:713486. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, Alma Mater Studiorum-University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") is an amphetamine-related drug that may damage the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system. To investigate the mechanisms that sustain this toxic effect and ascertain their sex-dependence, we evaluated in the nigrostriatal system of MDMA-treated (4 × 20 mg/kg, 2 h apart) male and female mice the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), the gene expression of SOD type 1 and 2, together with SOD1/2 co-localization with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons. In the same mice and brain areas, activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and of β2/β5 subunits of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) were also evaluated. Read More

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